Contributors: Webb, Emily, Mpairwe, Harriet
... Dataset produced as part of a case-control study to investigate asthma risk factors among schoolchildren in urban Uganda. Each row represents one child. Variables include data on case-control status and risk factors (parental, early-life and current).
Comparison of knowledge of HIV status and treatment coverage between non-citizens and citizens: Botswana Combination Prevention Project (BCPP)
Contributors: Marukutira, Tafireyi, Block, Lisa, Alwano, Mary Grace, Behel, Stephanie, Jarvis, Joseph, Chakalisa, Unoda, Powis, Kate, Novitsky, Vladimir, Bapati, William, Wang, Huisheng
... on-citizens often face barriers to HIV care and treatment. Quantifying knowledge of positive HIV status and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage among non-citizens in a high HIV-prevalence country like Botswana that is close to achieving UNAIDS “90-90-90” targets may expose important gaps in achieving universal HIV testing and treatment.
Shortening duration of ertapenem in outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy for complicated urinary tract infections: A retrospective study
Contributors: Fink, Doug L, Collins, Steven, Barret, Ronnie, Pollara, Gabriele, Marks, Michael, Logan, Sarah
... The incidence of multi-drug resistant ESBL-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) is increasing globally. Patients with abnormal renal tract anatomy and other co-morbidities are at increased risk of complicated UTI and ESBL-associated infections. The duration and safety of OPAT for this cohort of patients is unknown.
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Observation notes for: "Selecting behaviour change priorities for trachoma ‘F’ and ‘E’ interventions: a formative research study in Oromia, Ethiopia"
Contributors: Greenland, Katie, White, Sian
... Unstructured observation notes captured as part of a formative research study of hygiene behaviours. Observations were performed in 10 rural households located in Oromia during the dry and rainy season during Jan and July 2016 (10 households were covered for each season, 13 different HHs in total).
Contributors: Ward, Zachary, Yeh, Jennifer, Bhakta, Nickhill, Frazier, A Lindsay, Girardi, Fabio, Atun, Rifat
... Simulation results (means and 95% uncertainty intervals) for: Ward ZJ, Yeh JM, Bhakta N, Frazier AL, Girardi F, Atun R. Global childhood cancer survival estimates and priority-setting: a simulation-based analysis. Lancet Oncol 2019; 20(7): 972-983.
Contributors: Webb, Emily, Mpairwe, Harriet
... Dataset produced as part of a study to investigate asthma control and management among schoolchildren in urban Uganda. Each row represents one child with asthma. Variables include data on asthma symptoms and management approaches.
Cost-effectiveness of reflex laboratory-based cryptococcal antigen screening for the prevention and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in Botswana
Contributors: Tenforde, Mark W., Muthoga, Charles, Callaghan, Andrew, Ponetshego, Ponego, Ngidi, Julia, Mine, Madisa, Jordan, Alexander, Chiller, Tom, Larson, Bruce A., Jarvis, Joseph N.
... This project contains the underlying data used for this modeling study, including a description of all estimates and their sources under tab “Screening Parameter Estimates”. Data are available under the terms of the Creative Commons Zero "No rights reserved" data waiver (CC0 1.0 Public domain dedication).
“The recent emergence of a highly related virulent Clostridium difficile clade with unique characteristics”
Contributors: Shaw, Helen Alexandra, Preston, Mark D., Vendrik, Karuna E.W., Cairns, Michelle D, Browne, Hilary P., Stabler, Richard, Crobach, Monique J.T., Corver, Jeroen, Pituch, Hanna, Ingebretsen, Andre
... Clostridium difficile is a major global human pathogen divided into five clades, of which clade 3 is the least characterised and consists predominantly of PCR ribotype (RT) 023 strains. Our aim was to analyse and characterise this clade.
Informal genomic surveillance of regional distribution of Salmonella Typhi genotypes and antimicrobial resistance via returning travellers
Contributors: Ingle, Danielle J., Nair, Satheesh, Hartman, Hassan, Ashton, Philip M., Dyson, Zoe A., Day, Martin, Freedman, Joanne, Chattaway, Marie A., Holt, Kathryn E., Dallman, Timothy J.
... Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the causative agent of typhoid fever, a systemic human infection with a burden exceeding 20 million cases each year that occurs disproportionately among children in low and middle income countries. Antimicrobial therapy is the mainstay for treatment, but resistance to multiple agents is common. Here we report genotypes and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants detected from routine whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 533 S. Typhi isolates referred to Public Health England between April 2014 and March 2017, 488 (92%) of which had accompanying patient travel information obtained via an enhanced surveillance questionnaire. The majority of cases involved S. Typhi 4.3.1 (H58) linked with travel to South Asia (59%). Travel to East and West Africa were associated with genotypes 4.3.1 and 3.3.1, respectively. Point mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR), associated with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, were very common (85% of all cases) but the frequency varied significantly by region of travel: 95% in South Asia, 43% in East Africa, 27% in West Africa. QRDR triple mutants, resistant to ciprofloxacin, were restricted to 4.3.1 lineage II and associated with travel to India, accounting for 23% of cases reporting travel to the country. Overall 24% of isolates were MDR, however the frequency varied significantly by region and country of travel: 27% in West Africa, 52% in East Africa, 55% in Pakistan, 24% in Bangladesh, 3% in India. MDR determinants were plasmid-borne (IncHI1 PST2 plasmids) in S. Typhi 3.1.1 linked to West Africa, but in all other regions MDR was chromosomally integrated in 4.3.1 lineage I. We propose that routine WGS data from travel-associated cases in industrialised countries could serve as informal sentinel AMR genomic surveillance data for countries where WGS is not available or routinely performed.
Vitamin D status and risk of incident tuberculosis disease: A nested case-control study, systematic review, and individual-participant data meta-analysis
Contributors: Aibana, Omowunmi, Huang, Chuan-Chin, Aboud, Said, Arnedo-Pena, Alberto, Becerra, Mercedes C, Bellido-Blasco, Juan Bautista, Bhosale, Ramesh, Calderon, Roger, Chiang, Silvia, Contreras, Carmen
... Few studies have evaluated the association between preexisting vitamin D deficiency and incident tuberculosis (TB). We assessed the impact of baseline vitamins D levels on TB disease risk.