Contributors: Olanrewaju Lawal
... Exposure capture factors which could be manifested in the magnitude and intensity of long-term changes in climate (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007) and in this context factors with impact on agricultural production. Temperature and rainfall were used to capture the extent to which Maize is exposed to climate change. Data was sourced from the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis (CRU TS release 4), with data extracted for 1941 - 2015. The data were processed within R (Version 3.4.2), within this environment the mean (temperature and rainfall) for northern and southern parts of the country were computed. The growing season for Maize in the north spans from May to September while in the south it starts from March and ends in August (FAO, 2018). Furthermore, long (1941 – 2015) and short (1961 – 2015) term averages for the respective growing season were computed for each of the regions. Following the computation of the long and short-term averages, exposure was computed as the ratio of the long-term to the short-term averages. With exposure index for rainfall and temperature computed separately, the two were added to get the combined exposure index. A high value indicates high exposure to climate variability. In this dataset, the exposure index is presented in raster format (Geotiff) to allow for easy processing across GIS software. In addition, the boundaries of the northern and the southern regions were also included as shapefiles.
Contributors: Jacqueline Zadelaar
... Are Individual Differences Quantitative Or Qualitative? An Integrated Behavioral And Fmri Mimic Approach. Authors: Jacqueline N. Zadelaar, Wouter D. Weeda, Lourens J. Waldorp, Anna C. K. Van Duijvenvoordee, N. E. Blankenstein, Hilde M. Huizenga In cognitive neuroscience there is a growing interest in individual differences. We propose the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model of combined behavioral and fMRI data to determine whether such differences are quantitative or qualitative in nature. A simulation study revealed the MIMIC model to have adequate power for this goal, and parameter recovery to be satisfactory. The MIMIC model was illustrated with a re-analysis of Van Duijvenvoorde et al. (2016) and Blankenstein et al. (2018) decision making data. This showed individual differences in Van Duijvenvoorde et al. (2016) to originate in qualitative differences in decision strategies. Parameters indicated some individuals to use an expected value decision strategy, while others used a loss minimizing strategy, distinguished by individual differences in vmPFC activity. Individual differences in Blankenstein et al. (2018) were explained by quantitative differences in risk aversion. Parameters showed that more risk averse individuals preferred safe over risky choices, as predicted by heightened vmPFC activity. We advocate using the MIMIC model to empirically determine, rather than assume, the nature of individual differences in combined behavioral and fMRI datasets.
Contributors: Lukas Graf, Levente Papp
... This dataset provides sample data demonstrating the capacities of the OBIA4RTM tool. OBIA4RTM combines radiative transfer modelling (RTM) of vegetation with object-based image analysis (OBIA). Its main purpose is to provide vegetation parameters such as Leaf Area Index (LAI) or leaf Chlorophyll a+b content (CAB) on a per-object rather than per pixel base. In this dataset, the OBIA4RTM tool was applied to two Sentinel-2 scenes covering an agricultural area in Southern Germany. Field parcels were used as image objects that were delineated from high-resolution ortho-photography and classified into vegetated and non-vegetated parcels using a Support Vector Machine trained on manually selected samples. For each of the two scenes - dating back on the 6th and 18th of July 2017 - the canopy RTM ProSAIL was run in forward mode and the synthetic spectra stored in a Lookup-Table (LUT). For parameter retrieval, the 5 closest matches between spectra in the LUT and a given observed satellite spectrum averaged per parcel were used. Matches were found in terms of the lowest Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE). The utilized vegetation parameterisation is provided additionally. The results include the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Chlorophyll a+b content (CAB) of leaves and the fraction of brown leaves (Cbrown). In addition, the retrieval error in terms of RMSE is provided together with the average of the 5 best matching synthetic spectra in the LUT to a given object-based spectrum. This allows for evaluating the quality of the inversion results and enables user to further improve the results by applying a more appropiate vegetation parameterisation. The structure of the dataset (see below) is straightforward: - The "Field Parcels" folder contains an ESRI shapefile with the field parcels as well as the classification results for the two image acquisition dates - The "ProSAIL Parametersisation" directory provides the vegetation parameters used to run the ProSAIL model. - The actual results are stored as ESRI-shapefiles in "Retrieved Vegetation Parameters" folder containing the LAI, CAB, Fraction of brown leaves and the RMSE as well as inverted Sentinel-2 spectra - "Sentinel-2 data" contains the utilized Sentinel-2 data as GeoTiff clipped to the study area in Level-2A This information should allow for reproducing the results using the freely available base version of OBIA4RTM (for research and education) or within other software packages. All geodata is projected in UTM-Zone 32N, WGS-84.
