Contributors: Mbow, Cheikh; Neufeldt, Henry; Ouedraogo, Issa; Toure, Ibrahim
... The Building Biocarbon and Rural Development in West Africa Programme aims to demonstrate the multiple developmental and environmental wins that result from a high value biocarbon approach to climate change and variability in large landscapes principally in Mali, Sierra Leone and Guinea. The Programme will also build local institutions and capacity to be able to sustain the benefits in the sites and will establish linkages with related initiatives to jointly build national and regional capacity to scale up the approaches into other programmes and projects. The themes of the Programme are very closely linked to Finland's international development priorities and are closely aligned with the priorities expressed in its national poverty reduction and climate change adaptation strategies. Furthermore, the Programme aims to generate critical information that can fill the global knowledge gaps on how to better link climate change mitigation and adaptation thrusts and how to make these actions work effectively to enhance the livelihoods of rural communities. (2015)
Kenya (2013-2014): Insights into Packaging and Labeling for HIV Oral Self-Test Kits in Kenya. Round 1
Contributors: PSI, Kenya, PSI, Kenya
... BACKGROUND HIV continues to be a public health concern in Kenya. Out of an estimated 40 million people the national HIV prevalence among adults aged 15-64 years was 7% as of 2007 representing an estimated 1.4 million people living with HIV (Republic of Kenya 2009). According to the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) and Demographic Health Surveys (DHS), significant differences in HIV prevalence occur throughout the population and geographic locations. Women are at a greater risk (8.4%) than men (5.4%), and there is a greater than 15-fold variation in HIV prevalence among provinces, ranging from 1% in North Eastern province to 15.3% in Nyanza province (KNBS and ICF Macro 2010; National AIDS Control Council [NACC] 2009a; Republic of Kenya 2009). Despite wider provision of HIV testing services, and a high level of knowledge about HIV testing (95% of adults and 88% of youth know where to get an HIV test) (KDHS 2008-9), only 72% of adult Kenyans report having ever tested for HIV and received their results (KAIS, 2012). STUDY RATIONALE Oral HIV self-testing presents an opportunity to increase testing coverage by addressing barriers to HIV testing in VCT and facility based testing (i.e. limited access to VCT centers and hours of testing, HIV-related stigma and discrimination). Population Services International, Kenya (PSI) was awarded by the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie) and the National AIDS and STI Control Programme (NASCOP) to conduct a formative study on potential HIV oral self-test kit users, and messaging for HIV oral self-test kits. The purpose of this study was to identify willingness to use oral self-test kits, and factors associated with the potential adoption and use of oral HIV self-testing kits to inform future HIV self-testing pilot progr ams. The objectives are to determine likely users of oral HIV self-test kits, incentives to use a self-test kit, and identify key messages and approaches that could increase demand for the kits. The evidence from this study will inform the design and implementation of oral HIV self-testing pilot projects throughout Kenya; and national policy regarding the availability, cost/subsidies, quality control and procurement. METHODOLOGY This mixed-method study was conducted between November and December 2013 in two provinces/counties of Siaya (rural) and Mombasa (urban). The study population included 782 sexually active men and women aged 18 to 49 from the general population (GP); 100 men who have sex with men (MSM), and 100 female sex workers (FSW).
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Nicaragua (2006): Estudio linea de base sobre el uso de anticonceptivos entre mujeres en edad reproductiva.
Contributors: Susana Lungo, Giovanni Melendez
... Como parte de los esfuerzos que PASMO realiza en los diferentes paises de Centroamarica se ha identificado la necesidad de atender el tema de la planificacion familiar en Nicaragua, la embajada de los paises bajos ha apoyado esta nueva iniciativa que pretende incrementar y facilitar el acceso a anticonceptivos a las poblaciones de escasos recursos en este pais. El principal objetivo del estudio es establecer los parametros que permitan iniciar las acciones para el lanzamiento de una nueva marca social de anticonceptivos hormonales entre las mujeres en edad reproductiva en Nicaragua.
Papua New Guinea (2009): FoQus to Develop Communications to Support Delivery of ACT/RDTs/LLINs for Global Fund Round 8
Contributors: Cynde Robinson, Esther Saville
... This study aims to gather data useful for designing the following eight elements of the concept for communications campaigns to improve correct and consistent usage of ACTs/RDTs and LLINs aimed at caregivers and heads of households with children from age zero up to four years, pregnant women as well as the general population. Health providers will also be a target audience given their key role in case management of Malaria.
Somaliland (2013): FoQus: Understanding how to effectively communicate to married Somali men on maternal health issues
Contributors: Qodax, Aden
... PSI/Somaliland is planning to implement activities targeting males with the aim of increasing their involvement in maternal health as they constitute an important asset in efforts to improve women's health. As such, this study was conducted to explore men's perceptions, understanding and behavior with regard to maternal health and how to best involve them in maternal health programs. The results will be used to develop a communication program targeting married Somali men.Between November 2012 and January 2013, PSI Somaliland conducted a qualitative study to gather information on men's knowledge and perceptions of and involvement in safe motherhood activities and the best way to communicate with them. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were chosen as many men may feel self-conscious discussing maternal health in front of other men. A survey guide from the staff of the local health facilities and PSI Community Health Promoters (CHPs) helped recruit men based on eligibility criteria.Interviews covered men's involvement with safe motherhood, including antenatal and postnatal care, facility delivery, and birth spacing.
