Contributors: Mbow, Cheikh; Neufeldt, Henry; Ouedraogo, Issa; Toure, Ibrahim
... The Building Biocarbon and Rural Development in West Africa Programme aims to demonstrate the multiple developmental and environmental wins that result from a high value biocarbon approach to climate change and variability in large landscapes principally in Mali, Sierra Leone and Guinea. The Programme will also build local institutions and capacity to be able to sustain the benefits in the sites and will establish linkages with related initiatives to jointly build national and regional capacity to scale up the approaches into other programmes and projects. The themes of the Programme are very closely linked to Finland's international development priorities and are closely aligned with the priorities expressed in its national poverty reduction and climate change adaptation strategies. Furthermore, the Programme aims to generate critical information that can fill the global knowledge gaps on how to better link climate change mitigation and adaptation thrusts and how to make these actions work effectively to enhance the livelihoods of rural communities. (2015)
Kenya (2013-2014): Insights into Packaging and Labeling for HIV Oral Self-Test Kits in Kenya. Round 1
Contributors: PSI, Kenya, PSI, Kenya
... BACKGROUND HIV continues to be a public health concern in Kenya. Out of an estimated 40 million people the national HIV prevalence among adults aged 15-64 years was 7% as of 2007 representing an estimated 1.4 million people living with HIV (Republic of Kenya 2009). According to the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) and Demographic Health Surveys (DHS), significant differences in HIV prevalence occur throughout the population and geographic locations. Women are at a greater risk (8.4%) than men (5.4%), and there is a greater than 15-fold variation in HIV prevalence among provinces, ranging from 1% in North Eastern province to 15.3% in Nyanza province (KNBS and ICF Macro 2010; National AIDS Control Council [NACC] 2009a; Republic of Kenya 2009). Despite wider provision of HIV testing services, and a high level of knowledge about HIV testing (95% of adults and 88% of youth know where to get an HIV test) (KDHS 2008-9), only 72% of adult Kenyans report having ever tested for HIV and received their results (KAIS, 2012). STUDY RATIONALE Oral HIV self-testing presents an opportunity to increase testing coverage by addressing barriers to HIV testing in VCT and facility based testing (i.e. limited access to VCT centers and hours of testing, HIV-related stigma and discrimination). Population Services International, Kenya (PSI) was awarded by the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie) and the National AIDS and STI Control Programme (NASCOP) to conduct a formative study on potential HIV oral self-test kit users, and messaging for HIV oral self-test kits. The purpose of this study was to identify willingness to use oral self-test kits, and factors associated with the potential adoption and use of oral HIV self-testing kits to inform future HIV self-testing pilot progr ams. The objectives are to determine likely users of oral HIV self-test kits, incentives to use a self-test kit, and identify key messages and approaches that could increase demand for the kits. The evidence from this study will inform the design and implementation of oral HIV self-testing pilot projects throughout Kenya; and national policy regarding the availability, cost/subsidies, quality control and procurement. METHODOLOGY This mixed-method study was conducted between November and December 2013 in two provinces/counties of Siaya (rural) and Mombasa (urban). The study population included 782 sexually active men and women aged 18 to 49 from the general population (GP); 100 men who have sex with men (MSM), and 100 female sex workers (FSW).
... Historic company records. Created annually from Infogroup’s U.S. Business Database; a snapshot of the data is saved each December. Contains company name, mailing address, SIC and NAICS codes, employee size, sales volume, latitude/longitude, and many more variables about each company.
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Nicaragua (2006): Estudio linea de base sobre el uso de anticonceptivos entre mujeres en edad reproductiva.
Contributors: Susana Lungo, Giovanni Melendez
... Como parte de los esfuerzos que PASMO realiza en los diferentes paises de Centroamarica se ha identificado la necesidad de atender el tema de la planificacion familiar en Nicaragua, la embajada de los paises bajos ha apoyado esta nueva iniciativa que pretende incrementar y facilitar el acceso a anticonceptivos a las poblaciones de escasos recursos en este pais. El principal objetivo del estudio es establecer los parametros que permitan iniciar las acciones para el lanzamiento de una nueva marca social de anticonceptivos hormonales entre las mujeres en edad reproductiva en Nicaragua.
Papua New Guinea (2009): FoQus to Develop Communications to Support Delivery of ACT/RDTs/LLINs for Global Fund Round 8
Contributors: Cynde Robinson, Esther Saville
... This study aims to gather data useful for designing the following eight elements of the concept for communications campaigns to improve correct and consistent usage of ACTs/RDTs and LLINs aimed at caregivers and heads of households with children from age zero up to four years, pregnant women as well as the general population. Health providers will also be a target audience given their key role in case management of Malaria.
