20 results for chip-seq drosophila
Contributors: Duffy, David J., Krstic, Aleksandar, Halasz, Melinda, Schwarzl, Thomas, Konietzny, Anja, Iljin, Kristiina, Higgins, Desmond G., Kolch, Walter
ChIP-seq) ... Background: Retinoid therapy is widely employed in clinical oncology to differentiate malignant cells into their more benign counterparts. However, certain high-risk cohorts, such as patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma, are innately resistant to retinoid therapy. Therefore, we employed a precision medicine approach to globally profile the retinoid signalling response and to determine how an excess of cellular MYCN antagonises these signalling events to prevent differentiation and confer resistance. Methods: We applied RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and interaction proteomics coupled with network-based systems level analysis to identify targetable vulnerabilities of MYCN-mediated retinoid resistance. We altered MYCN expression levels in a MYCN-inducible neuroblastoma cell line to facilitate or block retinoic acid (RA)-mediated neuronal differentiation. The relevance of differentially expressed genes and transcriptional regulators for neuroblastoma outcome were then confirmed using existing patient microarray datasets. Results: We determined the signalling networks through which RA mediates neuroblastoma differentiation and the inhibitory perturbations to these networks upon MYCN overexpression. We revealed opposing regulation of RA and MYCN on a number of differentiation-relevant genes, including LMO4, CYP26A1, ASCL1, RET, FZD7 and DKK1. Furthermore, we revealed a broad network of transcriptional regulators involved in regulating retinoid responsiveness, such as Neurotrophin, PI3K, Wnt and MAPK, and epigenetic signalling. Of these regulators, we functionally confirmed that MYCN-driven inhibition of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling is a vulnerable node of the MYCN network and that multiple levels of cross-talk exist between MYCN and TGF-β. Co-targeting of the retinoic acid and TGF-β pathways, through RA and kartogenin (KGN; a TGF-β signalling activating small molecule) combination treatment, induced the loss of viability of MYCN-amplified retinoid-resistant neuroblastoma cells. Conclusions: Our approach provides a powerful precision oncology tool for identifying the driving signalling networks for malignancies not primarily driven by somatic mutations, such as paediatric cancers. By applying global omics approaches to the signalling networks regulating neuroblastoma differentiation and stemness, we have determined the pathways involved in the MYCN-mediated retinoid resistance, with TGF-β signalling being a key regulator. These findings revealed a number of combination treatments likely to improve clinical response to retinoid therapy, including co-treatment with retinoids and KGN, which may prove valuable in the treatment of high-risk MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma.
Contributors: Maeda, Robert K., Karch, François
Drosophila third chromosome, the locus became known of as the bithorax...Drosophila ... After nearly 30 years of effort, Ed Lewis published his 1978 landmark paper in which he described the analysis of a series of mutations that affect the identity of the segments that form along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis of the fly (Lewis 1978). The mutations behaved in a non-canonical fashion in complementation tests, forming what Ed Lewis called a "pseudo-allelic" series. Because of this, he never thought that the mutations represented segment-specific genes. As all of these mutations were grouped to a particular area of the Drosophila third chromosome, the locus became known of as the bithorax complex (BX-C). One of the key findings of Lewis' article was that it revealed for the first time, to a wide scientific audience, that there was a remarkable correlation between the order of the segment-specific mutations along the chromosome and the order of the segments they affected along the AP axis. In Ed Lewis' eyes, the mutants he discovered affected "segment-specific functions" that were sequentially activated along the chromosome as one moves from anterior to posterior along the body axis (the colinearity concept now cited in elementary biology textbooks). The nature of the "segment-specific functions" started to become clear when the BX-C was cloned through the pioneering chromosomal walk initiated in the mid 1980s by the Hogness and Bender laboratories (Bender et al. 1983a; Karch et al. 1985). Through this molecular biology effort, and along with genetic characterizations performed by Gines Morata's group in Madrid (Sanchez-Herrero et al. 1985) and Robert Whittle's in Sussex (Tiong et al. 1985), it soon became clear that the whole BX-C encoded only three protein-coding genes (Ubx, abd-A, and Abd-B). Later, immunostaining against the Ubx protein hinted that the segment-specific functions could, in fact, be cis-regulatory elements regulating the expression of the three protein-coding genes. In 1987, Peifer, Karch, and Bender proposed a comprehensive model of the functioning of the BX-C, in which the "segment-specific functions" appear as segment-specific enhancers regulating, Ubx, abd-A, or Abd-B (Peifer et al. 1987). Key to their model was that the segmental address of these enhancers was not an inherent ability of the enhancers themselves, but was determined by the chromosomal location in which they lay. In their view, the sequential activation of the segment-specific functions resulted from the sequential opening of chromatin domains along the chromosome as one moves from anterior to posterior. This model soon became known of as the open for business model. While the open for business model is quite easy to visualize at a conceptual level, molecular evidence to validate this model has been missing for almost 30 years. The recent publication describing the outstanding, joint effort from the Bender and Kingston laboratories now provides the missing proof to support this model (Bowman et al. 2014). The purpose of this article is to review the open for business model and take the reader through the genetic arguments that led to its elaboration.
