5 results for chip-seq drosophila
Contributors: Kok, Kurtulus, Ay, Ahmet, Li, Li M., Arnosti, David N.
Drosophila melanogaster...ChIP-Seq experiments were visualized as custom tracks using Integrative...Drosophila embryos. This long-range repressor mediates histone acetylation...Drosophila Genome Oligo Microarrays (Agilent). Slide image data was quantified ... Metazoan transcriptional repressors regulate chromatin through diverse histone modifications. Contributions of individual factors to the chromatin landscape in development is difficult to establish, as global surveys reflect multiple changes in regulators. Therefore, we studied the conserved Hairy/Enhancer of Split family repressor Hairy, analyzing histone marks and gene expression in Drosophila embryos. This long-range repressor mediates histone acetylation and methylation in large blocks, with highly context-specific effects on target genes. Most strikingly, Hairy exhibits biochemical activity on many loci that are uncoupled to changes in gene expression. Rather than representing inert binding sites, as suggested for many eukaryotic factors, many regions are targeted errantly by Hairy to modify the chromatin landscape. Our findings emphasize that identification of active cis-regulatory elements must extend beyond the survey of prototypical chromatin marks. We speculate that this errant activity may provide a path for creation of new regulatory elements, facilitating the evolution of novel transcriptional circuits.
Contributors: Duffy, David J., Krstic, Aleksandar, Halasz, Melinda, Schwarzl, Thomas, Konietzny, Anja, Iljin, Kristiina, Higgins, Desmond G., Kolch, Walter
ChIP-seq) ... Background: Retinoid therapy is widely employed in clinical oncology to differentiate malignant cells into their more benign counterparts. However, certain high-risk cohorts, such as patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma, are innately resistant to retinoid therapy. Therefore, we employed a precision medicine approach to globally profile the retinoid signalling response and to determine how an excess of cellular MYCN antagonises these signalling events to prevent differentiation and confer resistance. Methods: We applied RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and interaction proteomics coupled with network-based systems level analysis to identify targetable vulnerabilities of MYCN-mediated retinoid resistance. We altered MYCN expression levels in a MYCN-inducible neuroblastoma cell line to facilitate or block retinoic acid (RA)-mediated neuronal differentiation. The relevance of differentially expressed genes and transcriptional regulators for neuroblastoma outcome were then confirmed using existing patient microarray datasets. Results: We determined the signalling networks through which RA mediates neuroblastoma differentiation and the inhibitory perturbations to these networks upon MYCN overexpression. We revealed opposing regulation of RA and MYCN on a number of differentiation-relevant genes, including LMO4, CYP26A1, ASCL1, RET, FZD7 and DKK1. Furthermore, we revealed a broad network of transcriptional regulators involved in regulating retinoid responsiveness, such as Neurotrophin, PI3K, Wnt and MAPK, and epigenetic signalling. Of these regulators, we functionally confirmed that MYCN-driven inhibition of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling is a vulnerable node of the MYCN network and that multiple levels of cross-talk exist between MYCN and TGF-β. Co-targeting of the retinoic acid and TGF-β pathways, through RA and kartogenin (KGN; a TGF-β signalling activating small molecule) combination treatment, induced the loss of viability of MYCN-amplified retinoid-resistant neuroblastoma cells. Conclusions: Our approach provides a powerful precision oncology tool for identifying the driving signalling networks for malignancies not primarily driven by somatic mutations, such as paediatric cancers. By applying global omics approaches to the signalling networks regulating neuroblastoma differentiation and stemness, we have determined the pathways involved in the MYCN-mediated retinoid resistance, with TGF-β signalling being a key regulator. These findings revealed a number of combination treatments likely to improve clinical response to retinoid therapy, including co-treatment with retinoids and KGN, which may prove valuable in the treatment of high-risk MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma.
Genome-wide mapping of transcriptional enhancer candidates using DNA and chromatin features in maize
Contributors: Oka, Rurika, Zicola, Johan, Weber, Blaise, Anderson, Sarah N., Hodgman, Charlie, Gent, Jonathan I., Wesselink, Jan-Jaap, Springer, Nathan M., Hoefsloot, Huub C. J., Turck, Franziska
... Background: While most cells in multicellular organisms carry the same genetic information, in each cell type only a subset of genes is being transcribed. Such differentiation in gene expression depends, for a large part, on the activation and repression of regulatory sequences, including transcriptional enhancers. Transcriptional enhancers can be located tens of kilobases from their target genes, but display characteristic chromatin and DNA features, allowing their identification by genome-wide profiling. Here we show that integration of chromatin characteristics can be applied to predict distal enhancer candidates in Zea mays, thereby providing a basis for a better understanding of gene regulation in this important crop plant.Result: To predict transcriptional enhancers in the crop plant maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays), we integrated available genome-wide DNA methylation data with newly generated maps for chromatin accessibility and histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) enrichment in young seedling and husk tissue. Approximately 1500 intergenic regions, displaying low DNA methylation, high chromatin accessibility and H3K9ac enrichment, were classified as enhancer candidates. Based on their chromatin profiles, candidate sequences can be classified into four subcategories. Tissue-specificity of enhancer candidates is defined based on the tissues in which they are identified and putative target genes are assigned based on tissue-specific expression patterns of flanking genes.Conclusions: Our method identifies three previously identified distal enhancers in maize, validating the new set of enhancer candidates and enlarging the toolbox for the functional characterization of gene regulation in the highly repetitive maize genome.
Contributors: Alexander, John, Mantzaris, Dimitris, Georgitsi, Marianthi, Drineas, Petros, Paschou, Peristera
... Background: The increasing volume and complexity of high-throughput genomic data make analysis and prioritization of variants difficult for researchers with limited bioinformatics skills. Variant Ranker allows researchers to rank identified variants and determine the most confident variants for experimental validation.Results: We describe Variant Ranker, a user-friendly simple web-based tool for ranking, filtering and annotation of coding and non-coding variants. Variant Ranker facilitates the identification of causal variants based on novelty, effect and annotation information. The algorithm implements and aggregates multiple prediction algorithm scores, conservation scores, allelic frequencies, clinical information and additional open-source annotations using accessible databases via ANNOVAR. The available information for a variant is transformed into user-specified weights, which are in turn encoded into the ranking algorithm. Through its different modules, users can (i) rank a list of variants (ii) perform genotype filtering for case-control samples (iii) filter large amounts of high-throughput data based on user custom filter requirements and apply different models of inheritance (iv) perform downstream functional enrichment analysis through network visualization. Using networks, users can identify clusters of genes that belong to multiple ontology categories (like pathways, gene ontology, disease categories) and therefore expedite scientific discoveries. We demonstrate the utility of Variant Ranker to identify causal genes using real and synthetic datasets. Our results indicate that Variant Ranker exhibits excellent performance by correctly identifying and ranking the candidate genesConclusions: Variant Ranker is a freely available web server on http://paschou-lab.mbg.duth.gr/Software.html. This tool will enable users to prioritise potentially causal variants and is applicable to a wide range of sequencing data.
Contributors: Jessica Cox, Corey Harper
... This dataset contains 4 files: 1. A .csv containing 29,105 sentences from CC-BY papers that contain citations ("pygothamCleanDataset.csv"). 2. A community edition databricks notebook to process and explore the data as .dbc 3. A community edition databricks notebook to view in HTML. 3. Pygotham slides in PDF format.