Tanzania (2010): FoQus for Qualitative Segmentation Study Identifying Drivers of Use of Oral Contraceptives among Women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Contributors: James Kajuna, Amy Ellis
... This study aims to gather information useful for designing the following five elements of the concept for use of OCs, campaign and message personality, the position, and the marketing strategy. Specifically, the study objectives are to: a. Identify beliefs to reinforce and beliefs to change related to use of OCs b. Build one or more character archetypes c. Identify current strategies used to behave, either by the target audience members themselves or positive deviants d. Understand current brand perceptions of Familia and Flexi-P OCs e. Describe target audience members opportunity, ability, and motivation to process family planning communications Between August 2010 and September 2010 PSI/Tanzania and T-MARC will conduct a FoQus on Segmentation study to gather information on factors related to use of OCs among women in Dar es Salaam. A variety of qualitative methods will be used to collect information on this research topic, includi ng spoken narratives, photo narratives and collages. Spoken narratives have been chosen for the rich textual data that emerges when study participants are given an opportunity to share their personal stories. Similarly, photo narratives allow study participants to describe their experiences both verbally and visually, presenting another means by which to understand their lives. Collages will be used to gain insight into how study participants conceptualize family planning and the sorts of people and family that do and don'ÃÂÃÂt use it. These methods allow researchers (and marketers) to make an emotional connection with the target audience and help create a picture of the ÃÂÃÂtypicalÃÂÃÂ experience. Storytelling is a fundamental human way of relaying information, so data collection feels ÃÂÃÂnatural to both moderators and participants. This study will be conducted among WRA aged 20-44 which will include unmarried women who are looking for a back up family planning method, recently married women who want to delay their first birth and women who already have children and are looking for a flexible spacing method. Furthermore, they must be permanent residents of Dar es Salaam. They must not have any previous experience with PSI or T-MARC and be willing to participate in the research.
Thailand (2005): HIV/AIDS TRaC Study among Injecting Drug Users in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, and Chiang Rai First Round
Contributors: Montira Inkochasan, John Hetherington
... Tracking surveys serve as tools to inform programming by routinely collecting data from cross-sections of populations at risk for HIV/AIDS and other adverse health outcomes. This survey among injecting drug users (IDUs) aimed to: 1) identify and describe segments of the population in terms of needle sharing at last injection; 2) understand the needle sharing behaviors of IDUs; 3) explore the sexual behaviors and condom use of IDUs; and 4) apply study findings to interventions designed for reducing the risk of HIV transmission from needle sharing among IDUs. Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) was used to collect data among 339 IDUs aged 15 to 45 who live or work in urban areas in Bangkok, Muang Chiang Mai District, and Muang Chiang Rai District. A screening questionnaire and main questionnaire served as survey tools. The questionnaire collected information on background characteristics, opinions about needle-sharing practices, personal drug use and sharing practices, beliefs and knowledge about HIV infection, sexual practices and condom use, and exposure to PSI products and services. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify significant factors associated with needle sharing. Simple frequencies were run on descriptive data to permit monitoring of project indicators.
Vietnam (2005): HIV/AIDS TRaC Study among Injecting Drug Users in Mong Cai, Uong Bi, and Thai Nguyen City First Round
Contributors: Chris Jones, Chris Jones
... Tracking surveys serve as tools to inform programming by routinely collecting data from cross-sections of populations at risk for HIV/AIDS and other adverse health outcomes. This survey among injecting drug users (IDUs) aimed to: 1) identify and describe segments of the population in terms of needle sharing in the three months prior to the survey; 2) understand the needle sharing behaviors of IDUs; 3) explore the sexual behaviors and condom use of IDUs; and 4) apply study findings to interventions designed for reducing the risk of HIV transmission among IDUs. Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) was used to recruit 417 male IDUs aged 15 to 45 who live in Uong Bi and Mong Cai towns in Quang Ninh province and Thai Nguyen City in Thai Nguyen province. A screening questionnaire and main questionnaire were the survey instruments. The questionnaire collected information on socio-demographic characteristics, drug use and needle sharing behaviors, opinions about needle-sharing practices, beliefs and knowledge about HIV infection, sexual activity and condom use, and exposure to harm reduction and VCT services. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify significant factors associated with needle sharing and condom use. Simple frequencies and means were run on descriptive data to permit monitoring of project indicators.
Zimbabwe (2013): TRaC Study Evaluating Knowledge on Hygiene Promotion, Point-of-use Water Treatment and Malaria Prevention Behaviors amongst Population Aged 15 - 59 years, in Zimbabwe, Round .
Contributors: Jasi, Phineas, Dodzo, Munyaradzi, Mapingure Munyaradzi,, Taruberekera, Noah
... PSI/Z conducted a cross sectional population based survey in (February and March 2013). Male and female respondents aged 15-49 years were randomly sampled from households in both urban and rural areas. The study sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly selected using probability proportionate to size. EAs are geographic areas used for sampling purposes. In the second stage, household s within the selected EAs were selected using simple random sampling. In households where more than one eligible respondent was available, a respondent was randomly selected using the Kish grid method. The objective of the study was to evaluating knowledge on hygiene promotion, point-of-use water treatment and malaria prevention behaviors. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 21.0 and results are presented in PSI Dashboard format. The analysis involved descriptive statistics for key program indicators, logistic regression and or univariate analysis of variance (UNIANOVA) to examine trends over time, to ascertain which scale items are correlated with key behaviors and to examine the association between program exposure and changes in behaviors and their correlates. Socio-demographic characteristics were controlled for in the subsequent analyses.
Central America (2012): Study Evaluating the Com-Prevention Program with People Living with HIV/AIDS, Round 1
Contributors: Rivas, Jorge, Andrade, Benjamin
... Entre los mese de Septiembre a Diciembre PASMO/PSI realizo una encuesta TRaC en cinco paises de la region Centroamericana, entre personas que viven con VIH (PCV). Dicha encuesta aborda temas de VIH/SIDA, comportamientos de riesgo y determinantes de uso del condon. La encuesta es la primera de este tipo y busca: 1) Establecer una linea de base sobre las prevalencias de uso de condon y monitorear las tendencias en el comportamiento y otros determinantes claves de Oportunidad, Habilidad y Motivacion (OHM) entre PCV; 2) Identificar los factores que caracterizan a las PCV que usan condones con cualquier tipo de pareja. El estudio se llevo a cabo en Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panama.