Contributors: Gazzotti, Lorena
... A burgeoning body of migration scholarship has scrutinised the role that aid, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and International Organisations (IOs) play in the governance of migration in sending and ‘transit’ countries. Although scholars agree that aid and non-state actors contribute to broader objectives of migration containment, the dynamics through which this happens on the ground are not well understood, mainly because the grounded implementation of these donor- funded projects has received comparatively little attention. This thesis adds to this literature by questioning the rise of ‘Sub-Saharan’ migrants as a category of beneficiaries of the development and humanitarian industry in Morocco. I combine literature on non-state governance, development securitisation and border control to analyse the role played by donors, NGOs and IOs in the regulation of three spheres of migration governance: the politicisation of migration, the implementation of a social policy targeting migrants and refugees, and the regulation of the borderlands. Building on fieldwork in Morocco, I examine how the drive for border control merges with situated dynamics of neoliberalisation and state formation, thus producing localised processes of marginalisation, containment and contestation. I argue that aid-funded actors occupy an ambiguous position in the migration governance puzzle in Morocco. On the one hand, donor-funded NGOs and IOs fulfill an important function of care. In the space left by an “indifferent” Moroccan state, non-state actors palliate the lack of social and humanitarian assistance to migrants and refugees. On the other hand, the origin, working logics and priorities orienting the work of the aid industry are drenched with migration control objectives, rationales and symbolism. These two indissoluble aspects of the migration industry (care and control) merge together and overlap with situated dynamics of neoliberalisation and authoritarian redeployment, feeding a social and political environment producing, reproducing and ‘managing’ the marginalisation of migrant life.
Contributors: Ali, Majed
... The fundamental chemical processes leading to the formation of braze joints between alumina of ≥95 wt.% Al2O3 and Kovar® (Fe–29Ni–17Co wt.%) using Ag–Cu–Ti-based active braze alloys (ABAs) have been clarified in this work. In addition, the effects on the resultant microstructure of altering the peak brazing temperature (Tp), time at Tp and the purity of the alumina with up to ~5 wt.% silica have been determined. Two commercially available Ag–Cu–Ti-based ABAs containing 1.8 and 4.5 wt.% Ti commonly used for the brazing of alumina were used in this work. Initially, alumina/Ag–Cu–Ti/alumina joints were prepared to eliminate metal dissolution from the Kovar® into the ABA so that the chemical interaction between the ABA and the alumina was undisturbed and could be studied separately. Conditions simulating those of a commercial process result in a bi-layered structure at the ABA/Al2O3 interface that is mostly comprised of Ti3Cu3O, which is in contact with the ABA, alongside a thin γ-TiO layer on the Al2O3. Brazing experiments using single crystal Al2O3 revealed that the titanium in the ABA first reacts with the Al2O3 to form a transient Ti2O layer, which then enables the ABA to wet the Al2O3. The Ti2O layer breaks down quickly to support the growth of Ti3Cu3O particles that nucleate behind it and are in contact with the ABA. Particles of γ-TiO are shown to be the last interfacial phase to form in the joint by a reaction between Al2O3 and titanium which has diffused through the Ti3Cu3O. The addition of Kovar® next to the ABA does not change the intrinsic chemical reactions occurring at the ABA/Al2O3 interface. However, the extent to which the Ti3Cu3O and γ-TiO layers grow is limited as a consequence of the reactions occurring at the ABA/Kovar® interface. Intergranular silica in the alumina is required to establish a chemical bond between the alumina and ABA using typical brazing conditions. The formation of a Fe2Ti layer on the Kovar® and its growth, along with adjacent Ni3Ti particles in the ABA, dominate the microstructural developments at the ABA/Kovar® interface. Joints with uniform microstructures containing continuous reaction layers indicative of good chemical bonding at each interface were only produced by brazing for short periods of time using a Tp very close to the ABA liquidus temperature. This was also the case for brazing with the high melting temperature ABA Copper ABA® (Cu–3.0Si–2.3Ti–2.0Al wt.%).
