Contributors: Gabriel Fiorin, Andrea Sanchez-Vallet , Daniela Thomazella, Paula Prado, Leandro Nascimento, Antonio Figueira, Bart Thomma, Goncalo Pereira, Paulo Teixeira
... Source data of the paper "Suppression of plant immunity by fungal chitinase-like effectors".
Contributors: Agnel Sfeir, Aaron Phillips, Marco tigano, ERIKA BRUNET
... Data included in Phillips et al.,
Data from: First molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus (sensu stricto) genotype 1 among cattle in Sudan
Contributors: Ahmed, Mohamed E., Salim, Bashir, Grobusch, Martin P., Aradaib, Imadeldin E.
... Background: Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasitic disease infecting humans and a wide range of mammalian species including cattle. Currently, little information is available on the genetic diversity of Echinococcus species among livestock in Sudan. In the present study, fifty (n = 50) hydatid cysts were collected from cattle carcasses (one cyst sample per animal) at Al-kadarou slaughterhouse, Khartoum North, Sudan. DNA was extracted from protoscolices and the germinal layer of each cyst and subsequently amplified by PCR targeting the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADH-1) gene. The amplified PCR products were purified and subjected to direct sequencing for subsequent construction of phylogenetic tree and net work analysis. Results: The phylogenetic tree revealed the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis genotype 6 (G6) in 44 cysts (88.0%), Echinococcus ortleppi genotype 5 (G5) in 4 cysts (8.0%) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s) genotype 1 (G1) in 2 cysts (4.0%). The phylogenetic network analysis revealed genetic variation among the different haplotypes/genotypes. This report has provided, for the first time, an insight of the role of cattle in the transmission of the zoonotic G1 echinococosis. Conclusions: The results of the study illustrate that Sudanese breeds of cattle may play an important role in the transmission dynamics and the epidemiology of cystic echinococcosis in Sudan. This study reports the first molecular identification of E. granulosus s.s. in cattle in Central Sudan.
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Single molecule, full-length transcript sequencing provides insight into the extreme metabolism of ruby-throated hummingbird Archilochus colubris
Contributors: Workman, Rachael E, Myrka, Alexander M, Tseng, Elizabeth, Wong, G. William, Welch, Kenneth C., Timp, Winston
... Hummingbirds can support their high metabolic rates exclusively by oxidizing ingested sugars, which is unsurprising given their sugar-rich nectar diet and use of energetically expensive hovering flight. However, they cannot rely on dietary sugars as a fuel during fasting periods, such as during the night, at first light, or when undertaking long-distance migratory flights, and must instead rely exclusively on onboard lipids. This metabolic flexibility is remarkable both in that the birds can switch between exclusive use of each fuel type within minutes and in that de novo lipogenesis from dietary sugar precursors is the principle way in which fat stores are built, sometimes at exceptionally high rates, such as during the few days prior to a migratory flight. The hummingbird hepatopancreas is the principle location of de novo lipogenesis and likely plays a key role in fuel selection, fuel switching, and glucose homeostasis. Yet understanding how this tissue, and the whole organism, achieves and moderates high rates of energy turnover is hampered by a fundamental lack of information regarding how genes coding for relevant enzymes differ in their sequence, expression, and regulation in these unique animals. To address this knowledge gap, we generated a de novo transcriptome of the hummingbird liver using PacBio full-length cDNA sequencing (Iso-Seq), yielding a total of 8.6Gb of sequencing data, or 2.6M reads from 4 different size fractions. We analyzed data using the SMRTAnalysis v3.1 Iso-Seq pipeline, including classification of reads and clustering of isoforms (ICE) followed by error-correction (Arrow). We performed orthology analysis to identify closely related sequences between our transcriptome and other avian and human gene sets. We also aligned our transcriptome against the Calypte anna genome where possible. Finally, we closely examined homology of critical lipid metabolic genes between our transcriptome data and avian and human genomes. We confirmed high levels of sequence divergence within hummingbird lipogenic enzymes, suggesting a high probability of adaptive divergent function in the lipogenic liver pathways. Our results have leveraged cutting-edge technology and a novel bioinformatics pipeline to provide a compelling first direct look at the transcriptome of this incredible organism.
Data from: Characterization of a male reproductive transcriptome for Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus mouse)
Contributors: Kordonowy, Lauren L., MacManes, Matthew D.
