Contributors: MSF, MSF-OCA
... Conducted in Dar’aa and Quneitra,during a cease fire in 2017, this study attempted to provide a baseline of health care needs and barriers to accessing health care. By triangulating information sources, we have attempted to cover important health care subjects from different perspectives.
... The guideline starts with the assumption that the need to carry out a nutrition survey, in an area where MSF is working, has been discussed with all decision makers at headquarters and field level. This is stipulated in criterion two of ”surveys based on the standardised intersectional survey protocols, approved by the MSF ERB”. Moreover, it was agreed to perform the nutrition survey to better evaluate the health status of the population living in the MSF catchment area.
Sub-national variation in measles vaccine coverage and outbreak risk: a case study from a 2010 outbreak in Malawi
Contributors: Kundrick, A, Huang, Z, Carran, S, Kagoli, M, Grais, RF, Hurtado, N, Ferrari, M
... Despite progress towards increasing global vaccination coverage, measles continues to be one of the leading, preventable causes of death among children worldwide. Whether and how to target sub-national areas for vaccination campaigns continues to remain a question. We analyzed three metrics for prioritizing target areas: vaccination coverage, susceptible birth cohort, and the effective reproductive ratio (RE) in the context of the 2010 measles epidemic in Malawi.
'When Ebola enters a home, a family, a community': A qualitative study of population perspectives on Ebola control measures in rural and urban areas of Sierra Leone
Contributors: Gray, N, Stringer, B, Bark, G, Heller Perache, A, Jephcott, F, Broeder, R, Kremer, R, Jimissa, AS, Samba, TT
... During the West Africa Ebola outbreak, cultural practices have been described as hindering response efforts. The acceptance of control measures improved during the outbreak, but little is known about how and why this occurred. We conducted a qualitative study in two administrative districts of Sierra Leone to understand Ebola survivor, community, and health worker perspectives on Ebola control measures. We aimed to gain an understanding of community interactions with the Ebola response to inform future intervention strategies.
Contributors: MSF OCB
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Contributors: Applegate, TL, Fajardo, E, Sacks, JA
... The world has embraced the call for global elimination of hepatitis C virus by 2030. The unprecedented speed of therapeutic development and increased access to direct-acting antivirals has made elimination a possibility. We must screen hundreds of millions of people to diagnose and treat those currently infected. Global access to hepatitis C virus diagnostics will be a keystone to success. Key challenges must be overcome and systems optimized to ensure widespread access to existing diagnostics. Although promising technologies may soon transform the landscape, innovative strategies are needed to stimulate investment and accelerate the development of point-of-care hepatitis C virus diagnostics.
Evaluation of the SD Bioline Cholera Rapid Diagnostic Test During the 2016 Cholera Outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia
Contributors: Mwaba, J, Ferreras, E, Chizema-Kawesa, E, Mwimbe, D, Tafirenyika, F, Rauzier, J, Blake, A, Rakesh, A, Poncin, M, Stoitsova, S
... To assess the performance of the SD Bioline Cholera Ag O1/O139 rapid diagnostic test (RDT) compared to a reference standard combining culture and PCR for the diagnosis of cholera cases during an outbreak.
Wishful thinking versus operational commitment: is the international guidance on priority sexual and reproductive health interventions in humanitarian settings becoming unrealistic?
Contributors: Tran, NT, Schulte-Hillen, C
... Twenty-one years ago, a global consortium of like-minded institutions designed the landmark Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) to guide national and international humanitarian first responders in preventing morbidity and mortality at the onset of chaos, destruction, and high insecurity caused by disasters or conflicts. Since then, the MISP has undergone limited change and has become an international reference in humanitarian response. This article discusses our perspectives regarding the 2018 changes to the MISP that have created division among humanitarian field practitioners, academics, advocates, and development agencies. With more than 50 pages, the new MISP chapter dilutes key guidance and messages on the most life-saving activities, leaving actors with excessive room for interpretation as to which priority activities need to be first implemented. Consequently, non-life-saving interventions may take precedence over essential ones. Insecurity, scarce human and financial resources, logistics constrains, and other limitations imposed by field reality at the onset of a crisis must be considered. We strongly recommend that an institution with the mandate, legitimacy, and technical expertise in the review of guidelines reexamines the 2018 edition of the MISP. We urge experienced first-line responders, national actors, and relevant agencies to join efforts to ensure that the MISP remains focused on a very limited set of essential activities and supplies that are pragmatic, field-oriented, and, most importantly, immediately life-saving for people in need.
The initial effectiveness of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) and miltefosine combination for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia: A retrospective cohort study
Contributors: Abongomera, C, Diro, E, de Lima Pereira, A, Buyze, J, Stille, K, Ahmed, F, van Griensven, J, Ritmeijer, K
... North-west Ethiopia faces the highest burden world-wide of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and HIV co-infection. VL-HIV co-infected patients have higher (initial) parasitological failure and relapse rates than HIV-negative VL patients. Whereas secondary prophylaxis reduces the relapse rate, parasitological failure rates remain high with the available antileishmanial drugs, especially when administered as monotherapy. We aimed to determine the initial effectiveness (parasitologically-confirmed cure) of a combination of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) and miltefosine for treatment of VL in HIV co-infected patients.
When Helping Babies Breathe Is Not Enough: Designing a Novel, Mid-Level Neonatal Resuscitation Algorithm for Médecins Sans Frontières Field Teams Working in Low-Resource Hospital Settings
Contributors: Umphrey, L, Breindahl, M, Brown, A, Saugstad, OD, Thio, M, Trevisanuto, D, Roehrg, CC, Blennow, M
... Neonatal resuscitation (NR) combines a set of life-saving interventions in order to stabilize compromised newborns at birth or when critically ill. Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF), as an international medical-humanitarian organization working particularly in low-resource settings (LRS), assisted over 250,000 births in obstetric and newborn care aid projects in 2016 and provides thousands of newborn resuscitations annually. The Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) program has been used as formal guidance for basic resuscitation since 2012. However, in some MSF projects with the capacity to provide more advanced NR interventions but a lack of adapted guidance, staff have felt prompted to create their own advanced algorithms, which runs counter to the organization's aim for standardized protocols in all aspects of its care.