Contributors: Gamelon, Marlène, Gayet, Thibault, Baubet, Eric, Devillard, Sébastien, Say, Ludovic, Brandt, Serge, Pélabon, Christophe, Sæther, Bernt-Erik
... During pregnancy, littermates compete to extract maternal resources from the placenta. Unequal extraction of resources leads to developmental differences among offspring and thus within-litter variation in offspring mass. Because competition among littermates can be stronger among half-sibs, multiple paternity may represent an adaptive strategy allowing females to increase within-litter phenotypic variation among offspring when facing variable environments. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females produce large litters with diversified offspring in terms of body mass. Additionally, multiple paternity within a litter has been observed in this promiscuous species. One can hypothesize that multiple paternity represents the mechanism by which females increase within-litter phenotypic variation. Combining long-term monitoring data with paternity analyses in a wild boar population, we tested whether the increase in the number of fathers within a litter explained the increase in within-litter variation in offspring mass observed in large litters. We showed that heavy females mated earlier during the rut, produced larger litters with a higher number of fathers and more variable fetus mass than lighter females. Within-litter variation of offspring mass increased with gestation stage and litter size, suggesting differential allocation of maternal resource among offspring in utero. However, we found only a weak paternal effect on offspring mass and no direct effect of the number of fathers on the within-litter variation in offspring mass. These results indicate that differential maternal allocation to offspring during pregnancy is unlikely related to paternal identity in this species.
Data from: North-south differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus)
Contributors: Stronen, Astrid V., Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła, Pertoldi, Cino, Demontis, Ditte, Randi, Ettore, Niedziałkowska, Magdalena, Pilot, Małgorzata, Sidorovich, Vadim E., Dykyy, Ihor, Kusak, Josip
... European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.
Data from: Standing genetic diversity and selection at functional gene loci are associated with differential invasion success in two non-native fish species
Contributors: Wellband, Kyle W., Pettitt-Wade, Harri, Fisk, Aaron T., Heath, Daniel D.
... Invasive species are expected to experience a unique combination of high genetic drift due to demographic factors while also experiencing strong selective pressures. The paradigm that reduced genetic diversity should limit the evolutionary potential of invasive species and thus their potential for range expansion has received little empirical support, possibly due to the choice of genetic markers. Our goal was to test for effects of genetic drift and selection at functional genetic markers as they relate to the invasion success of two paired invasive goby species, one widespread (successful) and one with limited range expansion (less successful). We genotyped fish using two marker types: single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in known-function, protein-coding genes and microsatellites to contrast the effects of neutral genetic processes. We identified reduced allelic variation in the invaded range for the less-successful tubenose goby. SNPs putatively under selection were responsible for the observed differences in population structure between marker types for round goby (successful) but not tubenose goby (less successful). A higher proportion of functional loci experienced divergent selection for round goby, suggesting increased evolutionary potential in invaded ranges may be associated with round goby's greater invasion success. Genes involved in thermal tolerance were divergent for round goby populations but not tubenose goby, consistent with the hypothesis that invasion success for fish in temperate regions is influenced by capacity for thermal tolerance. Our results highlight the need to incorporate functional genetic markers in studies to better assess evolutionary potential for the improved conservation and management of species.
Contributors: Ana Dal Molin
... Map in KML format with all geographic records organized by species and with the associated locality information.
Data for: Governing martial traditions: post-conflict ritual sites in Iron Age Northern Europe (200 BC–160 AD)
Contributors: Mette Løvschal
... GIS-based plot map with post-conflict sites
Dataset for "Real-Time Hydraulic Interval State Estimation for Water Transport Networks: a Case Study"
Contributors: Stelios G. Vrachimis
... The dataset (EPANET file) which accompanies the publication Vrachimis, S. G., Eliades, D. G., and Polycarpou, M. M.: Real-Time Hydraulic Interval State Estimation for Water Transport Networks: a Case Study, Drink. Water Eng. Sci., 2018
Data from: Using the Mus musculus hybrid zone to assess covariation and genetic architecture of limb bone lengths
Contributors: Skrabar, Neva, Turner, Leslie M., Pallares, Luisa F., Harr, Bettina, Tautz, Diethard
... Two subspecies of the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus and Mus musculus musculus, meet in a narrow contact zone across Europe. Mice in the hybrid zone are highly admixed, representing the full range of mixed ancestry from the two subspecies. Given the distinct morphologies of these subspecies, these natural hybrids can be used for genome-wide association mapping at sufficiently high resolution to directly infer candidate genes. We focus here on limb bone length differences, which is of special interest for understanding the evolution of developmentally correlated traits. We used 172 first-generation descendants of wild-caught mice from the hybrid zone to measure the length of stylopod (humerus / femur), zeugopod (ulna / tibia) and autopod (metacarpal / metatarsal) elements in skeletal CT scans. We find phenotypic covariation between limb elements in the hybrids similar to patterns previously described in M. m. domesticus inbred strains, suggesting that the hybrid genotypes do not influence the covariation pattern in a major way. Mapping was performed using 143,592 SNPs and identified several genomic regions associated with length differences in each bone. Each candidate region explains only a small proportion of phenotypic variance, suggesting that bone length is highly polygenic. None of the candidate regions includes the canonical genes known to control embryonic limb development. Instead, we are able to identify candidate genes with known roles in osteoblast differentiation and bone structure determination, as well as recently evolved genes of, as yet, unknown function.
Contributors: Mihkel Kõrgesaar
... Supplementary data for Marine Structures article "The effect of low stress triaxialities and load paths on ductile fracture simulations of large shell structures".
An efficient FE-implementation of implicit gradient-enhanced damage models to simulate ductile failure-Supplementary Material
Contributors: Andreas Seupel, Geralf Hütter, Meinhard Kuna
... The dataset contains input-files and user defined routines for ABAQUS to reproduce the results shown within the following paper: Seupel, A., Hütter, G., Kuna, M., An efficient FE-implementation of implicit gradient-enhanced damage models to simulate ductile failure, Engineering Fracture Mechanics (2018), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfracmech.2018.01.022
Contributors: Guang-Wu Chen, Yu-Nong Gong, Kuo-Chien Tsao
... Supplementary Files S1-S3. Visualizations of spatiotemporal H3N2 dynamics in 2005, 2007, and 2009 using Google Earth. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis were performed to predict the global migrations of the years 2005, 2007, and 2009. Keyhole Markup Language files were provided in S1, S2, and S3, which could be executed and visualized via Google Earth. In these migrations, earlier and later points in the epidemic are colored in blue and purple, respectively.