Long-term immunity against yellow fever in children vaccinated during infancy: a longitudinal observational study
Contributors: Domingo, Cristina, Mejía, José E.
... Concentrations of specific neutralizing antibodies following infant immunization against yellow fever. We used a microneutralization assay to measure protective antibodies against yellow fever virus in 587 Malian and 436 Ghanaian children vaccinated around age 9 months, and followed for 4.5 years (Mali), or 2.5 and 6 years (Ghana). We standardized antibody concentrations with reference to the yellow fever WHO International Standard. The serum samples used in this study, and the sample metadata included in the present dataset originate from trials of the meningococcal group A conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac, namely the PsATT-004 (phase II) and Pers-004 (phase IV) studies in Ghana, and the PsATT-007 (phase III) and Pers-007 (phase IV) studies in Mali (clinical trial registry numbers ISRCTN82484612, ISRCTN10763234, PACTR201110000328305, and ISRCTN37623829). MenAfriVac was developed by PATH and Serum Institute India Pvt. Ltd. (SIIPL). This dataset consists of three files: 1. Ghana group data | Tab-delimited text file: Yellow_fever_nAb_Ghana.txt 2. Mali group data | Tab-delimited text file: Yellow_fever_nAb_Mali.txt 3. Data dictionary | PDF file: Yellow_fever_nAb_data_dictionary.pdf Access is currently on a restricted basis but open access will be provided from the time of publication of the research article.
Contributors: Bisratewongel Tegegne, Alemayehu Belay, Tsegaye Gashaw
... Rice, Oryza sativa (Asian rice) and Oryza glaberrima (African rice) is an important staple food crop in many Sub-Saharan African and Asian countries, so the consumer’s daily bowl of rice needs to be safe and of good quality. In the present study, five different rice varieties, one locally grown, three hybrids (NERICA) and imported rice were evaluated for proximate and mineral composition using AOAC standard method of analysis. The results of this study revealed that all selected rice varieties contained considerable amounts of proximate values and mineral elements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Zn). NERICA rice had the highest concentration of most proximate values and mineral elements that in most of the other rice varieties. The present analysis revealed that the hybrid NERICA rice variety contained a considerable amount of nutrients.
Contributors: Alemayehu Mekonnen, Yilkal Degu, Rolf Carlson
... Phytochemicals and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Cordia africana stem bark were evaluated. Four different solvent systems were used for extraction and the evaluation of all chemical components, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were made following established methodologies. The antioxidant activity was determined using free radical scavenging and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction assays. The phytochemical screening study on the methanol extracts revealed the presence of different plant constituents such as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins terpenoids and saponins. All the extracts had significant (P<0.05) antioxidant activity. DPPH radical scavenging activity ranging from 87.76 % (90 % methanol) to 22.94 % (chloroform) and FRAP values varied between 75.42 (90 % methanol) to 31.22 mg AAE/100g (chloroform). Antibacterial activity evaluation of methanolic extract from C. africana bark was carried out using four different bacterial strains. However, the extracts tested did not show clinically relevant antibacterial activity. All crude extracts significantly inhibited oxidation. The results support the use of C. africana leaves in traditional medicine to treat several human aliments.
Removal of Pb(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto olive branches activated carbon: Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies
Contributors: Abdulfattah Mohammed Alkherraz, Aisha Khalifa Ali, Khaled Muftah Elsherif
... The equilibrium and thermodynamics of the biosorption of Pb(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) onto activated carbon prepared from olive branches were studied under different parameters of pH, initial concentration, and temperature. The batch biosorption procedure was used to find the optimum conditions. The biosorption of each metal ion was found to be pH-dependent. The maximum metal ion biosorption was achieved at pH value 5 for Pb, Cu, and Cd ions and at pH 3 for Zn ions. The extent of the metal ion biosorption increased with temperature (indicating the endothermic character) and initial metal ion concentration. The experimental data of metal ion biosorption were analyzed by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. For all metal ions, the Freundlich isotherm model gave a better fit with higher correlation (R2) to equilibrium data than Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity values were 41.32, 34.97, 43.10, and 38.17 (mg/g) for Pb(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II), respectively. Thermodynamically parameters, like Gibbs free energy (ΔG˚), enthalpy (ΔH˚), and entropy (ΔS˚) were calculated. The biosorption of each metal ion was non-spontaneous and the order of non-spontaneity of the biosorption process being Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Cd(II) > Pb(II). Likewise, change in entropy was noticed for each metal ion and the order of disorder was Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II).
