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High-frequency gamma oscillations coexist with low-frequency gamma oscillations in the rat visual cortex in vitro.
Contributors: Martin Vreugdenhil, John G R Jefferys, Peter D Ward, Olaleke O Oke, Andor Magony, Himashi Anver, Premysl Jiruska
high-frequency gamma oscillations (fast-gamma; peak frequency approximately...oscillations generated in the deep layers. Fast-gamma was spatially less...low-frequency gamma oscillations (slow-gamma; peak frequency approximately...high-frequency gamma oscillations remain unknown. In rat visual cortex...high-frequency gamma oscillations. ... Synchronization of neuronal activity in the visual cortex at low (30-70 Hz) and high gamma band frequencies (> 70 Hz) has been associated with distinct visual processes, but mechanisms underlying high-frequency gamma oscillations remain unknown. In rat visual cortex slices, kainate and carbachol induce high-frequency gamma oscillations (fast-gamma; peak frequency approximately 80 Hz at 37 degrees C) that can coexist with low-frequency gamma oscillations (slow-gamma; peak frequency approximately 50 Hz at 37 degrees C) in the same column. Current-source density analysis showed that fast-gamma was associated with rhythmic current sink-source sequences in layer III and slow-gamma with rhythmic current sink-source sequences in layer V. Fast-gamma and slow-gamma were not phase-locked. Slow-gamma power fluctuations were unrelated to fast-gamma power fluctuations, but were modulated by the phase of theta (3-8 Hz) oscillations generated in the deep layers. Fast-gamma was spatially less coherent than slow-gamma. Fast-gamma and slow-gamma were dependent on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and gap-junctions, their frequencies were reduced by thiopental and were weakly dependent on cycle amplitude. Fast-gamma and slow-gamma power were differentially modulated by thiopental and adenosine A(1) receptor blockade, and their frequencies were differentially modulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, GluK1 subunit-containing receptors and persistent sodium currents. Our data indicate that fast-gamma and slow-gamma both depend on and are paced by recurrent inhibition, but have distinct pharmacological modulation profiles. The independent co-existence of fast-gamma and slow-gamma allows parallel processing of distinct aspects of vision and visual perception. The visual cortex slice provides a novel in vitro model to study cortical high-frequency gamma oscillations.
Contributors: Drausin Wulsin, Brian Litt, Allison Pearce, Justin A Blanco, Abba Krieger, William C Stacey
frequency events. These changes in relative rate occurred in pre- and ...High-frequency (100-500 Hz) oscillations (HFOs) recorded from intracranial...frequency events has also been identified. We hypothesize that temporal...high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in each time epoch for dispersion analysis ... High-frequency (100-500 Hz) oscillations (HFOs) recorded from intracranial electrodes are a potential biomarker for epileptogenic brain. HFOs are commonly categorized as ripples (100-250 Hz) or fast ripples (250-500 Hz), and a third class of mixed frequency events has also been identified. We hypothesize that temporal changes in HFOs may identify periods of increased the likelihood of seizure onset. HFOs (86,151) from five patients with neocortical epilepsy implanted with hybrid (micro + macro) intracranial electrodes were detected using a previously validated automated algorithm run over all channels of each patient's entire recording. HFOs were characterized by extracting quantitative morphologic features and divided into four time epochs (interictal, preictal, ictal, and postictal) and three HFO clusters (ripples, fast ripples, and mixed events). We used supervised classification and nonparametric statistical tests to explore quantitative changes in HFO features before, during, and after seizures. We also analyzed temporal changes in the rates and proportions of events from each HFO cluster during these periods. We observed patient-specific changes in HFO morphology linked to fluctuation in the relative rates of ripples, fast ripples, and mixed frequency events. These changes in relative rate occurred in pre- and postictal periods up to thirty min before and after seizures. We also found evidence that the distribution of HFOs during these different time periods varied greatly between individual patients. These results suggest that temporal analysis of HFO features has potential for designing custom seizure prediction algorithms and for exploring the relationship between HFOs and seizure generation.