Contributors: Leung, Wilson, Marenco, Remi, Liu, Yating, Goecks, Jeremy, Elgin, Sarah C.R.
... G-OnRamp poster for the 2016 BD2K All Hands Meeting
Contributors: Deplancke, Bart
... This presentation was part of Day 5 of the Open Science in Practice Summer School #osip2017. Additional information can be found on osip2017.epfl.ch.
Contributors: Conesa, Ana, Madrigal, Pedro, Tarazona, Sonia, Gomez-Cabrero, David, Cervera, Alejandra, McPherson, Andrew, Szcześniak, Michał Wojciech, Gaffney, Daniel J., Elo, Laura L., Zhang, Xuegong
... RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has a wide variety of applications, but no single analysis pipeline can be used in all cases. We review all of the major steps in RNA-seq data analysis, including experimental design, quality control, read alignment, quantification of gene and transcript levels, visualization, differential gene expression, alternative splicing, functional analysis, gene fusion detection and eQTL mapping. We highlight the challenges associated with each step. We discuss the analysis of small RNAs and the integration of RNA-seq with other functional genomics techniques. Finally, we discuss the outlook for novel technologies that are changing the state of the art in transcriptomics.
Contributors: Moretti, Charlotte, Vaiman, Daniel, Tores, Frederic, Cocquet, Julie
ChIP-Seq datasets performed on mouse round spermatids and four RNA-seq ... Background: During meiosis, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced. The persistence of repressive chromatin marks on the sex chromatin after meiosis initially led to the assumption that XY gene silencing persists to some extent in spermatids. Considering the many reports of XY-linked genes expressed and needed in the post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis, it is still unclear whether or not the mouse sex chromatin is a repressive or permissive environment, after meiosis. Results: To determine the transcriptional and chromatin state of the sex chromosomes after meiosis, we re-analyzed ten ChIP-Seq datasets performed on mouse round spermatids and four RNA-seq datasets from male germ cells purified at different stages of spermatogenesis. For this, we used the last version of the genome (mm10/GRCm38) and included reads that map to several genomic locations in order to properly interpret the high proportion of sex chromosome-encoded multicopy genes. Our study shows that coverage of active epigenetic marks H3K4me3 and Kcr is similar on the sex chromosomes and on autosomes. The post-meiotic sex chromatin nevertheless differs from autosomal chromatin in its enrichment in H3K9me3 and its depletion in H3K27me3 and H4 acetylation. We also identified a posttranslational modification, H3K27ac, which specifically accumulates on the Y chromosome. In parallel, we found that the X and Y chromosomes are enriched in genes expressed post-meiotically and display a higher proportion of spermatid-specific genes compared to autosomes. Finally, we observed that portions of chromosome 14 and of the sex chromosomes share specific features, such as enrichment in H3K9me3 and the presence of multicopy genes that are specifically expressed in round spermatids, suggesting that parts of chromosome 14 are under the same evolutionary constraints than the sex chromosomes. Conclusions: Based on our expression and epigenomic studies, we conclude that, after meiosis, the mouse sex chromosomes are no longer silenced but are nevertheless regulated differently than autosomes and accumulate different chromatin marks. We propose that post-meiotic selective constraints are at the basis of the enrichment of spermatid-specific genes and of the peculiar chromatin composition of the sex chromosomes and of parts of chromosome 14.
Contributors: Menietti, Elena, Xu, Xiaoying, Ostano, Paola, Joseph, Jean-Marc, Lefort, Karine, Dotto, G Paolo
... CSL is a key transcriptional repressor and mediator of Notch signaling. Despite wide interest in CSL, mechanisms responsible for its own regulation are little studied. CSL down-modulation in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) leads to conversion into cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF), promoting keratinocyte tumors. We show here that CSL transcript levels differ among HDF strains from different individuals, with negative correlation with genes involved in DNA damage/repair. CSL expression is negatively regulated by stress/DNA damage caused by UVA, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), smoke extract, and doxorubicin treatment. P53, a key effector of the DNA damage response, negatively controls CSL gene transcription, through suppression of CSL promoter activity and, indirectly, by increased p21 expression. CSL was previously shown to bind p53 suppressing its activity. The present findings indicate that p53, in turn, decreases CSL expression, which can serve to enhance p53 activity in acute DNA damage response of cells.
