Contributors: Banerjee, Debarshi, Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur, Zhu, Geyunjian Harry, Wiechec, Emilia, Patra, Hirak
Characterising complex healthcare systems using network science: The small world of emergency surgery
Contributors: Kohler, Katharina, Ercole, Ari
... Hospitals are complex systems and optimising their function is critical to the provision of high quality, cost effective healthcare. Nevertheless, metrics of performance have to date focused on the performance of individual elements rather than the system as a whole. Ma- nipulation of individual elements of a complex system without an integrative understanding of its function is undesirable and may lead to counter-intuitive outcomes and a holistic metric of hospital function might help design more efficient services. We aimed to charac- terise the system of peri-operative care for emergency surgical admissions in our tertiary care hospital using network analysis. We used retrospective electronic health record data to construct a weighted directional network of the system. For this we selected all unplanned admissions during a 3.5 year period involving a surgical intervention during the inpatient stay and obtained a set of 16,500 individual inpatient episodes. We then constructed and analysed the structure of this network using established methods from network science such as degree distribution, betweenness centrality and small-world characteristics. The analysis showed the service to be a complex system with scale-free, small-world network properties. This finding has implications for the structure and resilience of the service as such networks, whilst being robust in general, may be vulnerable to outages at specific key nodes. We also identified such potential hubs and bottlenecks in the system based on a variety of network measures. It is hoped that such a holistic, system-wide description of a hospital service may provide better metrics for hospital strain and serve to help planners engineer systems that are as robust as possible to external shocks.
Iron availability modulates the Arabidopsis thaliana root calcium signature evoked by exogenous ATP.
Contributors: Matthus, Elsa, Wilkins, Katie A, Davies, Julia
Evolution of the soot particle size distribution along the centreline of an n-heptane/toluene co-flow diffusion flame
Contributors: Dreyer, Jochen, Poli, Maximillian, Eaves, N, Botero, Maria, Akroyd, Jethro, Mosbach, Sebastian, Kraft, Markus
... A newly developed experimental set-up for studying liquid hydrocarbon combustion in the well-established Yale burner was used to investigate the correlation between fuel composition and its sooting propensity. Soot particle size distributions (PSDs) and flame temperatures along the centreline of an n-heptane/toluene co-flow diffusion flame are reported. The results are compared to soot temperature and volume fraction profiles obtained using colour ratio pyrometry. The addition of toluene (0, 5, 10, and 15 mol%) to heptane moved soot inception to lower heights above the burner (HAB). The earlier inception extended the soot growth zone in the toluene-laden flames, leading to larger soot primary and agglomerate particles. Toluene addition had little influence on the maximum soot number density, indicating that the observed increase in soot volume fraction can mainly be attributed to the increase in particle size. The reported PSDs inside a vapour-fed diffusion flame are the first of their kind and provide a comprehensive dataset for future studies of combustion chemistry and soot particle models.
Receiver function mapping of mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath Alaska using scaled 3D velocity corrections
Contributors: van Stiphout, AM, Cottaar, Sanne, Deuss, A
Contributors: Whitehead, Michael, Osborne, Andrew, Widdowson, Peter S., Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick, Martin, Keith R.
... Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the commonest cause of blindness in the working-age population of the developed world. The molecular pathophysiology of DR is complex, and a complete spatiotemporal model of the disease is still being elucidated. Recently, a role for angiopoietin (Ang) proteins in the pathophysiology of DR has been proposed by several research groups, and several aspects of Ang signalling are being explored as novel therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the role of the Ang proteins in two important forms of DR, diabetic macular oedema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The function of the Ang proteins in regulating blood vessel permeability and neovascularisation is discussed, and we also evaluate recent preclinical and clinical studies highlighting the potential benefits of modulating Ang signalling as a treatment for DR.
Contributors: Terbish, Baasanjav, Churyumova, Elvira, Korneev, Gennadiy, Bembeev, Aleksandr
... When a woman gave birth, people would say ‘Tsagan tor boljana’ and all children were taken out (from a yurt). There were no diapers then, instead ash left from burning the dung was used. Ashes being soft were poured into a bag and a child was put into this bag. It was a very good absorbent. In order to keep the baby’s back straight, a piece of solid cardboard was used. The cardboard also made holding a baby easier. Instead of diapers, old clothes of a baby’s father were used. People say that Kalmyks have bowed legs, it is because babies were put in bags with ashes and when they grew up a bit, they rode a horse.
Contributors: Terbish, Baasanjav, Terbish, Baasanjav, Terbish, Baasanjav
... Svetlana talks about names among Kalmyks: Names such as Badma, Tsagan(a), Saglr and Amulng are gender neutral. Jangar, Baatr, Chingis, Aldr and Zerg are male names. The Kalmyk language does not have a grammatical gender. Gender-neutral names such as Saglr today became Saglara. Many Kalmyks have Russian names, which is connected with the exile of the Kalmyk people to Siberia. The Kalmyks had to adapt to the new environment and gave Russian names to their children. Svetlana’s name was given to her in honour of a midwife who was present at her birth in Krasnoyarskiy krai. Svetlana’s brothers also have Russian names, although her nephews have Kalmyk names only. Recently, Dayana became a popular name among Kalmyk girls. The original meaning of this name is ‘a recluse’. The Buddhist practice of staying alone is called ‘daya’ or ‘dayand orkh’. In this sense, Dayana should be regarded a sacred name, and as such it is not appropriate to give this name to girls just because it is fashionable. Other sacred names are Zayana, Chingis and Aldar. European names are also known among Kalmyks, including Gerhard, Leonel or German.
Contributors: Terbish, Baasanjav, Churyumova, Elvira, Korneev, Gennadiy, Churyumov, Anton
... The birth of a girl was not as joyous an occasion as the birth of a boy. After his umbilical cord dried out and fell off, guests were invited to celebrate the boy’s birth. A sheep was slaughtered and its tibia bone was hung above the entrance of the yurt. Even dogs were happy on this occasion, for they were given bones and food leftovers from the boy’s meals. By contrast, the birth of girls was not celebrated, for they left their families following their marriage to join their husbands’ clans. If a child could not walk for a long time, people performed a special ritual. The child’s paternal male relative took scissors and cut invisible ties between the legs of the child, while uttering a well-wish. Another custom was when an old man threw his hat between the legs of the child. In the past, in order to remove a fear from a child, old people shouted loudly. Today, by contrast, parents do not allow for their children to be shouted at. About children with mental disabilities (dutu zuurm). It was believed that children with mental problems were born to clans that had committed great sin. Since there were no clinics, such children were treated by lamas.
Research data supporting 'Visible-light driven CO2 reduction by mesoporous carbon nitride modified with polymeric cobalt phthalocyanine'
Contributors: Reisner, Erwin, Roy, Souvik
... The project describes developing new materials for visible light driven reduction of carbon dioxide with particular focus on employing earth-abundant elements. The hybrid material consists of carbon nitride as the photosensitizer and a bio-inspired cobalt-phthalocyanine polymer as the molecular co-catalyst. The photocatalytic performance of the material was tested in CO2-saturated organic solvent using triethanolamine as the sacrificial electron donor. The photocatalyst was characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques and some of the raw characterzation data as well as the data from photocatalytic experiments are included with the manuscript.