Environmental Modelling of Surface Water Quality of Meshwo River using AQUATOX Simulation Model: A Case Study of Polluted Rivers Stretches (PRS), Eastern Gujarat, India
There are 14 major rivers, 44 medium rivers and 53 small rivers in India, the seat for setup of big cities and their educational, political and regional developments. Gujarat State is profusely endowed with number of perennial rivers such as Narmada, Tapi, Mahi and Sabarmati, used by people as a source of water to dispose sewage and industrial effluents, altering quality and ecology of water bodies, brings new challenges to water resource managers and aquatic ecologists. Gujarat is one of the leading largest industrial states of country, known for textile industries and engineering units, which produce chemicals, fertilizers, dyes, fibers, polymers, drugs, catalysts etc. These industries are major contributors to air, water and soil pollution at a greater extent. Urban cities located along riverbanks cause significant negative impacts on water quality owing to unrestrained garbage dumping and discharge of untreated or partially treated effluents from adjacent industries. As a consequence, proximate rivers are getting deteriorated day by day. Looking into an urgent need of an hour, the present study was aimed to assess surface water quality from March 2014 to September 2014 with a view to predict hydro-chemical parameters for subsequent five years (2015-2019) using AQUATOX Simulation Model (EPA, Release 3.1) at Meshwo River, Eastern Gujarat, India. For analysis of hydro-chemical parameters, surface water samples were collected from five permanent sampling stations (Upper Stream: Meshwo Dam; Non-Control Point: Palundra; Middle Steam: Ranasan; Control Point: Tintoi; Down Stream: Sankhej) during Pre-Monsoon (March & April) and Post Monsoon (August & September) periods. Physico-chemical parameters such as NH3 NH4+, NO3, Total Soluble P (TSP), Oxygen, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Temperature & pH, were analyzed using APHA (2012). Based on Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) Score, pollution gradient at Meshwo River was assessed (NCP>DS>MS>US>CP) as ‘Poor and More Polluted or Impacted’ River. In case of NH3-NH4+, mean concentration (0.11719), mean difference (0.584492454559193), and mean % increase (99.94879388) was observed from 2015 to 2019, that of NO3, mean concentration (2.38290), mean difference (9.092518889), and mean % increase (93.8520883), that of TSP, mean concentration (1.57959), mean difference (0.289381964), and mean % decrease (-1.774773598), that of Oxygen, mean concentration (7.87717), mean difference (1.5621809), and mean % decrease (-0.175503007), that of TSS, mean concentration (272.66823), mean difference (54.55582455), and mean % increase (0.008472571), that of Temperature, mean degree of centigrade (25.68632), mean difference (5.137075949), and mean % decrease (-0.000764871), and that of pH, mean content (7.71784), mean difference (1.543567898), and mean % increase (3.08613E-06) was observed. Further research is warranted for abatement of aquatic pollution for prevailing hydrological and biotic regime in PRS, India.