Contributors: Philipp Keller
... Guide's software and data repository- full version
Contributors: Rikke Meyer
... Inorganic fouling is one of the challenging problems in heat exchanger applications. One approach to mitigate fouling is to employ surface coatings. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of surface initiated polymerization (SIP) as thin coating technology to mitigate CaCO3 formation for heat transfer applications. The extent of formation of CaCO3 on different types of poly(oligoethyleneglycol) methacrylate brushes (POEGMA) was investigated under stagnant and flow heat-exchanging conditions. Polymer brushes of high graft density reduced the surface coverage of CaCO3 more effectively than the low graft density brushes. By contrast, the thickness of the brush did not correlate with the surface coverage of CaCO3. The comparison of stagnant and flow experiments revealed that the antiscaling effect of POEGMA brushes originate due to reduced adhesion of CaCO3. Finally, the SIP process was successfully scaled-up to coat commercial heat exchanger plates with thickness and homogeneity comparable to lab-scale surfaces. Under industrial testing, the POEGMA brushes extended the performance by 50 h before the commencement of complete blockage.
Contributors: Yuliang Tan
... Nuclear receptors induce both transcriptional activation and repression programs responsible for development, homeostasis, and disease. Here, we report a previously overlooked enhancer decommissioning strategy underlying a large estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-dependent transcriptional repression program. The unexpected signature for this E2-induced program resides in indirect recruitment of ERα to a large cohort of pioneer factor basally active FOXA1-bound enhancers that lack cognate ERα DNA-binding elements. Surprisingly, these basally active estrogen-repressed (BAER) enhancers are decommissioned by ERα-dependent recruitment of the histone demethylase KDM2A, functioning independently of its demethylase activity. Rather, KDM2A tethers the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4 to ubiquitylate/dismiss Pol II to abrogate eRNA transcription, with consequent target gene downregulation. Thus, our data reveal that Pol II ubiquitylation/dismissal may serve as a potentially broad strategy utilized by indirectly bound nuclear receptors to abrogate large programs of pioneer factor-mediated, eRNA-producing enhancers.
Contributors: Gabriel Fiorin, Andrea Sanchez-Vallet, Daniela Thomazella, Paula Prado, Leandro Nascimento, Antonio Figueira, Bart Thomma, Goncalo Pereira, Paulo Jose Teixeira
... Source data of the paper "Suppression of plant immunity by fungal chitinase-like effectors".
Contributors: Eran Halfi, Asher Brenner, David Katoshevski
... This video, filmed with Go-Pro Hero2, is an overview of the grouping process in a laboratory experiment conducted in a 2 Liter beaker with initial turbidity of 50 NTU. The time shown in the down right corner of the presentation is in minutes (high speed editing). The experiment consisted of 30 minutes of oscillations. The white sedimentation which accumulates in the bottom of the beaker are the aggregates which are formed and settle due to the oscillation process in distinct settling zones. The shape of "lungs" formed by the aggregates sedimentation is representative for all experiments.
Contributors: Uma Nagarajan
Contributors: Richard Zimmermann, Regine Stutz
... In mammalian cells, one-third of all polypeptides are transported into/across the ER-membrane via the Sec61-channel. While the Sec61-complex facilitates translocation of all polypeptides with amino-terminal signal peptides (sp) or transmembrane helices, the Sec61-associated TRAP-complex supports translocation of only a subset, i.e. in a substrate-specific manner. To characterize TRAP-dependent precursors, we combined siRNA-mediated TRAP depletion in human cells, label-free quantitative proteomics, and differential expression analysis. The results were validated by western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR as well as under conditions of over-production of TRAP-dependent precursors and their mutated variants in the presence or absence of MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Sp analysis of TRAP-clients revealed above-average glycine-plus-proline content as the distinguishing feature. Thus, TRAP acts as an sp-receptor on the ER-membrane’s cytosolic face for precursor polypeptides with high glycine-plus-proline content in their sp and triggers substrate-specific (and regulated) opening of the Sec61-channel by its interaction with the ER-lumenal hinge of Sec61α. The work is about to be published under the title Proteomics reveals signal peptide features determining the client specificity in human TRAP-dependent ER protein import by Duy Nguyen, Regine Stutz, Stefan Schorr, Sven Lang, Stefan Pfeffer, Hudson H. Freeze, Friedrich Förster, Volkhard Helms1 Johanna Dudek & Richard Zimmermann Here we present the original western blot data plus additional SP and TMH analyses, which are presented in a pptx figure and a xlsx table, respectively . Additional physicochemical properties of TRAP clients with SP or TMH. In addition to the hydrophobicity score and glycine/proline (GP) content, we determined the ΔGapp values of SP sequences (a) and transmembrane helices (TMH) (b) with the ΔGapp predictor for TM helix insertion (http://dgpred.cbr.su.se) and plotted these values against the relative count (Density). Glycine and glycine plus proline content of human signal peptides. We used custom scripts to compute the glycine (G) and glycine plus proline (GP) content of human SP sequences from UniProtKB entries. GP content was calculated as the total fraction of glycine and proline in the respective sequence. Notably, 1382 SP of a total of 3513 have a GP content of > 15%, the proposed threshold for TRAP involvement and, therefore, potential regulation by phosphorylation and/or calcium binding by TRAP subunit α.
Contributors: Saroj Chakraborty
... Salt-responsive Metabolite, beta-hydroxybutyrate, Attenuates Hypertension Chakraborty, S1, Galla, S1, Cheng X1, Yeo, J1, Mell, B1, Singh V1, Yeoh BS1, Saha P1, Mathew, AV2, Vijay-Kumar, M1, Joe B*1. 1Program in Physiological Genomics, Microbiome Consortium, Center for Hypertension and Personalized Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, USA. 2 Department of Internal Medicine-Nephrology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. *Corresponding Author: Bina Joe, email@example.com Summary Dietary salt reduction and exercise are lifestyle modifications prescribed for salt-sensitive hypertensives. While exercise is known to have prominent metabolic effects, such effects of lower dietary salt are just emerging. Studies indicate that salt has adverse effect on metabolic syndrome, of which, hypertension is a hallmark. We hypothesized that dietary salt impacts metabolism in a salt-sensitive model of hypertension. Untargeted metabolomic profiling of rats with differential salt (NaCl) diets revealed that a high salt-induced increase in blood pressure was associated with lower circulating levels of the ketone body, beta-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB). Specific rescue of the βOHB levels by nutritional supplementation of its precursor, 1,3-butanediol attenuated hypertension and protected kidney disease despite the high salt intake. This beneficial effect of βOHB was observed independent of the gut-microbiotal effects of salt or the Th17-mediated renal effects. Instead, the mechanism for the observed renoprotective effect of βOHB on salt-sensitive hypertension was the βOHB-mediated inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cascade by the Nlrp3 inflammasome. In summary, the juxtaposed effects of dietary salt and exercise on salt-sensitive hypertension, which decrease and increase βOHB respectively, indicates that nutritional supplementation of a precursor of βOHB could be considered to provide a similar benefit to salt-sensitive hypertension as exercise.
an approach to improve the mechanical properties of LM24 alloy via dislocation enhanced precipitates
Contributors: yijie zhang
... The main idea is to develop an approach to improve the mechanical properties of LM24 alloy by the enhanced the precipitates strengthening when carrying on the directly ageing treatment. To achieve this, the formation of precipitates is promoted by the dislocation movement and to optimize the size of the precipitates by accelerating the diffusion along dislocation.
Contributors: Alessandro Borgognone
... Background, surgery and perspectives of the oncoplastic breast surgery are examined and discussed .