Tanzania (2010): FoQus for Qualitative Segmentation Study Identifying Drivers of Use of Oral Contraceptives among Women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Contributors: James Kajuna, Amy Ellis
... This study aims to gather information useful for designing the following five elements of the concept for use of OCs, campaign and message personality, the position, and the marketing strategy. Specifically, the study objectives are to: a. Identify beliefs to reinforce and beliefs to change related to use of OCs b. Build one or more character archetypes c. Identify current strategies used to behave, either by the target audience members themselves or positive deviants d. Understand current brand perceptions of Familia and Flexi-P OCs e. Describe target audience members opportunity, ability, and motivation to process family planning communications Between August 2010 and September 2010 PSI/Tanzania and T-MARC will conduct a FoQus on Segmentation study to gather information on factors related to use of OCs among women in Dar es Salaam. A variety of qualitative methods will be used to collect information on this research topic, includi ng spoken narratives, photo narratives and collages. Spoken narratives have been chosen for the rich textual data that emerges when study participants are given an opportunity to share their personal stories. Similarly, photo narratives allow study participants to describe their experiences both verbally and visually, presenting another means by which to understand their lives. Collages will be used to gain insight into how study participants conceptualize family planning and the sorts of people and family that do and don'ÃÂÃÂt use it. These methods allow researchers (and marketers) to make an emotional connection with the target audience and help create a picture of the ÃÂÃÂtypicalÃÂÃÂ experience. Storytelling is a fundamental human way of relaying information, so data collection feels ÃÂÃÂnatural to both moderators and participants. This study will be conducted among WRA aged 20-44 which will include unmarried women who are looking for a back up family planning method, recently married women who want to delay their first birth and women who already have children and are looking for a flexible spacing method. Furthermore, they must be permanent residents of Dar es Salaam. They must not have any previous experience with PSI or T-MARC and be willing to participate in the research.
South Sudan (2011): MAP study evaluating coverage and quality of coverage of water treatment and condoms in outlets in Juba, Yei, Wau, Kaya, and Morobo of South Sudan
Contributors: Dale, Martin
... This MAP study has three objectives. Firstly, the study assesses the geographical coverage and quality of coverage of Number One, WaterGuard and PUR in the private sector across the towns of Juba, Wau, Yei, Morobo and Kaya . Secondly, the study estimates measures of penetration and coverage of non-PSI male condoms and commercial sector water treatment products, which enables PSI South Sudan to benchmark the performance of its products. Thirdly, the study estimates the availability of oral rehydration salts, anti-malarial treatments, mosquito nets and contraceptives with a view to assessing the potential market for future products and the affects that current PSI programs have on local markets.
Thailand (2005): HIV/AIDS TRaC Study among Injecting Drug Users in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, and Chiang Rai First Round
Contributors: Montira Inkochasan, John Hetherington
... Tracking surveys serve as tools to inform programming by routinely collecting data from cross-sections of populations at risk for HIV/AIDS and other adverse health outcomes. This survey among injecting drug users (IDUs) aimed to: 1) identify and describe segments of the population in terms of needle sharing at last injection; 2) understand the needle sharing behaviors of IDUs; 3) explore the sexual behaviors and condom use of IDUs; and 4) apply study findings to interventions designed for reducing the risk of HIV transmission from needle sharing among IDUs. Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) was used to collect data among 339 IDUs aged 15 to 45 who live or work in urban areas in Bangkok, Muang Chiang Mai District, and Muang Chiang Rai District. A screening questionnaire and main questionnaire served as survey tools. The questionnaire collected information on background characteristics, opinions about needle-sharing practices, personal drug use and sharing practices, beliefs and knowledge about HIV infection, sexual practices and condom use, and exposure to PSI products and services. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify significant factors associated with needle sharing. Simple frequencies were run on descriptive data to permit monitoring of project indicators.
Vietnam (2005): Fear, Shame, and Peace of Mind, Motivations and Barriers to VCT Utilization among Most at Risk Populations in Vietnam
Contributors: PSI research
... By conducting this qualitative research, PSI explores attitudes and behaviors relating to demand for VCT use among MARP. The overall objective of this research is to gain an in-depth understanding of the use and non-use of VCT services in Vietnam among three key target groups: Injecting Drug Users, Sex Workers, and their sexual partners. Through this research, PSI hopes to understand motivational triggers, perceived barriers, and perceived benefits as they relate to demand for HIV testing and counseling among key target groups. In addition, this study explores VCT users' past experiences with HIV counseling and testing to obtain insight into the benefits of knowing HIV status, as well as barriers to past testing in order to improve VCT services.\The study employed a qualitative approach, using two main data collection techniques: in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs). Fifteen in-depth interviews and sixteen FGDs were carried out focusing on three main target groups: male IDUs, female partners of male IDUs, and female sex workers. Female sex workers were further divided into two categories: Direct, or street-based sex workers, and indirect, or karaoke-based sex workers. Each FGD consisted of 6-8 participants and in total, 135 of participants took part in the study.