... Rodents of the genus Peromyscus have become increasingly utilized models for investigations into adaptive biology. This genus is particularly powerful for research linking genetics with adaptive physiology or behaviors, and recent research has capitalized on the unique opportunities afforded by the ecological diversity of these rodents. Well characterized genomic and transcriptomic data is intrinsic to explorations of the genetic architecture responsible for ecological adaptations. Therefore, this study characterizes the transcriptome of three male reproductive tissues (testes, epididymis and vas deferens) of Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus mouse), a desert specialist. The transcriptome assembly process was optimized in order to produce a high quality and substantially complete annotated transcriptome. This composite transcriptome was generated to characterize the expressed transcripts in the male reproductive tract of P. eremicus, which will serve as a crucial resource for future research investigating our hypothesis that the male Cactus mouse possesses an adaptive reproductive phenotype to mitigate water-loss from ejaculate. This study reports genes under positive selection in the male Cactus mouse reproductive transcriptome relative to transcriptomes from Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) and Mus musculus. Thus, this study expands upon existing genetic research in this species, and we provide a high quality transcriptome to enable further explorations of our proposed hypothesis for male Cactus mouse reproductive adaptations to minimize seminal fluid loss.
Data from: The transcriptome of Nacobbus aberrans reveals insights into the evolution of sedentary endoparasitism in plant-parasitic nematodes
Contributors: Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian, Lilley, Catherine J., Danchin, Etienne G. J., Rancurel, Corinne, Cock, Peter J. A., Urwin, Peter E., Jones, John T.
... Within the phylum Nematoda, plant-parasitism is hypothesized to have arisen independently on at least four occasions. The most economically damaging plant-parasitic nematode species, and consequently the most widely studied, are those that feed as they migrate destructively through host roots causing necrotic lesions (migratory endoparasites) and those that modify host root tissue to create a nutrient sink from which they feed (sedentary endoparasites). The false root-knot nematode Nacobbus aberrans is the only known species to have both migratory endoparasitic and sedentary endoparasitic stages within its life cycle. Moreover, its sedentary stage appears to have characteristics of both the root-knot and the cyst nematodes. We present the first large-scale genetic resource of any false-root knot nematode species. We use RNAseq to describe relative abundance changes in all expressed genes across the life cycle to provide interesting insights into the biology of this nematode as it transitions between modes of parasitism. A multigene phylogenetic analysis of N. aberrans with respect to plant-parasitic nematodes of all groups confirms its proximity to both cyst and root-knot nematodes. We present a transcriptome-wide analysis of both lateral gene transfer events and the effector complement. Comparing parasitism genes of typical root-knot and cyst nematodes to those of N. aberrans has revealed interesting similarities. Importantly, genes that were believed to be either cyst nematode, or root-knot nematode, “specific” have both been identified in N. aberrans. Our results provide insights into the characteristics of a common ancestor and the evolution of sedentary endoparasitism of plants by nematodes.
Data from: "Transcriptome sequences for Campanula gentilis" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 April 2015 – 31 May 2015
Contributors: Demet, Töre, Luebert, Federico, Mansion, Guilhem, Muller, Ludo A. H.
... In this report, we present the transcriptome of a single accession of Campanula gentilis Kovanda, obtained through the sequencing of both a normalized and a non-normalized cDNA library generated from stem and leaf tissue. The resources we provide include the raw sequence reads, the assembled contigs, the putative open reading frames, the contig/ORF annotations and the normalized as well as non-normalized expression levels.
Data from: Functional C-terminally encoded peptide (CEP) plant hormone domains evolved de novo in the plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis
Contributors: Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian, Lilley, Catherine J., Yusup, Hazijah B., Jones, John T., Urwin, Peter E.
... Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) induce and maintain an intimate relationship with their host, stimulating cells adjacent to root vascular tissue to re-differentiate into unique and metabolically active ‘feeding sites’. The interaction between PPNs and their host is mediated by nematode effectors. We describe the discovery of a large and diverse family of effector genes, encoding C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) plant hormone mimics (RrCEPs), in the syncytia-forming plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis. The particular attributes of RrCEPs distinguish them from all other CEPs, regardless of origin. Together with the distant phylogenetic relationship of R. reniformis to the only other CEP-encoding nematode genus identified to date (Meloidogyne), this suggests that CEPs probably evolved de novo in R. reniformis. We have characterized the first member of this large gene family (RrCEP1), demonstrating its significant up-regulation during the plant–nematode interaction and expression in the effector-producing pharyngeal gland cell. All internal CEP domains of multi-domain RrCEPs are followed by di-basic residues, suggesting a mechanism for cleavage. A synthetic peptide corresponding to RrCEP1 domain 1 is biologically active and capable of up-regulating plant nitrate transporter (AtNRT2.1) expression, whilst simultaneously reducing primary root elongation. When a non-CEP-containing, syncytia-forming PPN species (Heterodera schachtii) infects Arabidopsis in a CEP-rich environment, a smaller feeding site is produced. We hypothesize that CEPs of R. reniformis represent a two-fold adaptation to sustained biotrophy in this species: (i) increasing host nitrate uptake, whilst (ii) limiting the size of the syncytial feeding site produced.