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Data for: Legacy of a Pleistocene bacterial community: Patterns in community dynamics through changing ecosystems.
Contributors: Senthil Kumar Sadasivam, Anbarasu Kumaresan, Sivakumar Krishnan, Bhavatharini Shanmuganathan, Manoj Kumar Jaiswal, SHAN P THOMAS
... The dataset contains supplementary data files for the manuscript titled "Legacy of a Pleistocene bacterial community: Patterns in community dynamics through changing ecosystems."
Contributors: Szilárd Szabó, Boglárka Balázs, Zoltán Kovács, Balázs Deák, Ádám Kertész
... The dataset is derived from the Hungarian part of the CarpatClim database (https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4059) and the MODIS MOD13Q1 16 days 250 m (https://doi.org/10.5067/MODIS/MOD13Q1.006) between 2000-2010, using bivariate linear regression on monthly data. The 1038 points represent 1038 R-squared (R2) values of the regressions. R2 values reflect the strength of relationship between aridity, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, maximum temperature and the normalized vegetation index (NDVI). For spatial analysis, we provided the codes of Hungarian macro regions, land cover and topography data (terrain height, slope and aspect). Column name Description CC_ID: CarpatClim identifier Country: Country code of CarpatClim /1=Hungary/ UTM_X: X UTM Coordinate UTM_Y: Y UTM Coordinate ARIvsNDVI_R2: R2 of Aridification Index and NDVI 2000–2010 PRECvsNDVI_R2: R2 of Precipitation and NDVI 2000–2010 PETvsNDVI_R2: R2 of Potential Evapotranspiration and NDVI 2000–2010 TMAXvsNDVI_R2: R2 of Maximum Temperature and NDVI 2000–2010 DEM_slope: SRTM slope value (degree) DEM_aspect: SRTM aspect value (azimuth) DEM: SRTM elevation (m) CLC_code: CORINE Land Cover code /arable lands (211, 213,221,222, 242,243), grasslands (231, 321), forests (311, 312, 313, 324), wetlands (411, 412), water bodies (511, 512) and artificial surfaces (112, 121, 122, 131, 142) Macro_reg_code: Hunrarian Macro Region code /Great Hungarian Plain=1, Kisalföld=2, Alpokalja=3, Transdanubian Hills=4, Transdanubian Mountains=5, North-Hungarian Mountains=6/ Microregion_code: Hungarian Micro Region code (Dövényi, Z. 2010) Dövényi, Z. ed. 2010. Inventory of Natural Micro-regions of Hungary, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Geographical Institute, Budapest
Contributors: Jianguang Fang
... Abaqus 2D and 3D UEL and UMAT subroutines for the phase-field modeling for fracture of elasto-plastic solids. The code consists of the 2-layered system of user elements and user material subroutine producing a staggered algorithm. The codes along with input files for three benchmark examples from the associated journal article are given. A tutorial is provided in the associated journal article.
Contributors: Tanika Chakraborty, Rajshri Jayaraman
... 1. Data Use: Data were obtained and used by request from ASER. You are kindly requested to respect this and also obtain the authorization from ASER before using these data for a different purpose. Contact details are available here: http://www.asercentre.org/ 2. Software: The analysis was conducted in STATA, v14.2 3. Data files: Following are raw data files: a. Cross-sectional household surveys for the years 2005-2012: aser_2005_hh.dta aser_2006_hh.dta aser_2006_hh.dta aser_2007_hh.dta aser_2008_hh.dta aser_2009_hh.dta aser_2010_hh.dta aser_2011_hh.dta aser_2012_hh.dta b. Cross-section school surveys for the years 2007, and 2009-12: sch_2007.dta sch_2009.dta sch_2010.dta sch_2011.dta sch_2012.dta c. State-level data for the state-level regression results: states.dta d. Geographic data base of Indian administrative boundaries, obtained from http://www.gadm.org: IND*.* The .shp files could not be uploaded to Mendeley Data. Hence we have provides 2 .shp files along with the manuscript under program files.