Contributors: García-Molinero, Varinia, García-Martínez, José, Reja, Rohit, Furió-Tarí, Pedro, Antúnez, Oreto, Vinayachandran, Vinesh, Conesa, Ana, Pugh, B. Franklin, Pérez-Ortín, José E., Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana
... Background: Eukaryotic transcription is regulated through two complexes, the general transcription factor IID (TFIID) and the coactivator Spt–Ada–Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA). Recent findings confirm that both TFIID and SAGA contribute to the synthesis of nearly all transcripts and are recruited genome-wide in yeast. However, how this broad recruitment confers selectivity under specific conditions remains an open question.Results: Here we find that the SAGA/TREX-2 subunit Sus1 associates with upstream regulatory regions of many yeast genes and that heat shock drastically changes Sus1 binding. While Sus1 binding to TFIID-dominated genes is not affected by temperature, its recruitment to SAGA-dominated genes and RP genes is significantly disturbed under heat shock, with Sus1 relocated to environmental stress-responsive genes in these conditions. Moreover, in contrast to recent results showing that SAGA deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp8 is dispensable for RNA synthesis, genomic run-on experiments demonstrate that Sus1 contributes to synthesis and stability of a wide range of transcripts.Conclusions: Our study provides support for a model in which SAGA/TREX-2 factor Sus1 acts as a global transcriptional regulator in yeast but has differential activity at yeast genes as a function of their transcription rate or during stress conditions.
Multi-omic data integration and analysis using systems genomics approaches: methods and applications in animal production, health and welfare
Contributors: Suravajhala, Prashanth, Kogelman, Lisette J. A., Kadarmideen, Haja N.
... In the past years, there has been a remarkable development of high-throughput omics (HTO) technologies such as genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics across all facets of biology. This has spearheaded the progress of the systems biology era, including applications on animal production and health traits. However, notwithstanding these new HTO technologies, there remains an emerging challenge in data analysis. On the one hand, different HTO technologies judged on their own merit are appropriate for the identification of disease-causing genes, biomarkers for prevention and drug targets for the treatment of diseases and for individualized genomic predictions of performance or disease risks. On the other hand, integration of multi-omic data and joint modelling and analyses are very powerful and accurate to understand the systems biology of healthy and sustainable production of animals. We present an overview of current and emerging HTO technologies each with a focus on their applications in animal and veterinary sciences before introducing an integrative systems genomics framework for analysing and integrating multi-omic data towards improved animal production, health and welfare. We conclude that there are big challenges in multi-omic data integration, modelling and systems-level analyses, particularly with the fast emerging HTO technologies. We highlight existing and emerging systems genomics approaches and discuss how they contribute to our understanding of the biology of complex traits or diseases and holistic improvement of production performance, disease resistance and welfare.
Contributors: Zhou, Yue, Romero-Campero, Francisco J., Gómez-Zambrano, Ángeles, Turck, Franziska, Calonje, Myriam
... Background: Polycomb group complexes PRC1 and PRC2 repress gene expression at the chromatin level in eukaryotes. The classic recruitment model of Polycomb group complexes in which PRC2-mediated H3K27 trimethylation recruits PRC1 for H2A monoubiquitination was recently challenged by data showing that PRC1 activity can also recruit PRC2. However, the prevalence of these two mechanisms is unknown, especially in plants as H2AK121ub marks were examined at only a handful of Polycomb group targets. Results: By using genome-wide analyses, we show that H2AK121ub marks are surprisingly widespread in Arabidopsis thaliana, often co-localizing with H3K27me3 but also occupying a set of transcriptionally active genes devoid of H3K27me3. Furthermore, by profiling H2AK121ub and H3K27me3 marks in atbmi1a/b/c, clf/swn, and lhp1 mutants we found that PRC2 activity is not required for H2AK121ub marking at most genes. In contrast, loss of AtBMI1 function impacts the incorporation of H3K27me3 marks at most Polycomb group targets. Conclusions: Our findings show the relationship between H2AK121ub and H3K27me3 marks across the A. thaliana genome and unveil that ubiquitination by PRC1 is largely independent of PRC2 activity in plants, while the inverse is true for H3K27 trimethylation.