In pursuit of a better legal theory of the company: A data-driven, co-evolutionary and multiple equilibria model
Contributors: Cloots, Ann Sofie Christine
... This dissertation is concerned with the theory of the company. It draws on three different disciplinary perspectives, namely those of law, economics and management, and on qualitative-empirical evidence. The aim is to evaluate the shareholder primacy model which underlies the current orthodoxy in Anglo-American company law. The thesis argues that, in line with generally accepted definitions of efficiency in new institutional economics (NIE), the objective of company law should be to increase aggregate (that is, social or total) welfare. The dissertation then examines whether there is sufficient theoretical and empirical corroboration for the efficiency claims of the orthodox company law model to hold. Finding that these claims do not generally hold, the dissertation then addresses the question of whether the model can be enriched to increase the value-creating potential of company law. Chapter 1 introduces the research questions in light of the overall leitmotiv of the dissertation: what do we mean by efficiency? Chapter 2 outlines the methodology of the thesis. Chapter 3 assesses the economic model of NIE on which the orthodox legal theory of the company is based and suggests how more recent economic insights could enrich our economic analysis of the company. It proposes a new model which is data-driven, co-evolutionary and can accommodate multiple equilibria. Chapter 4 analyses what the implications of this proposed model are for company law, illustrated by a case-study on shareholder limited liability for corporate torts. Chapter 5 appraises the relationship between company law and management studies: what, if anything, can company lawyers learn from management studies (including risk management and behavioural management literature) to enhance corporate value-creation? Chapter 6 subjects the theoretical conclusions of Chapters 3-5 to a preliminary empirical level of scrutiny: it summarizes interviews with 16 corporate actors on questions related to the dissertation's main themes. Chapter 7 concludes.
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Contributors: Chong, Zheng Shan
... Extracellular interactions between cell surface receptors are necessary for signaling and adhesion but identifying them remains technically challenging. We describe a cell-based genome-wide approach employing CRISPR activation to identify receptors for a defined ligand. We show receptors for high-affinity antibodies and low-affinity ligands can be unambiguously identified when used in pools or as individual binding probes. We apply this technique to identify ligands for the adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors and show that the Nogo myelin-associated inhibitory proteins are ligands for ADGRB1. This method will enable extracellular receptor-ligand identification on a genome-wide scale.
Contributors: Ren, Guangying
... Urban population in China is expected to increase by 42% over the next two decades, and roughly 70% of the total population in China is estimated to be living in urban areas by 2030 (Berkelmans and Wang, 2012). With a higher level of living standards required in urban areas, increasing energy use in the urban domestic sector has become an urgent issue to address. Based on a review of studies into domestic energy use in China, the following three research gaps are identified: 1) the deficiency of knowledge about the link between occupants’ energy saving attitudes and behaviour in the context of China; 2) the limited research based on the socio-technical approach or mixed methods that cross disciplines to address the complexity of energy use behaviour; 3) the lack of research in using data-mining techniques to extract energy use related occupancy patterns from smart meter data. To address these gaps, this thesis focuses on three research dimensions, namely the practical dimension, the policy dimension, and the theoretical dimension. From the practical perspective, this thesis proposes to understand the characteristics of domestic energy use behaviour, explore the factors that affect occupants’ attitudes and behaviour, and figure out the reasons behind these attitudes and behavioural patterns. For the policy dimension, taking young urban households in Shanghai as a case study, this thesis aims to provide further insight into behavioural factors in domestic energy use and to explore which energy saving policies could be feasible in communicating with consumers more efficiently. Regarding the theoretical dimension, this thesis intends to investigate how useful the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is in understanding occupants in the context of domestic energy saving. The research has adopted a mixed-method approach. Initially, a survey study was designed to investigate energy use behaviour and factors that affect electricity use in different energy categories (from level 1 to level 3 consumers according to the progressive electricity pricing system in China). The survey responses were analysed by three statistical methods, includes descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis. Subsequently, an interview study was carried out to explore the embedded reasons and motivations behind energy use behaviour and energy saving attitudes, drawing a