Bryophyte stable isotope composition, diversity and biomass define tropical montane cloud forest extent
Contributors: Horwath, Aline B., Royles, Jessica, Tito, Richard, Gudiño, José A., Salazar Allen, Noris, Farfan-Rios, William, Rapp, Joshua M., Silman, Miles R., Malhi, Yadvinder, Swamy, Varun
... Liverworts and mosses are a major component of the epiphyte flora of tropical montane forest ecosystems. Canopy access was used to analyse the distribution and vertical stratification of bryophyte epiphytes within tree crowns at nine forest sites across a 3400 m elevational gradient in Peru, from the Amazonian basin to the high Andes. The stable isotope compositions of bryophyte organic material (13C/12C and 18O/16O) are associated with surface water diffusive limitations and, along with C/N content, provide a generic index for the extent of cloud immersion. From lowland to cloud forest Î´13C increased from -33â ° to -27â °, while Î´18O increased from 16.3â ° to 18.0â °. Epiphytic bryophyte and associated canopy soil biomass in the cloud immersion zone was estimated at up to 45 t dry mass ha-1, and overall water holding capacity was equivalent to a 20 mm precipitation event. The study emphasizes the importance of diverse bryophyte communities in sequestering carbon in threatened habitats, with stable isotope analysis allowing future elevational shifts in the cloud base associated with changes in climate to be tracked.
Contributors: Kimball, Rebecca T., Oliveros, Carl H., Wang, Ning, White, Noor D., Barker, F. Keith, Field, Daniel J., Ksepka, Daniel T., Chesser, R. Terry, Moyle, Robert G., Braun, Michael J.
... It has long been appreciated that analyses of genomic data (e.g., whole genome sequencing or sequence capture) have the potential to reveal the tree of life, but it remains challenging to move from sequence data to a clear understanding of evolutionary history, in part due to the computational challenges of phylogenetic estimation using genome-scale data. Supertree methods solve that challenge because they facilitate a divide-and-conquer approach for large-scale phylogeny inference by integrating smaller subtrees in a computationally efficient manner. Here, we combined information from sequence capture and whole-genome phylogenies using supertree methods. However, the available phylogenomic trees had limited overlap so we used taxon-rich (but not phylogenomic) megaphylogenies to weave them together. This allowed us to construct a phylogenomic supertree, with support values, that included 707 bird species (~7% of avian species diversity). We estimated branch lengths using mitochondrial sequence data and we used these branch lengths to estimate divergence times. Our time-calibrated supertree supports radiation of all three major avian clades (Palaeognathae, Galloanseres, and Neoaves) near the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. The approach we used will permit the continued addition of taxa to this supertree as new phylogenomic data are published, and it could be applied to other taxa as well.
Contributors: Obiang, Nestor Laurier Engone, Kenfack, David, Picard, Nicolas, Lutz, James A., Bissiengou, Pulchérie, Memiaghe, Hervé R., Alonso, Alfonso
A key to the North American genera of Stipeae (Poaceae, Pooideae) with descriptions and taxonomic names for species of Eriocoma, Neotrinia, Oloptum, and five new genera: Barkworthia, ×Eriosella, Pseudoeriocoma, Ptilagrostiella, and Thorneochloa
Contributors: Peterson, Paul M., Romaschenko, Konstantin, Soreng, Robert J., Valdés Reyna, Jesus
... Based on earlier molecular DNA studies we recognize 14 native Stipeae genera and one intergeneric hybrid in North America. We provide descriptions, new combinations, and 10 illustrations for species of Barkworthia gen. nov. , Eriocoma , Neotrinia , Oloptum , Pseudoeriocoma gen. nov. , Ptilagrostiella gen. nov. , Thorneochloa gen. nov. , and × Eriosella nothogen. nov. The following 40 new combinations are made: Barkworthiastillmanii , Eriocomaalta , E.arida , E.arnowiae , E.bloomeri , E.bracteata , E.contracta , E.coronata , E.curvifolia , E.hendersonii , E.latiglumis , E.lemmonii , E.lemmoniissp.pubescens, E.lettermanii , E.lobata , E.nelsonii , E.nelsoniissp.dorei, E.nevadensis , E.occidentalis , E.occidentalisssp.californica, E.occidentalisssp.pubescens, E.parishii , E.parishiissp.depaupertata, E.perplexa , E.pinetorum , E.richardsonii , E.robusta , E.scribneri , E.swallenii , E.thurberiana , E.wallowaensis , × Eriosellacaduca , Pseudoeriocomaacuta , P.constricta , P.editorum , P.eminens , P.hirticulmis , P.multinodis , Ptilagrostiellakingii , and Thorneochloadiegoensis . A key to the native and introduced genera of North American Stipeae, and an overview of the tribe in North America and worldwide are given. Lectotypes are designated for Eriocomacuspidata Nutt., Fendleriarhynchelytroides Steud., Stipabloomeri Bol., Stipacoronata Thurb., Stipamembranacea Pursh, Stipamormonum Mez, Stiparichardsonii Link, and Stipawilliamsii Scribn. Achnatherum s.s. and Piptatherum s.s. are now restricted to Eurasia and the Mediterranean/Asia, respectively.
Contributors: Detto, Matteo, Visser, Marco D., Wright, S. Joseph, Pacala, Stephen W.
... Data on paired seed traps from Barro Colorado Island in Panama. 200 paired traps were installed 2 m distance in March 2011 and censused weekly through February 2013 along the trails of the 50ha plot. Each trap consisted of a square ½ m2, open-topped, 1-mm mesh bag supported 0.8 to 1 m above the ground by a polyvinyl chloride frame. Fruits and seeds were identified to species, counted and further categorized as immature, mature (endosperm filled), or damaged by animals. PART definitions: 0 reproductive buds, 1 mature fruit, 2 seeds, 3 capsules, 4 fragments, 5 immature fruit, 6 flowers (female or perfect), 7 fruit with insect emergence holes / insect damaged, 8 aborted fruit, 9 male flowers, 10 fruit eaten by animal (bird, monkey, squirrel o others), 11 category for leaves, 12 "unknown", 13 leaf pedicel, 14 fragment og branch, less than 2 cm in diameter, 15 fine litter, 16 flower pedicel, 17 fruit pedicel, 18 monkey feces.
Contributors: Kitchell, Kenneth, Jr., Dundee, Harold A.
Contributors: Dundee, Harold A.