Contributors: Jackson, Jason Baird
... What do curators do? What hands-on skills should a graduate student acquire in order to prepare for a career working in museums or similar cultural heritage archives? How do the theoretical debates within various humanities and social science disciplines connect to the practical work that curators and other museum or archives professionals pursue? Complementing other Indiana University—Bloomington courses concerned with (1) museum history and theory, (2) museum exhibitions, (3) nonprofit administration, and (4) informal education. Curatorship is a graduate seminar aimed at concurrently teaching fundamental skills basic to curatorial work and exploring the ways that theoretical, ethical, and methodological problems are worked out in the day-to-day work of museums of art, ethnography, archaeology, and history, as well as in the kinds of archives and media repositories that serve a range of humanities and social science disciplines. The course will include hands-on activities, seminar discussion, and original research opportunities. While exhibitions will come up in the course of seminar meetings, the foci of the class are all of the other areas relevant to professional curatorial work in museums, particularly those domains related to the larger place of systematic collections in museum practice. These span a range of topics from donation and purchase to collections care, research, and deaccession. Such matters as the problem of authenticity and the role of museums in art markets will be taken up in the context of the practical challenges (and pleasures) of curatorial work. Along with practical curatorial skills of wide relevance, the course will explore issues of common concern not only for museums, but also for related kinds of heritage archives, including ethnographic sound archives, archaeological repositories, and folklore collections.
Some rarely reported deep-water macroalgal species from Bonaire, Caribbean Sea, including Verdigellas discoidea sp. nov. (Palmophyllaceae, Chlorophyta) based on submersible collections
Contributors: Ballantine, David L., Brooks, Barrett L., Johnson, Gabe P.
... Two rarely reported and one newly described species of benthic marine algae are herein recognized from deep-water habitats at Bonaire, representing the first Caribbean reports of each. Archestenogramma profundum is previously known only from its type collection in Bermuda at 17 m depth and the rarely reported Halymenia integra is known originally from its type locality at Cabo Frio, Brazil. Verdigellas discoidea is newly described on the basis of morphological and molecular evidence. It forms flat circular thalli to 6.5 cm in diameter, measuring to 390 µm thick. The disc-like algae are attached by several small holdfasts on the ventral surface, but the margins are mostly free from their substrata.
Contributors: Stambach, Amy
... This is an undergraduate course for non-anthropology majors that fulfills a general education requirement. For many students, this is the only anthropology class they will take. The course rotates among three or four faculty. The course rotates among three or four faculty. When I teach the course, I use objects to illustrate several lectures. Materials come from my personal collection of objects from the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania and from the UW-Madison department's ethnography collection.
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Contributors: Wood, W. Warner, Lurie, Nancy
... This course is an elective for museum studies students that also meets an “advanced seminar” requirement for the Anthropology Masters and Ph.D. Graduate Programs. This course is an elective for museum studies students that also meets an “advanced seminar” requirement for the Anthropology Masters and Ph.D. Graduate Programs. My goal for the course was for students to digest the major tenets of recent scholarship in material culture studies and apply that knowledge to developing public programming ideas with a focus on museum collections.
Contributors: Bell, Rayna C., Irian, Christian G.
... Although naturally heterogeneous environments can lead to mosaic hybrid zones, human-induced habitat fragmentation can also lead to environmental heterogeneity and hybridization. Here we quantify phenotypic and molecular divergence across a reed frog mosaic hybrid zone on SAo Tome Island as a first step towards understanding the consequences of hybridization across this heterogeneous landscape. The SAo Tome giant reed frog (Hyperolius thomensis) is strongly tied to cool, wet, forest habitats whereas the distribution of Moller's reed frog (H. molleri) spans cool, wet, forests to warm, dry, disturbed habitats. Correspondingly, hybridization is concentrated in the more forested, cool, wet sites relative to non-forested, warmer, drier habitats. Four of six sites with hybrid frogs are artificial water bodies near the forest edge, indicating that both breeding habitat and broader scale environmental variation are probably important for understanding interspecific interactions and the extent of hybridization in this system. Phenotypic variation (body size and ventral coloration) largely tracks genetic and environmental variation across the hybrid zone with larger and more pigmented frogs occurring in forested, cool, wet habitats. Understanding whether human-induced changes in habitat break down reproductive barriers will be essential for conservation management of the less abundant, forest-associated H. thomensis in the face of rampant hybridization.
