Contributors: aswin Sundarakrishnan
... The data associated with this manuscript is available here.
Quantitative high-content screening methods reveal a regulation of cell-to-cell variability of the energy metabolism of brain cells
Contributors: G. Azarias
... Astrocytes are non-neuronal cells tiling the entire central nervous systems. They are vital for neural circuit function but have traditionally been viewed as simple, homogenous cells that serve the same essential supportive roles everywhere. However, astrocytes are subject to intrinsic noise, signaling pathways and control mechanisms leading to a cell-to-cell variability, whose functional relevance poorly remains poorly understood. Recent evidence indicated that single astrocytes release variable concentrations of lactate in response to stimulation, raising the possibility that they have different energy metabolisms. To investigate this hypothesis, we used high-content screening methods to monitor at the single cell level the variability in cellular ATP level in cultured astrocytes. An automated image analysis pipeline enabled the time-resolved quantification of both, the single-cell ATP level and the coefficient of variation in a cellular population. At resting state, astrocytes exhibited a significant variability in cellular ATP levels. As previously reported, glutamate induced a decrease in cellular ATP levels that recovered after stimulation. During the glutamatergic stimulation, the heterogeneity in the cellular ATP level decreased, suggesting that the decrease in cellular energy status is potentially regulated to avoid decreasing below a biological threshold. Interestingly, the cytosolic ATP level increased during recovery to a similar level among cells, independently from their basal cellular ATP which further decreased the heterogeneity in cellular ATP levels after stimulation. Therefore, our results suggest that glutamatergic stimulation decreases the heterogeneity in energy metabolism in astrocytes. We speculate that the change in metabolic heterogeneity aims to prime the population to answer more rapidly a next stimulation challenge.
A new technology of CO2 supplementary for microalgae cultivation on large scale – A spraying absorption tower coupled with an outdoor open runway pond
Contributors: Chun-Dan Zhang, Wei Li, Yun-Hai Shi, Yuan-Guang Li, Jian-Ke Huang, Hong-Xia Li
... An effective CO2 supply system of a spraying absorption tower combined with an outdoor ORWP (open raceway pond) for microalgae photoautotrophic cultivation is developed in this paper. The microalgae yield, productivity and CO2 fixation efficiency were investigated, and compared with those of bubbling method. The maximum yield and productivity of biomass were achieved 0.927gL−1 and 0.114gL−1day−1, respectively. The fixation efficiency of CO2 by microalgae with the spraying tower reached 50%, whereas only 11.17% for bubbling method. Pure CO2 can be used in the spraying absorption tower, and the flow rate was only about one third of the bubbling cultivation. It shows that this new method of quantifiable control CO2 supply can meet the requirements of the growth of microalgae cultivation on large-scale.
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Contributors: Jennifer Wheeler, Pedro Sapalalo
... As a partner in Global Fund Round 7, PSI Angola is responsible for launching a nation-wide behavior change communication campaign to increase the use of insecticide treated mosquito nets among preg-nant women and children under five. PSI Angola will develop and launch a radio campaign directed at caregivers of children under the age of five. The present qualitative study is proposed to gain a greater understanding of the determinants of LLIN use from the user perspective in order to aid in the creation of focused, relevant and effective messages for the radio campaign.
The effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers
Contributors: Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed, Md. Asaduzzaman, Helal Morshed, Md. Monir Hossain, Mohammad Fahim Kadir, Md. Rezowanur Rahman
... Experimental evidences have demonstrated that Nigella sativa Linn. seed (NS) has positive modulation effects on aged rats with memory impairments, prevents against hippocampal pyramidal cell loss and enhances consolidation of recall capability of stored information and spatial memory in rats. NS has neuroprotective, nephroprotective, lung protective, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective activities as established by previous studies on animals. Several clinical trials with NS on human have also demonstrated beneficial effect.
Contributors: Leonid B. Datsevich
... In previous papers [L.B. Datsevich, Appl. Catal. A 250 (2003) 125–141; L.B. Datsevich, Catal. Today 79–80 (2003) 341–348; L.B. Datsevich, Appl. Catal. A 247/1 (2003) 101–111] devoted to the oscillatory motion of liquid in catalyst pores in gas–liquid reactions with gas and/or heat production, some directions of catalyst and process development have been discussed. It has been supposed that modification of the pore structure of catalysts can provoke oscillations in pores, leading to an acceleration of internal mass transfer and to an increase in the overall reaction rate. The present paper deals with a confirmation of this theoretical conclusion. It shows that an unsophisticated change in the pore structure can intensify the process of 1-octene hydrogenation to n-octane on a Ni tablet catalyst up to three times.