Contributors: Johannes Kamp, Ronny Hänsch, Gregor Kendzierski, Matthias Kraume, Olaf Hellwich
... The fundamental analysis of drop coalescence probability in liquid/liquid systems is necessary to reliably predict drop size distributions in technical applications. For this crucial investigation two colliding oil drops in continuous water phase were recorded with different high speed camera set-ups under varying conditions. In order to analyze the huge amount of recorded image sequences with varying resolutions and qualities, a robust automated image analysis was developed. This analysis is able to determine the trajectories of two colliding drops as well as the important events of drop detachment from cannulas and their collision. With this information the drop velocity in each sequence is calculated and mean values of multiple drop collisions are determined for serial examinations of single drop collisions. Using the developed automated image analysis for drop trajectory and velocity calculation, approximately 1–2 recorded high speed image sequences can be evaluated per minute.
Contributors: Bingfang Xu, Angela M. Washington, Raquel Fantin Domeniconi, Ana Cláudia Ferreira Souza, Xiaowei Lu, Ann Sutherland, Barry T. Hinton
... The Wolffian duct, the proximal end of the mesonephric duct, undergoes non-branching morphogenesis to achieve an optimal length and size for sperm maturation. It is important to examine the mechanisms by which the developing mouse Wolffian duct elongates and coils for without proper morphogenesis, male infertility will result. Here we show that highly proliferative epithelial cells divide in a random orientation relative to the elongation axis in the developing Wolffian duct. Convergent extension (CE)-like of cell rearrangements is required for elongating the duct while maintaining a relatively unchanged duct diameter. The Wolffian duct epithelium is planar polarized, which is characterized by oriented cell elongation, oriented cell rearrangements, and polarized activity of regulatory light chain of myosin II. Conditional deletion of protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7), a regulator of planar cell polarity (PCP), from mesoderm results in loss of the PCP characteristics in the Wolffian duct epithelium. Although loss of Ptk7 does not alter cell proliferation or division orientation, it affects CE and leads to the duct with significantly shortened length, increased diameter, and reduced coiling, which eventually results in loss of sperm motility, a key component of sperm maturation. In vitro experiments utilizing inhibitors of myosin II results in reduced elongation and coiling, similar to the phenotype of Ptk7 knockout. This data suggest that PTK7 signaling through myosin II regulates PCP, which in turn ensures CE-like of cell rearrangements to drive elongation and coiling of the Wolffian duct. Therefore, PTK7 is essential for Wolffian duct morphogenesis and male fertility.
Research Article - Phosphorylation of filamin A by Cdk1 regulates filamin A localization and daughter cell separation
Contributors: Sandy G.Y. Szeto, Elizabeth C. Williams, Adam D. Rudner, Jonathan M. Lee
... In cell culture, many adherent mammalian cells undergo substantial actin cytoskeleton rearrangement prior to mitosis as they detach from the extracellular matrix and become spherical. At the end of mitosis, the actin cytoskeleton is required for cytokinesis and the reassembly of interphase structures as cells spread and reattach to substrate. To understand the processes regulating mitotic cytoskeletal remodeling, we studied how mitotic phosphorylation regulates filamin A (FLNa). FLNa is an actin-crosslinking protein that was previously identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) binding partner and substrate in vitro. Using quantitative label-based mass spectrometry, we find that FLNa serines 1084, 1459 and 1533 are phosphorylated in mitotic HeLa cells and all three sites match the phosphorylation consensus sequence of Cdk1. To investigate the functional role of mitotic FLNa phosphorylation, we mutated serines 1084, 1459 and 1533 to nonphosphorylatable alanine residues and expressed GFP-tagged FLNaS1084A,S1459A,S1533A (FLNa-AAA GFP) in a FLNa-deficient human melanoma cell line called M2. M2 cells expressing FLNa-AAA GFP have enhanced FLNa-AAA GFP and actin localization at sites of contact between daughter cells, impaired post-mitotic daughter cell separation and defects in cell migration. Therefore, mitotic phosphorylation of FLNa is important for successful cell division and interphase cell behavior.
Contributors: Sarah Younan, Cathy Treadaway
... This paper explores the use of digital 3D models of museum artefacts in a creative context. It investigates how creative engagement with digital 3D models of heritage artefacts can stimulate learning and foster new forms of engagement with digital heritage artefacts. This paper is illustrated with examples of creative works from a case study undertaken in collaboration with the National Museum Cardiff.