Dicarbocyanine and tricarbocyanine dyes: Novel synthetic approaches, photosensitization evaluation and antimicrobial screening
Contributors: Hassan Abazied Shindy, Mohamed Abdallah El-Maghraby, Maha Mubark Goma, Nemat Abdelrahman Harb
... Novel dicarbocyanine dyes (pentamethine cyanine dyes), bis dicarbocyanine dyes (bis pentamethine cyanine dyes), tricarbocyanine dyes (heptamethine cyanine dyes) and bis tricarbocyanine dyes (bis heptamethine cyanine dyes) derived from the nucleus of furo[(3,2-d)pyrazole; (3',2'-d)oxazole] were prepared using novel synthetic approaches. The electronic visible absorption spectra were investigated in 95% ethanol to evaluate the photosensitization properties. The cyanine dyes were better photosensitizers in visible light to initiate the electronic transitions at higher wavelength bands (bathochromic shifted and/or red shifted dyes). Consequently, the photosensitization of the cyanine dyes decreases in visible light to initiate the electronic transitions at lower wavelength bands (hypsochromic shifted and/or blue shifted dyes). Antimicrobial activity of ten selected compounds was tested against four bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus). The compounds were thought to be better antimicrobial active when they give higher inhibition zone against the tested strains. Consequently, the antimicrobial activity was promising and variable among all synthesized compounds against tested strains. Structural characterization and confirmations were determined by elemental analysis, visible, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectral data.
FIGURE 6 in A new species of Cylloceria Schiødte, 1838 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from the Oriental Region
Contributors: Liu, Jing-Xian, Reshchikov, Alexey
... FIGURE 6. Cylloceria ebbae sp. nov. ♂ (Paratype). A: head and basal part of antenna, laterofrontal view; B: third and fourth flagellomeres, lateral view; C: propodeum, posterior dorsal view; D: T1–2, dorsal view; E: T1–2, dorsolateral view.
Revision of the genus Platyscelis Latreille, 1818 from China (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Platyscelidini)
Contributors: Bai, Xing-Long, Ren, Guo-Dong
... Bai, Xing-Long, Ren, Guo-Dong (2019): Revision of the genus Platyscelis Latreille, 1818 from China (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Platyscelidini). Zootaxa 4609 (1): 101-126, DOI: https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4609.1.4
FIGURE 5 in Vallissiana universitaria (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): a new genus and species of leaf-mining moth associated with Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae) in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil
Contributors: Pereira, Cristiano M., Arévalo-Maldonado, Helber A., Triberti, Paolo, Brito, Rosângela, Isaias, Rosy M. S., Gonçalves, Gislene L., Moreira, Gilson R. P.
... FIGURE 5. Morphology of V. universitaria sap-feeding larva (second instar): head, (A) dorsal (B) ventral, (C) lateral; (D) antenna in detail (indicated by rectangular area marked in A), dorsal; (E) mouthparts in detail (indicated by rectangular area marked in B), (asterisks indicate labial palpi and arrow points to spinneret), ventral; (F) spiracle on T1, lateral; prothoracic and mesothoracic segments, (G) dorsal, (H) ventral; (I) callus on T1 (indicated by square area marked in H), ventral. Scale bars: (A–C) 50, (D) 5, (E) 10, (F) 5, (G–H) 50 (I) 5 µm.
FIGURE 4. Calliostoma valkuri n in Calliostomatidae, Colloniidae, Margaritidae, and Solariellidae (Gastropoda: Trochoidea) collected by the Marion Dufresne (MD55) expedition in southeastern Brazil, with description of a new species of Calliostoma
Contributors: Cavallari, Daniel C., Salvador, Rodrigo B., Dornellas, Ana P. S., Simone, Luiz R. L.
... FIGURE 4. Calliostoma valkuri n. sp. Holotype MNHN-IM-2000-34300, sta. DC79 (H=4.1 mm, D=4.2 mm). A. apertural view. B. apical view. C. umbilical view. D. SEM, apertural. E. SEM, apical view. F. SEM, umbilical view. G. SEM, detail of spire. H. SEM, detail of apex showing the protoconch.