Reshaping commensal gut microbiota in early life with amoxicillin presents with lower blood pressure
Contributors: Saroj Chakraborty
... Pediatric hypertension is recognized as an emerging global health concern. While new guidelines are developed for facilitating clinical management, the reasons for the prevalence of hypertension in children remain unknown. Genetics and environmental factors do not fully account for the growing incidence of pediatric hypertension. Because stable bacterial flora in early life are linked with health outcomes later in life, we hypothesized that reshaping of gut microbiota in early developmental stages of life affects blood pressure (BP) of pediatric subjects. To test this hypothesis, we administered amoxicillin, the most commonly prescribed pediatric antibiotic, to alter gut microbiota of young, genetically hypertensive rats (study 1) and dams during gestation and lactation to reshape microbiota of offspring (study 2). Reshaping of microbiota, with reductions in Firmicutes/Bacteriodetes ratio observed in Amoxicillin treated young rats and in dams. Amoxicillin treated rats also had lower blood pressure compared to the untreated rats. In the young rats treated with amoxicillin, the lowering effect on blood pressure persisted even after the antibiotics were discontinued. Similarly, the offspring from the dams treated with amoxicillin also showed lower systolic blood pressure compared to the control rats. Remarkably, in all cases, a decrease in BP was associated with lowering of Veillonellaceae, which are succinate-producing bacteria. Elevated plasma succinate is reported in hypertension. Accordingly, serum succinate was measured and found lower in animals treated with amoxicillin. Our results demonstrate a direct correlation between succinate-producing gut microbiota and early development of hypertension, and indicate that reshaping gut microbiota, especially by depleting succinate-producing microbiota early in life may have long-term benefits for hypertension-prone individuals.
Genome-wide identification and transcriptional profiling of small heat shock protein gene family under diverse abiotic stress conditions in Sorghum bicolor (L.)
Contributors: Kavi Kishor Polavarapu, anilkumar somanaboina, Manohar Rao D, Sudhkar Reddy Palakolanu, Rajasheker G, Anuj Kumar, nagaraju marka
... The small heat shock proteins (sHsps/Hsp20s) are the molecular chaperones that maintain proper folding, trafficking and disaggregation of proteins under diverse abiotic stress conditions. In the present investigation, a genome-wide scan revealed the presence of a total of 47 sHsps in Sorghum bicolor (SbsHsps), distributed across 10 subfamilies, the major subfamily being P (plastid) group with 17 genes. Chromosomes 1 and 3 appear as the hot spot regions for SbsHsps, and majority of them were found acidic, hydrophilic, unstable and intron less. Interestingly, promoter analysis indicated that they are associated with both biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as plant development. Sorghum sHsps exhibited 15 paralogous and 20 orthologous duplications. Expression analysis of 15 genes selected from different subfamilies showed high transcript levels in roots and leaves implying that they are likely to participate in the developmental processes. SbsHsp genes were highly induced by diverse abiotic stresses inferring their critical role in mediating the environmental stress responses. Gene expression data revealed that SbsHsp-02 is a candidate gene expressed in all the tissues under varied stress conditions tested. Our results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of SbsHsp genes and help to analyse them further for functional validation.
Contributors: Yasumi Uchida
... Apolipoprotein A1 which is stored in pericoronary adipose tissue is transported by macrophage phenotypes through fragmented external elastic lamina and disrupted internal elastic lamina into the intima(plaque) of adjacent coronary artery and could suppress atherosclerosis.
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Contributors: Yasumi Uchida
... Oxidized low-density lipoprotein which is stored in human pericoronary adipose tissue is transported by macrophage phenotypes through fragmented external elastic lamina and disrupted internal elastic lamina into coronary intima (plaque) and accelerate atheroslcerosis.
Contributors: Yasumi Uchida
... Apolipoprotein A1 which is stored in human pericoronary adipose tissue is tansfered by macrophage phenotypes through fragmented external elastic lamina and disrupted internal elastic lamina to coronary intima (plaque) and could suppress coronary atherosclerosis.
Contributors: NAZISH IMRAN, Amna Khalil, Fazila Gondal, Muhammad Waqar Azeem
... Data collection form & AACAP poster presentation
Contributors: Rosa M del Angel, ANA GUTIERREZ, José Humberto Olais, Fernando Ruiz Jimenez, Rosaura Hernandez-Rivas, esther calderon
... Flaviviruses, such as Dengue (DENV), Zika, Yellow Fever, Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile are important pathogens with high morbidity and mortality. The last estimation indicates that ~390 millions of people are infected by DENV per year. The DENV life cycle occur mainly in the cytoplasm of the infected cells and different cytoplasmic, nuclear and mitochondrial proteins participate in viral replication. In this paper we analyzed the participation of Aurora kinase B (AurKB) in the DENV replicative cycle using the specific AurKB inhibitor ZM447439. The kinase inhibition does not alter the viral protein production/secretion or genome replication but impaired the viral yield without altering the percentage of infected cells. Moreover, confocal microscopy analysis of DENV-infected ZM447439-treated cells show a delocalization of viral components from the replicative complexes. In summary, these observations indicate that AurKB participate in DENV viral morphogenesis or release.
Oxidative stress induced by the tetrahydrobenzimidazole TMQ0153 modulates crosstalk between apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia (Part 3 - Figure 4 (b), Figure 5, 6, 7, Supplementary 1-5)
Contributors: Sungmi Song
... Aims: We demonstrate the capacity of the cytotoxic synthetic tetrahydrobenzimidazole (TMQ) hydroquinone (HQ) derivative TMQ0153 to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mediate differential cell death modalities in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Results: Results showed that concentrations of TMQ0153 30 µM lead to ROS-mediated necrostatin-sensitive necroptosis. Moreover, TMQ0153 allowed us to elucidate the interplay of ROS-mediated cell death and cell stress/survival mechanisms as this compound triggers protective autophagy in response to metabolic stress in CML cells. Importantly, the modulation of cell stress prior to TMQ0153-induced cell death enhances the exposure of “find-me”/“eat-me” signals considered as hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD), altogether providing a pro-oxidant therapeutic strategy against CML. Innovation: We suggest here a pro-oxidant anti-CML therapy leading to differential cell death modalities in both imatinib-sensitive and -resistant CML cell types. Moreover, we elucidated the interplay between apoptosis, autophagy and controlled necrosis induced by TMQ0153 leading to disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that TMQ0153-induced ROS act as a rheostat determining the onset of apoptotic- or autophagy-related controlled necrotic cell death in CML.
Contributors: ALEN THOMAS
... The data includes the EBSD characterizations of cold rolled samples, Permeation curves from the hydrogen permeation experiment and the EDS charcterizations after the Microprint experiment
Research article manuscripts, data pieces, literature review, presentations etc on sharecropping and power-relations in villages in Sindh, Pakistan
Contributors: Ghulam Hussain
... Research article manuscripts based on research done in 2013-2014 on sharecropping, peasants and village culture in Sindh, Pakistan