Contributors: Raul C Mureşan, Vasile V Moca, Wolf Singer, Danko Nikolić
oscillation cycle duration; (ii) Stability of frequency and robustness...frequency even when inputs fluctuate dramatically. Enhanced frequency ...oscillations (20-80 Hz) are not completely understood. Here, we show that...oscillations having stable frequency....oscillations with large power and stable frequency via a mechanism called ... Neuronal mechanisms underlying beta/gamma oscillations (20-80 Hz) are not completely understood. Here, we show that in vivo beta/gamma oscillations in the cat visual cortex sometimes exhibit remarkably stable frequency even when inputs fluctuate dramatically. Enhanced frequency stability is associated with stronger oscillations measured in individual units and larger power in the local field potential. Simulations of neuronal circuitry demonstrate that membrane properties of inhibitory interneurons strongly determine the characteristics of emergent oscillations. Exploration of networks containing either integrator or resonator inhibitory interneurons revealed that: (i) Resonance, as opposed to integration, promotes robust oscillations with large power and stable frequency via a mechanism called RING (Resonance INduced Gamma); resonance favors synchronization by reducing phase delays between interneurons and imposes bounds on oscillation cycle duration; (ii) Stability of frequency and robustness of the oscillation also depend on the relative timing of excitatory and inhibitory volleys within the oscillation cycle; (iii) RING can reproduce characteristics of both Pyramidal INterneuron Gamma (PING) and INterneuron Gamma (ING), transcending such classifications; (iv) In RING, robust gamma oscillations are promoted by slow but are impaired by fast inputs. Results suggest that interneuronal membrane resonance can be an important ingredient for generation of robust gamma oscillations having stable frequency.
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Relationships between odor-elicited oscillations in the salamander olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb.
Contributors: J S Kauer, K M Dorries
oscillations are related to receptor neuron spiking....oscillations recorded at these two sites were matched in frequency and...oscillations of significantly different frequencies, and there was no ...oscillations is in parentheses. OE, olfactory epithelium; OB, olfactory...frequency was not affected. The frequency of the oscillation did vary ...oscillation frequencies. No change in the power or frequency of OE oscillations ... Oscillations in neuronal population activity, or the synchronous neuronal spiking that underlies them, are thought to play a functional role in sensory processing in the CNS. In the olfactory system, stimulus-induced oscillations are observed both in central processing areas and in the peripheral receptor epithelium. To examine the relationship between these peripheral and central oscillations, we recorded local field potentials simultaneously from the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). Stimulus-induced oscillations recorded at these two sites were matched in frequency and slowed concurrently over the time course of the response, suggesting that the oscillations share a common source or are modulated together. Both the power and duration of oscillations increased over a range of amyl acetate concentrations from 2.5 x 10(-2) to 1 x 10(-1) dilution of saturated vapor, but peak frequency was not affected. The frequency of the oscillation did vary with different odorant compounds in both olfactory epithelium and bulb (OE and OB): amyl acetate, ethyl fenchol and d-carvone elicited oscillations of significantly different frequencies, and there was no difference in OE and OB oscillation frequencies. No change in the power or frequency of OE oscillations was observed after sectioning the olfactory nerve, indicating that the OE oscillations have a peripheral source. Finally, application of 1.0 and 10 microM tetrodotoxin to the epithelium blocked OE oscillations in a dose-dependent and reversible manner, suggesting that peripheral olfactory oscillations are related to receptor neuron spiking.
Contributors: D Bozovic, K Arisaka, L Fredrickson, C E Strimbu, D Ramunno-Johnson
oscillations exhibited a peak period of 33 ms (+29 ms, -14 ms) and uniform...oscillations. We used a high-speed complementary metal oxide semiconductor...oscillating bundles per epithelium. We measured the statistical distribution...oscillation periods of cells from different areas within the sacculus, ... Under in vitro conditions, free-standing hair bundles of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) sacculus have exhibited spontaneous oscillations. We used a high-speed complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera to track the active movements of multiple hair cells in a single field of view. Our techniques enabled us to probe for correlations between pairs of cells, and to acquire records on over 100 actively oscillating bundles per epithelium. We measured the statistical distribution of oscillation periods of cells from different areas within the sacculus, and on different epithelia. Spontaneous oscillations exhibited a peak period of 33 ms (+29 ms, -14 ms) and uniform spatial distribution across the sacculus.
The membrane potential waveform of bursting pacemaker neurons is a predictor of their preferred frequency and the network cycle frequency.
