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  • Abstract Background Although lifestyle factors have been studied in relation to individual non-communicable diseases (NCDs), their association with development of a subsequent NCD, defined as multimorbidity, has been scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between five lifestyle factors and incident multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 291,778 participants (64% women) from seven European countries, mostly aged 43 to 58 years and free of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) at recruitment, were included. Incident multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases was defined as developing subsequently two diseases including first cancer at any site, CVD, and T2D in an individual. Multi-state modelling based on Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of developing cancer, CVD, or T2D, and subsequent transitions to multimorbidity, in relation to body mass index (BMI), smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and their combination as a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) score. Cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were estimated to compute 10-year absolute risks for transitions from healthy to cancer at any site, CVD (both fatal and non-fatal), or T2D, and to subsequent multimorbidity after each of the three NCDs. Results During a median follow-up of 11 years, 1910 men and 1334 women developed multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases. A higher HLI, reflecting healthy lifestyles, was strongly inversely associated with multimorbidity, with hazard ratios per 3-unit increment of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.81), 0.84 (0.79 to 0.90), and 0.82 (0.77 to 0.88) after cancer, CVD, and T2D, respectively. After T2D, the 10-year absolute risks of multimorbidity were 40% and 25% for men and women, respectively, with unhealthy lifestyle, and 30% and 18% for men and women with healthy lifestyles. Conclusion Pre-diagnostic healthy lifestyle behaviours were strongly inversely associated with the risk of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases, and with the prognosis of these diseases by reducing risk of multimorbidity.
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  • Purpose: To develop and psychometrically validate a questionnaire to measure patient distress with preoperative fasting related to cataract surgery. Methods: In this single-centered cross-sectional study, consecutive sampling of cataract patients was undertaken immediately preoperatively from February to December 2019. A questionnaire evaluating patient distress with fasting was designed and administered. Questionnaire development occurred in an iterative process and was conducted with consultation from expert investigators and patients. Validation and psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire were performed with Rasch analysis. Results: A preliminary version of the questionnaire was developed by 10 study investigators. Across five iterations of development, the questionnaire was administered to 186 cataract patients. Psychometric evaluation of the 13-item questionnaire demonstrated ordered thresholds, acceptable item calibration and fit, adequate internal consistency, ability to discriminate between three levels of distress from preoperative fasting and no notable differential item functioning. However, issues with mistargeting, clustering of items on the person-item map and multidimensionality remained. Given these concerns, 13 separate re-analyses were conducted via removal of certain items. A 6-item subset was determined to be well targeted, unidimensional, did not display item clustering and was able to discriminate between patients with high and low distress from preoperative fasting. Conclusion: A 6-item questionnaire is a valid, psychometrically robust and reliable measure for the assessment of patient distress with preoperative fasting in cataract surgery. Items include hunger, thirst, hoarseness, weakness, anxiety and nausea. Future studies should seek to validate this questionnaire across a variety of sociodemographic contexts, languages and specialties.
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  • Additional file 1: Figure S1. Provides the participant flow chart. Figure S2. Transitions to specific cancer and cardio-metabolic multimorbidity patterns. Figure S3. Results of subgroup analyses. Figure S4. CIFs for men and women of 55 years of age. Figure S5. Results of sensitivity analyses. Figure S6. Results for simplified HLI. Figure S7. CIFs for men and women of 55 years of age using the simplified HLI. and Figure S8. CIFs for men and women of 55 years of age for two groups of cancers. Table S1. Scoring of the healthy lifestyle index (HLI) and its simplified version.
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  • Abstract Many asylum seekers crossed European borders in an irregular manner during the last 2Â years and completed their asylum procedure with a negative decision. Based on the limited number of effective orders to leave, it may be argued that a majority of rejected asylum seekers are de-facto staying in the European Union. This paper aims to investigate the nexus between irregular migration and asylum. The analysis focuses on the case of Italy adopting a residual method. The amount of asylum seekers, who have the right of residence in Italy, is subtracted from the number of immigrants who entered Italian borders in an irregular manner from 2015 to 2017: the remainder amount provides an estimation of irregular immigrants generated by the failure of asylum procedure. A short-term migration scenario is settled for 2018 giving empirical-based insights to quantify irregular migrants who are likely to stay in Italy at the beginning of 2019.
