Published: 21 July 2021| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/48p667vkm9.1
Agnieszka Krzysztof-Świderska


The Questionnaire of Religious Insights (QRI) presented in this paper was constructed in order to challenge the current model of religious orientations, especially the Quest Scale, by providing insight into different kinds of motivation that can influence religious seeking. The QRI contains two scales: Doubt (D) and Quest (Q). The latter consists of three subscales: searching for the solution of dilemmas (Qsd), searching as the expansion of self (QI), and searching for novelty (Qn). Validation of the internal reliability of the QRI and external criteria analysis was examined within two exploratory studies, both conducted on a group of 120 Polish students. The results of the first study provided evidence for the internal reliability of QRI, as well as it’s criterion validity with use of Religious Orientation Scales. The results of the second study in turn suggested that most of the external validity criteria have been met. In conclusion, the proposed model of exploring motivation factors that may influence religious questing is a topic worth pursuing. we propose studies that can follow this exploratory study, that can be undertaken on larger and demographically more diverse samples.


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Study 1 The Questionnaire of Religious Insights (QRI) - a new scale of measuring religious questing. It contains two scales: Doubt and Quest orientation. Doubt Scale included four items concerning doubts. Quest Scale includes 21 items and contains three subscales: Qsd - seeking a solution to religious and existential dilemmas (eight items); QI - searching as an „expansion of self”, motivated by a need to maintain a high level of self-esteem (seven items) and Qn - searching for novelty, motivated by the need for external stimuli (five items). Response format was a classical five-level Likert item: (1) strongly disagree, (2) disagree, (3) neither agree nor disagree, (4) agree, (5) strongly agree. The original version by Stępień-Nycz (2006) has been modified and supplemented by the entire research team. Study II The Questionnaire of Religious Insights (QRI) - a new scale of measuring religious questing and doubt Depression measured with Beck Depression Inventory (1961). To measure different kinds of narcissism, propose in the project “Toward Circumplex Model of Narcissism” by Żemojtel-Piotrowska and colleagues (2018): grandiose - The Narcissistic Personality Inventory–13 (Gentile, Miller et al., 2013), communal - Communal Narcissism Inventory (Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Czarna, et al., 2015), and vulnerable - Vulnerable Isolation and Enmity Concept Scale (Rogoza, Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2018). NPI13 is a brief self-report measure of narcissistic traits of personality, according to those explicated by Ackermann: leadership/authority (LA), grandiose exhibitionism (GE), and entitlement/exploitativeness (EE) (Gentile, Miller et al., 2013, p. 3). CNI was created to examine a communal model of narcissism, broadly defined as a grandiose self-view in the communal domain proposed by Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken, and Maio (2012). The scale includes 16 items: eight are related to the present, seven refer to the future and one is conditional, referring to the present or the future (Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Czarna, et al., 2015). VIEC Scale is a short self-report tool to measure a tendency to protect fragile self via isolation and enmity (Rogoza, Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2018). Epistemic motivation Epistemic motivation was measured with the shortened version of the Need For Closure Scale as it’s opposite (Kossowska, Hanusz, & Trejtowicz, 2014). Sensation seeking was measured with shortened Sensation Seeking Scale (Zuckermann, 1994). Crucial is to adjust the scales in particular measures.