Contributors: Philipson, Joakim
... "That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” Shakespeare has Juliet tell her Romeo that a name is just a convention without meaning, what counts is the reference, the 'thing itself', to which the property of smelling sweet pertains alone. Frege in his classical paper “Über Sinn und Bedeutung” was not so sure, he assumed names can be inherently meaningful, even without a known reference. And Wittgenstein later in Philosophical Investigations (PI) seems to deny the sheer arbitrariness of names and reject looking for meaning out of context, by pointing to our inability to just utter some random sounds and by that really implying e.g. the door. The word cannot simply be separated from its meaning, in the same way as the money from the cow that could be bought for them (PI 120). Scientific names of biota, in particular, are often descriptive of properties pertaining to the organism or species itself. On the other hand, in semantic web technology and Linked Open Data (LOD) there is an overall effort to replace names by their references, in the form of web links or Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). “Things, not strings” is the motto. But, even in view of the many "challenges with using names to link digital biodiversity information" that were extensively described in a recent paper, would it at all be possible or even desirable to replace scientific names of biota with URIs? Or would it be sufficient to just identify equivalence relationships between different variants of names of the same biota, having the same reference, and then just link them to the same “thing”, by means of a property sameAs(URI)? The Global Names Architecture (GNA) has a resolver of scientific names that is already doing that kind of work, linking names of biota such as Pinus thunbergii to global identifiers and URIs from other data sources, such as Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) and uBio Namebank. But there may be other challenges with going from a “natural language”, even from a not entirely coherent system of scientific names, to a semantic web ontology, a solution to some of which have been proposed recently by means of so called 'lexical bridges'.
Replication Data for: Which Matters Most: Party Strategic Exit or Voter Strategic Voting? A Laboratory Experiment
Contributors: Bol, Damien, Blais, André, Labbé St-Vincent, Simon
... There is abundant empirical evidence that the plurality rule constrains party competition and favors two-party systems. This reduction of party system fragmentation may be due to parties deciding not to enter elections for which they are not viable and/or voters voting strategically. Yet no prior research has attempted to estimate the respective role of parties and voters in this process. To fill this gap, we conducted a unique laboratory experiment where some subjects played the role of parties and others played the role of voters, and where the two were able to respond to each other just as in real-life elections. We find that the reduction due to party strategic exit is higher than that due to strategic voting. We conclude that parties play a key role in the effect of the plurality rule on party system fragmentation.
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Contributors: Kalame, Fobissie; Kanninen, Markku
... The Building Biocarbon and Rural Development in West Africa Programme aims to demonstrate the multiple developmental and environmental wins that result from a high value biocarbon approach to climate change and variability in large landscapes principally in Mali, Sierra Leone and Guinea. The Programme will also build local institutions and capacity to be able to sustain the benefits in the sites and will establish linkages with related initiatives to jointly build national and regional capacity to scale up the approaches into other programmes and projects. The themes of the Programme are very closely linked to Finland's international development priorities and are closely aligned with the priorities expressed in its national poverty reduction and climate change adaptation strategies. Furthermore, the Programme aims to generate critical information that can fill the global knowledge gaps on how to better link climate change mitigation and adaptation thrusts and how to make these actions work effectively to enhance the livelihoods of rural communities. (2015)
Contributors: Crabtree, Jonathan
... Documentation and data for the IASSIST 2016 Workshop
Uganda (2015): Monitoring Equity and Quality of Care for Family planning services at Profam in Uganda. Round .
Contributors: Kaula, Henry, Buyungo, Peter
... In 2008, PACE started the Womenâs Health Program (WHP), a reproductive health program that focuses on provision of long term methods (LTM) of family planning and provision of post abortion care (PAC) services. WHP aims to ensure women of reproductive age from various socio economic strata have access to these services whenever they need them. The study aims to understand whether the Profam franchise is providing equitable access to services. Using a client exit approach, the study will determine whether these outlets are reaching people that are marginalized and less able than others to access health services.
Contributors: Khim Sotheary
... Client satisfaction is known to impact several aspects of client behavior: intention return to a facility, intention to recommend a facility to others, and adherence to provider's advice. By using satisfaction as a proxy for clients’ future intentions, program and research teams can use results from this questionnaire to flag areas that need improvement in PSI facilities. This survey was conducted among female clients who have received any FP service/counseling at a SQHN provider. Clients were approached and asked informed consent for an interview immediately after they left from the facility.
Contributors: Barona, Elizabeth, Guevara, Edward, Hyman, Glenn
... This data set characterizes dryland systems and cereal and legume crops (Hyman et al., 2016). The data is a subset of a larger data set that characterizes the farming systems of John Dixon’s global farming systems framework and map (Dixon et al., 2001; Barona and Hyman, 2016). The data subset focuses on the following crops: chickpea, common bean, cowpea, faba bean, groundnut, lentils, pigeon pea, soybean, barley, pearl millet, small millet and sorghum. The geographic unit of analysis is a combination of 63 farming systems and 250 countries, for a total of 544 spatial units. For each of these units, data has been compiled on crop area, crop yield, crop production, population, poverty, drought, heat, soil conditions and other information.
Contributors: Potosky, Arnold L., Moinpour, Carol
... MY-Health is a cross sectional study where a population-based sample of 5,500 adult cancer patients were be recruited for a mailed survey (with telephone follow-up of non-responders) to evaluate the equivalence of PROMIS measures across socio-demographic and clinical sub-groups. Patients diagnosed with any of seven cancers were eligible (female breast cancer, uterine and cervical cancers, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma) to ensure a wide age range of adults (ages 21-84) with varying treatment experiences and potential symptoms. MY-Health focused on seven domains that are important to cancer outcomes and that are relevant to other chronic diseases: pain, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, fatigue, social function, and physical function. Since MY-Health is a “validation” study focusing on minorities and the underserved, racial/ethnic minorities drawn from 4 registries in 3 states (California, New Jersey, Louisiana) were oversampled Study Aims Use item-response theory (analysis of Differential Item Function (DIF)) to evaluate the measurement properties of PROMIS item banks across age and race/ethnic groups from a population-based sample of cancer patients. Evaluate the ability of PROMIS measures to detect differences in population-based patient outcomes across age, race-ethnicity, and cancer sub-groups defined by type, stage/severity, comorbidity, treatments, and disease phase (known-groups, construct validity). Evaluate the responsiveness of measures to detect clinically meaningful changes in selected health-related quality of life domains. To estimate cancer-specific population norms by patient age, severity, and other clinically important characteristics.
Zimbabwe (2013): Qualitative Segmentation Study on understanding the motivators and barriers to accessing services among women aged 18-49 years who have experienced violence in Zimbabwe
Contributors: JASI PHINEAS, DODZO MUNYARADZI K, TARUBEREKERA NOAH
... This study sought to understand the barriers and motivation to accessing services among women aged 18-49 years who have experienced violence in Zimbabwe as well as to inform profiling of a women or a girl who access service after experiencing violence. This was a qualitative study design employing in-depth interviews with women and men aged 18 to 49 years residing in both rural and urban Zimbabwe. 36 participants and 4 FGDs were purposively selected to participate in the study. These include 18 partici pants and 2 FGDs in rural areas and 18 participants and 2 FGDs in urban areas. These also include 8 male participants and 10 female participants for rural areas and 8 male participants and 10 female participants for urban areas.