Contributors: Farzan Nadim, Hua-an Tseng
frequency and thus the network oscillation frequency....oscillations changed the network frequency, consistent with the predictions...oscillation voltage range and waveforms (sine waves and realistic oscillation...frequency depends on the voltage range of the oscillating voltage waveform...frequency; and (3) correlations between parameters of the PD neuron oscillation ... Many oscillatory networks involve neurons that exhibit intrinsic rhythmicity but possess a large variety of voltage-gated currents that interact in a complex fashion, making it difficult to determine which factors control frequency. Yet these neurons often have preferred (resonance) frequencies that can be close to the network frequency. Because the preferred frequency results from the dynamics of ionic currents, it can be assumed to depend on parameters that determine the neuron's oscillatory waveform shape. The pyloric network frequency in the crab Cancer borealis is correlated with the preferred frequency of its bursting pacemaker neurons anterior burster and pyloric dilator (PD). We measured the preferred frequency of the PD neuron in voltage clamp, which allows control of the oscillation voltage range and waveforms (sine waves and realistic oscillation waveforms), and showed that (1) the preferred frequency depends on the voltage range of the oscillating voltage waveform; (2) the slope of the waveform near its peak has a strongly negative correlation with the preferred frequency; and (3) correlations between parameters of the PD neuron oscillation waveform and its preferred frequency can be used to predict shifts in the network frequency. As predicted by these results, dynamic clamp shifts of the upper or lower voltage limits of the PD neuron waveform during ongoing oscillations changed the network frequency, consistent with the predictions from the preferred frequency. These results show that the voltage waveform of oscillatory neurons can be predictive of their preferred frequency and thus the network oscillation frequency.
Theta-frequency resonance in hippocampal CA1 neurons in vitro demonstrated by sinusoidal current injection.
Contributors: L S Leung, H W Yu
oscillations changed most rapidly near the resonant frequency, and it ...oscillations. The sharpness of the resonance (Q), measured by the peak...frequency was about the same as the natural (spontaneous) oscillation frequency. However, in some cases, the resonant frequency was higher than...oscillation frequency, or resonance was found in the absence of spontaneous...frequency [impedance amplitude profile (ZAP) input]. The parameters evaluated ... Sinusoidal currents of various frequencies were injected into hippocampal CA1 neurons in vitro, and the membrane potential responses were analyzed by cross power spectral analysis. Sinusoidal currents induced a maximal (resonant) response at a theta frequency (3-10 Hz) in slightly depolarized neurons. As predicted by linear systems theory, the resonant frequency was about the same as the natural (spontaneous) oscillation frequency. However, in some cases, the resonant frequency was higher than the spontaneous oscillation frequency, or resonance was found in the absence of spontaneous oscillations. The sharpness of the resonance (Q), measured by the peak frequency divided by the half-peak power bandwidth, increased from a mean of 0.44 at rest to 0.83 during a mean depolarization of 6.5 mV. The phase of the driven oscillations changed most rapidly near the resonant frequency, and it shifted about 90 degrees over the half-peak bandwidth of 8.4 Hz. Similar results were found using a sinusoidal function of slowly changing frequency as the input. Sinusoidal currents of peak-to-peak intensity of >100 pA may evoke nonlinear responses characterized by second and higher harmonics. The theta-frequency resonance in hippocampal neurons in vitro suggests that the same voltage-dependent phenomenon may be important in enhancing a theta-frequency response when hippocampal neurons are driven by medial septal or other inputs in vivo.
Neocortical pathological high-frequency oscillations are associated with frequency-dependent alterations in functional network topology.
Contributors: Ryan Anderson, O Carter Snead, Sam M Doesburg, Elizabeth Donner, George M Ibrahim, James T Rutka, Ayako Ochi, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Gabrielle Singh-Cadieux, Hiroshi Otsubo
frequency and SOZ × frequency, contrast is delta band. ↵* Significance...high-frequency oscillation (>80 Hz) envelope amplitude. For frequency...frequency, contrast is delta band. ↵* Significance at P < 0.01, which...frequencies is absent at seizure termination....oscillations is thought to integrate distributed neural populations into...frequency ranges. Cortical regions involved in epileptic networks also...high-frequency oscillations (pHFOs, >80 Hz), which are increasingly utilized...frequencies (>30 Hz) during seizure initiation and propagation but not ... Synchronization of neural oscillations is thought to integrate distributed neural populations into functional cell assemblies. Epilepsy is widely regarded as a disorder of neural synchrony. Knowledge is scant, however, regarding whether ictal changes in synchrony involving epileptogenic cortex are expressed similarly across various frequency ranges. Cortical regions involved in epileptic networks also exhibit pathological high-frequency oscillations (pHFOs, >80 Hz), which are increasingly utilized as biomarkers of epileptogenic tissue. It is uncertain how pHFO amplitudes are related to epileptic network connectivity. By calculating phase-locking values among intracranial electrodes implanted in children with intractable epilepsy, we constructed ictal connectivity networks and performed graph theoretical analysis to characterize their network properties at distinct frequency bands. Ictal data from 17 children were analyzed with a hierarchical mixed-effects model adjusting for patient-level covariates. Epileptogenic cortex was defined in two ways: 1) a hypothesis-driven method using the visually defined seizure-onset zone and 2) a data-agnostic method using the high-frequency amplitude of each electrode. Epileptogenic cortex exhibited a logarithmic decrease in interregional functional connectivity at high frequencies (>30 Hz) during seizure initiation and propagation but not at termination. At slower frequencies, conversely, epileptogenic cortex expressed a relative increase in functional connectivity. Our findings suggest that pHFOs reflect epileptogenic network interactions, yielding theoretical support for their utility in the presurgical evaluation of intractable epilepsy. The view that abnormal network synchronization plays a critical role in ictogenesis and seizure dynamics is supported by the observation that functional isolation of epileptogenic cortex at high frequencies is absent at seizure termination.