Contributors: Schindel, David
Contributors: Volf, Martin, Klime , Petr, Lamarre, Greg P. A., Redmond, Conor M., Seifert, Carlo L., Abe, Tomokazu, Auga, John, Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina, Basset, Yves, Beckett, Saul
... Research on canopy arthropods has progressed from species inventories to the study of their interactions and networks, enhancing our understanding of how hyper-diverse communities are maintained. Previous studies often focused on sampling individual tree species, individual trees or their parts. We argue that such selective sampling is not ideal when analyzing interaction network structure, and may lead to erroneous conclusions. We developed practical and reproducible sampling guidelines for the plot-based analysis of arthropod interaction networks in forest canopies. Our sampling protocol focused on insect herbivores (leaf-chewing insect larvae, miners and gallers) and non-flying invertebrate predators (spiders and ants). We quantitatively sampled the focal arthropods from felled trees, or from trees accessed by canopy cranes or cherry pickers in 53 0.1 ha forest plots in five biogeographic regions, comprising 6,280 trees in total. All three methods required a similar sampling effort and provided good foliage accessibility. Furthermore, we compared interaction networks derived from plot-based data to interaction networks derived from simulated non-plot-based data focusing either on common tree species or a representative selection of tree families. All types of non-plot-based data showed highly biased network structure towards higher connectance, higher web asymmetry, and higher nestedness temperature when compared with plot-based data. Furthermore, some types of non-plot-based data showed biased diversity of the associated herbivore species and specificity of their interactions. Plot-based sampling thus appears to be the most rigorous approach for reconstructing realistic, quantitative plant-arthropod interaction networks that are comparable across sites and regions. Studies of plant interactions have greatly benefited from a plot-based approach and we argue that studies of arthropod interactions would benefit in the same way. We conclude that plot-based studies on canopy arthropods would yield important insights into the processes of interaction network assembly and dynamics, which could be maximised via a coordinated network of plot-based study sites.
Liana abundance and diversity increase with rainfall seasonality along a precipitation gradient in Panama
Contributors: Parolari, Anthony J., Paul, Kassandra, Griffing, Aaron, Condit, Richard, Pérez, Rolando, Aguilar, Salomón, Schnitzer, Stefan A.
Cryptic diversity of a widespread global pathogen reveals expanded threats to amphibian conservation
Contributors: Byrne, Allison Q., Vredenburg, Vance T., Martel, An, Pasmans, Frank, Bell, Rayna C., Blackburn, David C., Bletz, Molly C., Bosch, Jaime, Briggs, Cheryl J., Brown, Rafe M.
... Biodiversity loss is one major outcome of human-mediated ecosystem disturbance. One way that humans have triggered wildlife declines is by transporting disease-causing agents to remote areas of the world. Amphibians have been hit particularly hard by disease due in part to a globally distributed pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]). Prior research has revealed important insights into the biology and distribution of Bd; however, there are still many outstanding questions in this system. Although we know that there are multiple divergent lineages of Bd that differ in pathogenicity, we know little about how these lineages are distributed around the world and where lineages may be coming into contact. Here, we implement a custom genotyping method for a global set of Bd samples. This method is optimized to amplify and sequence degraded DNA from noninvasive skin swab samples. We describe a divergent lineage of Bd, which we call BdASIA3, that appears to be widespread in Southeast Asia. This lineage co-occurs with the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) in multiple localities. Additionally, we shed light on the global distribution of BdGPL and highlight the expanded range of another lineage, BdCAPE. Finally, we argue that more monitoring needs to take place where Bd lineages are coming into contact and where we know little about Bd lineage diversity. Monitoring need not use expensive or difficult field techniques but can use archived swab samples to further explore the history-and predict the future impacts-of this devastating pathogen.