Contributors: Ana Miller-ter Kuile, Devyn Orr, An Bui, Rodolfo Dirzo, Maggie K, Douglas McCauley, Carina Motta, Hillary Young
... Island ecosystems have experienced massive biodiversity loss, and invasive species, in particular rodents, are responsible for much of this loss (~15%). Rodent eradications have led to the recovery of over 100 island vertebrates and their ecological roles. While the focus of most eradication efforts has been vertebrate recovery, rodents are generalists that predominantly eat seeds and fruit. However, there has been limited work on the effects of rodent eradication on plant communities and plant-mediated ecological processes. In this study, we conducted repeated surveys of seed, juvenile, and adult tree abundance and survival in permanent vegetation plots across an islet network (Palmyra Atoll) in the Central Tropical Pacific, before and after the eradication of black rats (Rattus rattus). Our aim was to examine the role of seed predation on tree communities and biomass. We observed an 84% decrease in seed predation of an introduced foundational species (the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera), and a 14-fold increase in juvenile tree biomass in all species following eradication. Juvenile C. nucifera abundance increased 2-5 times more than other tree species, leading to a 10% increase in population growth rate and a 4-fold increase in adult tree biomass accumulation over the next tree generation. We conclude that rodents can have nuanced impacts on island ecosystems, including facilitation of other invasive species and alteration of ecosystem functions such as carbon and nutrient cycling and storage. Future eradication efforts need to incorporate plant responses, since plants can shape post-eradication recovery trajectories. These data include census data from permanent vegetation plots on Palmyra Atoll, data used to determine community biomass from these plots, maps of Palmyra Atoll and the vegetation plot locations, and statistical tests used to determine changes in stages and vital rates for tree species in the permanent vegetation plots.
Contributors: Jessica Noviello, Zachary Torrano, Kelsi Singer, Alyssa Rhoden
... These are the ArcMap files created and reported on in Noviello et al. (submitted here)
Characterization of the Corals and Sponges of the Eastern Scotian Slope from a Benthic Imagery Survey
Contributors: Lindsay Beazley, Camille Lirette, Javier Guijarro
... A benthic imagery survey was conducted along the Eastern Scotian Slope in June 2018 to collect data in support of a Strategic Program for Ecosystem-Based Research and Advice project to evaluate the effectiveness of the Lophelia Coral Conservation Area and identify new areas of importance for benthic species that may qualify for protection under Fisheries and Oceans Canada’s 2009 Policy for Managing the Impact of Fishing on Sensitive Benthic Areas. Linear video and photographic transects from ~200 to 1000 m depth were collected at 10 stations between the Gully Marine Protected Area and the Lophelia Coral Conservation Area using the video and photographic camera system Campod and the ‘4K Camera’ drop camera system. Here we present a quantitative assessment of the corals and sponges observed at each of these 10 stations. Patterns in distribution by transect and depth are presented, as well as the relationship between coral distribution and groundfish fishing effort. We highlight the importance of the slope outside the canyons for the distribution of corals and sponges, where nearly 25 taxa were recorded between 167 – 970 m depth. Diversity and abundance appeared to show a west-to-east gradient across the study area, being highest on those stations adjacent to the Lophelia Coral Conservation Area. Groundfish fishing activity overlapped the distribution of corals and sponges in some parts of the study area, particularly between 200 and 500 m where the large branching corals Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis were observed, and also suggested that fishing may have taken place within the boundaries of the Lophelia Coral Conservation Area since its implementation in 2004. An extension of the boundaries of this closure may ensure its continued effectiveness and provide protection for the diverse and abundant coral and sponge communities that reside beyond its boundaries.