distinguishing between “comfort-driven” consumers and “conscious” consumers. Finally, smart meter data was used to test whether it is possible to extract occupancy patterns from data sets for more practical policy design, and the iii energy saving potential of two behavioural measures as identified in the survey study was then tested with the single-zone simulation. Three types of data were collected through a) a survey in Shanghai area with 341 effective responses; b) 5 in-depth interviews; and c) smart meter data collected in 126 households in Shanghai, with more than 70 recorded days. The variables based on TPB were applied in the design of both the survey and the interview questions. Socio-psychological variables, including attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control, are discussed in this thesis to determine factors in relation to the intention to save energy under potential energy saving policy instruments. In the analysis of the survey study, TPB was used to investigate the relationship between attitude and behaviour, and to identify the factors that affect these two components. Regarding the results from survey, the key findings were: 1) high consumers (level 3) are more likely to have higher income levels, and longer heating and cooling hours, as well as more extended heating and cooling seasons; 2) occupants are likely to have moderate comfort requirements (to accept a higher temperature in summer and to have shorter cooling hours per day) if they start to use air conditioners for cooling later in the summer; 3) respondents are more likely to accept fiscal incentives and communication instruments than consumption or price control in energy use; 4) even though high (level 3) consumers have more critical attitudes toward energy saving policies, they are more likely to accept real-time electricity pricing; 5) domestic energy use is strongly correlated to factors like family income level and family size; 6) energy saving intentions appear to be related to attitudes and also the subjective norms of family members. The interviews revealed the diversity of occupants’ energy use patterns and attitudes, even within the same target group of young urban households in Shanghai. Different attitudes, norms, and perceived control, resulted in different occupancy patterns and final energy consumption. According to their responses of their attitudes, norms and controls, two types of consumers were identified, including “comfort-driven” consumers and “conscious” consumers. Based on the TPB and the interview results, it was summarised norms shaped by educational background and influence from family members were identified as primary factors that shape energy use behaviour and attitudes. The “conscious” consumers’ attitudes towards energy saving were shaped by their education background or previous experiences and their norms and energy use practices were affected by their parents and partners. Two “conscious” interviewees mentioned iv they started to pay attention to energy use and bill costs after they got married and need to pay the bill themselves. From the cluster analysis of smart meter data, three groups of energy users were summarised based on temporal differences in their occupancy patterns, concluding that 1) high consumers use air conditioners for the highest number of recorded days in winter and summer, even when air conditioners are not necessary; 2) high consumers have longer occupational hours at home; 3) the base load of the high consumers is higher. Based on the single-zone simulation, it was found each behavioural measure (adjust heating and cooling temperature and reduce heating and cooling hours) could have a potential energy saving of 20% on average, but with a wide variation. These two behavioural measures were identified from the previous survey results as key parameters to bring level 2 consumers closer to level 1 patterns. In conclusion, based on the findings from each empirical chapter, four policy initiatives were identified to address two groups of consumers, includes smart meters with in-home displays; a dynamic real-time energy pricing system; a review, reward and restrain feedback system; and stricter standards for buildings and appliances.
Post-conflict women's movements in turmoil: the challenges of success in Liberia in the 2005-aftermath
Contributors: Debusscher, Petra, Martin de Almagro, Maria
... In Liberia, women's advocacy has been crucial in bringing peace after 14 years of conflict as well as in electing Africa's first female president. While the accomplishments of the women's movement have been widely praised, some authors have suggested that the once vibrant movement is crumbling. In this article we claim that one of the most important challenges for the Liberian women's movement comes precisely from its internationally proclaimed success, provoking four related outcomes: First, different women's organisations compete for the credit of the success story; second, the national government has tried to appropriate the movement and integrate it into governmental structures; third, the relationship between the movement and its international partners has evolved towards mutual disappointment due to a lack of sustainable funding and unmet expectations; and fourth, the movement seems stuck in the peacemaker label and unable to redefine itself to engage in new battles as international aid diminishes.