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  • Workflow in the data collection by phase of asylum procedure from the arrival of immigrants to the second-instance decision (DOCX 341 kb)
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  • Objective: Angiogenin (ANG) is a pro-angiogenic and neurotrophic factor with an important role in stress-induced injury, by promoting neovascularization and neuronal survival. Identification of loss-of-function mutations and evidence of beneficial effect of ANG administration in transgenic SOD1G93A mice have linked ANG to the pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), stimulating interest in considering circulating ANG levels as an ALS disease biomarker although robust evidence is still lacking. Aim of our study was to assess differences of ANG levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a large cohort of patients with ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) compared to controls and to explore correlations between ANG content and disease-related clinical variables. Methods: ANG levels were measured in CSF samples using a commercially available ELISA kit in 88 patients affected with ALS and/or FTD and 46 unrelated individuals (control group). Results: ANG levels didn’t differ significantly between cases and controls. Patients with FTD or ALS-FTD showed significantly increased CSF concentration of ANG compared to ALS patients without dementia and controls in a multivariate regression model (p C9orf72 repeat expansion, body mass index (BMI). Conclusions: our findings highlight a role of ANG as CSF biomarker useful to identify ALS patients with concurrent FTD and suggest that it should be further explored as potential biomarker for FTD.
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  • Distribution of first line approach according to pharyngitis diagnosis. Pedianet, Italy, 2010–2015. (XLSX 9 kb)
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  • Background: Little is known about the comparative risk of death with atypical or conventional antipsychotics (APs) among persons with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease (CCD). Research design and methods: A cohort study was conducted using five Italian claims databases. New atypical AP users with CCD aged ≥65 (reference) were matched to new conventional AP users. Mortality per 100 person-years (PYs) and hazard ratios (HR), estimated using Cox models, were reported. Incidence and risk of death were estimated for persons having drug–drug interactions. Outcome occurrence was evaluated 180 days after AP initiation. Results: Overall 24,711 and 27,051 elderly new conventional and atypical AP users were identified. The mortality rate was 51.3 and 38.5 deaths per 100 PYs for conventional and atypical AP users. Mortality risk was 1.33 (95%CI: 1.27–1.39) for conventional APs. There was no increased mortality risk with single drug–drug interactions (DDIs) vs. no DDI. AP users with ≥1 DDI had a 29% higher mortality risk compared to no DDI in the first 90 days of treatment (HR: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.00–1.67)). Conclusions: Conventional APs had a higher risk of death than atypical APs among elderly persons with CCD. Having ≥1 DDI was associated with an increased risk of death.
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  • Abstract Background Maternal caffeine intake has repeatedly been linked to babies being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA babies are known to be at increased risk for adverse neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between prenatal caffeine exposure and neonatal health. Methods The study is based on 67,569 full-term singleton mother-infant pairs from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Caffeine consumption from different sources was self-reported in gestational week 22. Neonatal compound outcomes, namely (1) morbidity/mortality and (2) neonatal intervention, were created based on the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Adjusted logistic regression was performed. Results Caffeine exposure was associated to SGA (OR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.10; 1.23) and being born SGA was significantly associated with neonatal health (OR = 3.09, 95%CI: 2.54; 3.78 for morbidity/mortality; OR = 3.94, 95%CI: 3.50; 4.45 for intervention). However, prenatal caffeine exposure was neither associated with neonatal morbidity/mortality (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.96; 1.07) nor neonatal intervention (OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00; 1.05 for a 100 mg caffeine intake increase). Results did not change after additional adjustment for SGA status. Conclusions Moderate prenatal caffeine exposure (
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  • Additional file 1: Table S1. reports Type and distribution of events over time. Table S2. reports Prognostic factors of early (≤5 years) and late (> 5 years) DFS events in ILCs, univariate and multivariate analysis. Table S3. reports Prognostic factors of late (> 5 years) DFS in ILCs by lymph-node status. Table S4. reports Distribution of patient baseline characteristics according to intrinsic and histological subtype – matched groups. Table S5. reports Prognostic factors of early (≤ 5 years) and late (> 5 years) distant recurrences in IDCs and ILCs, univariable analysis. Table S6. reports the Likelihood ratio test p-value of the addition of HER2, ER, PgR and ln(Ki-67) variables to CTS5 considered as continuous variable. Figure S1. reports Flowchart for patient’s selection and matching
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