Structural analysis of a penicillin V acylase from Pectobacterium atrosepticum confirms the importance of two Trp residues for activity and specificity
Contributors: Vellore Sunder Avinash, Priyabrata Panigrahi, Deepak Chand, Archana Pundle, Cheravakattu Gopalan Suresh, Sureshkumar Ramasamy
... Penicillin V acylases (PVA) catalyze the deacylation of the beta-lactam antibiotic phenoxymethylpenicillin (Pen V). They are members of the Ntn hydrolase family and possess an N-terminal cysteine as the main catalytic nucleophile residue. They form the evolutionarily related cholylglycine hydrolase (CGH) group which includes bile salt hydrolases (BSH) responsible for bile deconjugation. Even though a few PVA and BSH structures have been reported, no structure of a functional PVA from Gram-negative bacteria is available. Here, we report the crystal structure of a highly active PVA from Gram-negative Pectobacterium atrosepticum (PaPVA) at 2.5Å resolution. Structural comparison with PVAs from Gram-positive bacteria revealed that PaPVA had a distinctive tetrameric structure and active site organization. In addition, mutagenesis of key active site residues and biochemical characterization of the resultant variants elucidated the role of these residues in substrate binding and catalysis. The importance of residue Trp23 and Trp87 side chains in binding and correct positioning of Pen V by PVAs was confirmed using mutagenesis and substrate docking with a 15ns molecular dynamics simulation. These results establish the unique nature of Gram-negative CGHs and necessitate further research about their substrate spectrum.
Data from: Malat1 as an evolutionarily conserved lncRNA, plays a positive role in regulating proliferation and maintaining undifferentiated status of early-stage hematopoietic cells
Contributors: Ma, Xian-Yong, Wang, Jian-Hui, Wang, Jing-Lan, Ma, Charles X., Wang, Xiao-Chun, Liu, Feng-Song
... Background: The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcription 1 (Malat1) is a highly conserved long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) gene. Previous studies showed that Malat1 is abundantly expressed in many tissues and involves in promoting tumor growth and metastasis by modulating gene expression and target protein activities. However, little is known about the biological function and regulation mechanism of Malat1 in normal cell proliferation. Results: In this study we conformed that Malat1 is highly conserved across vast evolutionary distances amongst 20 species of mammals in terms of sequence, and found that mouse Malat1 expresses in tissues of liver, kidney, lung, heart, testis, spleen and brain, but not in skeletal muscle. After treating erythroid myeloid lymphoid (EML) cells with All-trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA), we investigated the expression and regulation of Malat1 during hematopoietic differentiation, the results showed that ATRA significantly down regulates Malat1 expression during the differentiation of EML cells. Mouse LRH (Lin-Rhodamine low Hoechst low ) cells that represent the early-stage progenitor cells show a high level of Malat1 expression, while LRB (Lin − Hoechst Low Rhodamine Bright ) cells that represent the late-stage progenitor cells had no detectable expression of Malat1. Knockdown experiment showed that depletion of Malat1 inhibits the EML cell proliferation. Along with the down regulation of Malat1, the tumor suppressor gene p53 was up regulated during the differentiation. Interestingly, we found two p53 binding motifs with help of bioinformatic tools, and the following chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) test conformed that p53 acts as a transcription repressor that binds to Malat1’s promoter. Furthermore, we testified that p53 over expression in EML cells causes down regulation of Malat1. Conclusions: In summary, this study indicates Malat1 plays a critical role in maintaining the proliferation potential of early-stage hematopoietic cells. In addition to its biological function, the study also uncovers the regulation pattern of Malat1 expression mediated by p53 in hematopoietic differentiation. Our research shed a light on exploring the Malat1 biological role including therapeutic significance to inhibit the proliferation potential of malignant cells.