Contributors: M F Schneider, Z Cseresnyés, A I Bustamante
frequency on these parameters...oscillation frequency to decrease in the model. 4. Transitions between...oscillation frequency was controlled by how rapidly the cytosolic [Ca2...oscillations decreased in frequency and exhibited three different amplitude...oscillations (SOs) (40-60 nM), or (c) a series of decaying oscillations...frequency decreases with both a 50% increase and 50% decrease in these...oscillations in these neurones. ... 1. Single cell fluorimetry was used to monitor caffeine-induced oscillations of cytosolic [Ca2+] in frog sympathetic ganglion neurones in 2.0 mM K+ Ringer solution. 2. [Ca2+] oscillations decreased in frequency and exhibited three different amplitude patterns after the first large peak of [Ca2+]: (a) a series of big oscillations (BOs) of constant large amplitude (300-400 nM), (b) a series of much smaller oscillations (SOs) (40-60 nM), or (c) a series of decaying oscillations (DOs) of rapidly decreasing amplitude. 3. A model in which the oscillation amplitude was determined by the Ca2+ content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whereas the oscillation frequency was controlled by how rapidly the cytosolic [Ca2+] reached the threshold for Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) was able to simulate each observed pattern by varying the level of activity of the ER Ca2+ pump (SERCA), CICR and release-activated Ca2+ transport (RACT). A cumulative, cytosolic Ca2+-dependent inactivation of the plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+ influx or of the Ca2+-sensitive leak coefficient of the ryanodine receptors caused the oscillation frequency to decrease in the model. 4. Transitions between BOs and SOs and changes in [Ca2+] oscillations caused by ryanodine, thapsigargin, lanthanum and FCCP could also be simulated. 5. We conclude that RACT, SERCA, CICR and Ca2+-dependent PM Ca2+ influx are major mechanisms underlying [Ca2+] oscillations in these neurones.
Interplay of intrinsic and synaptic conductances in the generation of high-frequency oscillations in interneuronal networks with irregular spiking.
Contributors: David B Grayden, Fabiano Baroni, Anthony N Burkitt
frequency of network oscillations; , mean phase coherence....oscillations in the emergence of collective high-frequency oscillations...frequency. We identify three factors that affect the influence of single-neuron...high-frequency oscillations. Certain classes of interneurons exhibit subthreshold...High-frequency oscillations (above 30 Hz) have been observed in sensory...oscillations, but the effect of this intrinsic neuronal property on the ... High-frequency oscillations (above 30 Hz) have been observed in sensory and higher-order brain areas, and are believed to constitute a general hallmark of functional neuronal activation. Fast inhibition in interneuronal networks has been suggested as a general mechanism for the generation of high-frequency oscillations. Certain classes of interneurons exhibit subthreshold oscillations, but the effect of this intrinsic neuronal property on the population rhythm is not completely understood. We study the influence of intrinsic damped subthreshold oscillations in the emergence of collective high-frequency oscillations, and elucidate the dynamical mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon. We simulate neuronal networks composed of either Integrate-and-Fire (IF) or Generalized Integrate-and-Fire (GIF) neurons. The IF model displays purely passive subthreshold dynamics, while the GIF model exhibits subthreshold damped oscillations. Individual neurons receive inhibitory synaptic currents mediated by spiking activity in their neighbors as well as noisy synaptic bombardment, and fire irregularly at a lower rate than population frequency. We identify three factors that affect the influence of single-neuron properties on synchronization mediated by inhibition: i) the firing rate response to the noisy background input, ii) the membrane potential distribution, and iii) the shape of Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potentials (IPSPs). For hyperpolarizing inhibition, the GIF IPSP profile (factor iii)) exhibits post-inhibitory rebound, which induces a coherent spike-mediated depolarization across cells that greatly facilitates synchronous oscillations. This effect dominates the network dynamics, hence GIF networks display stronger oscillations than IF networks. However, the restorative current in the GIF neuron lowers firing rates and narrows the membrane potential distribution (factors i) and ii), respectively), which tend to decrease synchrony. If inhibition is shunting instead of hyperpolarizing, post-inhibitory rebound is not elicited and factors i) and ii) dominate, yielding lower synchrony in GIF networks than in IF networks.