Contributors: Saar, Kadi Liis
... Proteins are the chief actor molecules of cells central to the majority of biochemical and biophysical processes that sustain life. Interactions between proteins and other biomolecules are crucial to a faultless execution of biological function, yet it has remained challenging to analyse these biomolecular interactions with current protein science tools - they commonly rely on non-physiological conditions for performing analysis, thereby compromising the ability to analyse biological interactions. This thesis describes the development and applications of platforms that facilitate rapid analysis of heterogeneous systems of proteins and protein interactions directly in solution, under fully native conditions. I achieved this objective by fabricating micron scale structures, where, in contrast to macroscale systems, chaotic mixing of fluids and the molecules therein was suppressed. In this manner, I was able to dispense with the support structures that prevent mixing in conventional protein analysis platforms and decrease analysis times by orders of magnitude, from hours to seconds. The first part of the thesis was centred around the use of micron scale strategies for probing proteins, protein interactions and protein self-assembly in vitro. First, I demonstrated a platform for performing automated high-throughput measurements on protein self-assembly in a label-free environment. I proceeded by addressing two challenges at the core of creating micron scale separation platforms - the integration of strong and stable electric fields with micron scale channels and the enhancing of the resolution limit of such separation systems. Finally, I devised and demonstrated devices for combined biomolecular separation and analysis, which allowed me to size mixtures of proteins at an unprecedented resolution and gain multidimensional data on biomolecular systems. The second part focussed on probing protein behaviour inside cells. I first described a strategy for detecting intracellular proteins in individual cells in a high throughput manner, offering a substantially advanced multiplexing capability in comparison to existing approaches for analysing intracellular proteins. I then focussed on a specific application of cellular biophysics and measured electrical outputs of cells. This work led to record high power outputs for systems that use biological matter for converting sunlight into electricity. To my knowledge, this was also the first demonstration of a biological solar cell equipped with energy storing capacity, the lack of which had been viewed as one of the most notable limitations of current solar cells.
Contributors: Sewell, Claire
... Metrics have long been used as an indicator of academic success and as a way to make key decisions. As the measurement of impact becomes increasingly important within academia there has been something of a backlash against trusting purely quantitative methods of assessment. The Responsible Metrics movement aims to ensure that metrics are used fairly alongside other measures to gather a true assessment of impact. This webinar will discuss what the Responsible Metrics movement is, why it was developed, its importance and how library staff can best educate their research staff.
Research Data supporting "Angular optical response of cellulose nanocrystal films explained by the distortion of the arrested suspension upon drying"
Contributors: Frka-Petesic, Bruno, Kamita, Gen, Guidetti, Giulia, Vignolini, Silvia
... The data are organized and grouped in dedicated .zip files for each Figure they contribute to. All figures (1-21) are present in high resolution in each sub-folder. Software for file extensions: .tif, .png (image format), .m and .fig (MATLAB), text files (.txt).
Contributors: Lang, Benjamin
... The post-translational modification of proteins is a fundamental means of biological information processing, with important functions in development, homeostasis and disease. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) can dynamically diversify the proteome in response to intracellular and extracellular signals. Since thousands of modified residues as well as entirely new modification types have recently been discovered in proteins, elucidating their biological functions and identifying the protein components of these PTM systems is a fundamental problem. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the types and known biological functions of different PTMs, as well as experimental methods used to detect them. Intrinsic disorder in proteins is introduced as a structural feature which may influence local evolutionary rates. Several examples of complex PTM signalling systems are then described. Chapter 2 presents a study of the evolution of modified amino acids in human proteins. By analysing sequence, polymorphism and mutation data at the species, population and individual levels, we observed significant evolutionary constraints on all PTM types for which extensive data was available, as well as overrepresentation of amino acids which mimic modified residues at equivalent positions. Chapter 3 applies a framework for the identification of important components of PTM signalling systems to lysine acetylation. The proteins of this system were found to be similarly conserved as essential genes. Their evolutionary histories suggested a conserved origin in chromatin regulation, followed by functional diversification. Chapter 4 extends the scope to signalling via transcriptional regulation, and presents a comprehensive overview of the interactome of the stem cell transcription factor Oct4. The results presented here facilitated characterisation of a novel post-translational modifier of Oct4, the glycosyltransferase Ogt. Chapter 5 highlights my key findings from applying evolutionary and data integration approaches to signalling networks, and outlines their implications for the study of novel signalling systems and for their engineering in synthetic biology. This dissertation therefore illuminates evolutionary, structural and functional principles of cellular signalling networks across species and within populations.