¿Qué modos de uso propone el profesorado de matemáticas en formación inicial para la enseñanza del teorema de Pitágoras en educación secundaria?
Contributors: Chaverri-Hernández, J., Hernández-Arce, K., Castillo-Céspedes, M., Vallejos-Meléndez, D., Picado-Alfaro, M.
... El artículo presenta un estudio de casos sobre los significados que un grupo de profesores de matemáticas en formación inicial otorga al teorema de Pitágoras. Para esto, se enfatizó el análisis de uno de los organizadores del currículo: los modos de uso de un concepto matemático. Los participantes fueron 20 estudiantes de Enseñanza de la Matemática, provenientes de las 4 universidades públicas de Costa Rica donde se oferta esta carrera. La información se recolectó mediante el diseño y la aplicación de un cuestionario compuesto por 7 ítems tanto para el planteo como para la resolución de tareas sobre los usos del teorema de Pitágoras. Se destacan las respuestas dadas a 2 de esos ítems, vinculados a la fenomenología de un concepto matemático. Se utilizó uno de los componentes del análisis didáctico, el análisis de contenido, como técnica para examinar y caracterizar las situaciones junto con los contextos que ese grupo de estudiantes propone en el planteamiento y la resolución de tareas matemáticas enlazadas a la funcionalidad del teorema. Los resultados muestran que dicho teorema se concibe con el propósito de resolver tareas en situaciones matemáticas, basadas en el cálculo de longitudes; aunado a esto, se reconocen a) ciertas dificultades en los participantes para plantear asignaciones basadas en circunstancias distintas a un entorno matemático y b) que la calidad de las tareas propuesta es diversa.
Comparison of fatty acids profile of the gonads and eggs of Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) obtained from wild and captive broodstock
Contributors: Chacón-Guzmán, J., Carvajal-Oses, M., Toledo-Agüero, P., Flores-Gatica, H.
... The proportions of fatty acids present in eggs and gonads of wild and captive Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869) were evaluated to assist in obtaining nutritional information necessary to improve the diets provided in aquaculture production centers of this species. Samples of eggs and gonads were obtained from broodstock (1.0±0.1 kg) kept in the Pacific Marine Park (PMP), Costa Rica, and from individuals caught by fishermen in their natural environment. The samples were taken in triplicate during the period spanning from August to September 2015. Captive snappers were fed a fresh diet. Spawns and gonads were obtained from two groups of 16 specimens each of captive and wild fish, both groups having a sex ratio of 1:1 male to female. Gonads from females were selected according to their maturity stage, and male gonads were sampled based on the quantity, viscosity and color of semen. There were no statistically significant differences (p≥0.05) between egg diameters and oil droplets size; viability rates, expressed as percentages, were considered to be high and appropriate for comparison (91.2% captive, 86.1% wild). There were also no statistically significant differences in the fatty acid composition of eggs obtained from wild and captive females (p=0.2188), or in gonads from males (p=0.6179) and wild and captive females (p=0.1153). The presence of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was observed in all of the samples analyzed, while arachidonic acid (ARA) was found in amounts ranging from 0.38 to 5.07% and was not present in the eggs of wild females or in the gonads of captive females
Trumping the agenda? The continuity and discontinuity in foreign affairs between the U.S. and Colombia
Contributors: FABIO DIAZ PABON, Magda Catalina Jimenez
... The ability of the United States (U.S.) to influence policies in Colombia is indisputable. The U.S. is Colombia’s largest trading partner, and this alone provides the U.S. with great power with regards to Colombian policymaking. U.S. power is not only manifest within the economic realm, though, as Colombia is a consumer of many U.S. cultural products, but U.S. political decisions also greatly inform Colombian policymaking. However, the nature of decisions in the U.S., and their influence, only partially explains policies in Colombia. Domestic policies also remain shaped by the configuration of different actors, agendas, and interests within the country itself. In this chapter, we argue that although there are shifts in the agenda between both countries, we should not understand these changes as only due to the rhetoric and the style brought by the Trump government. The policy changes also relate to internal political processes within Colombia, alongside other external factors.
La idea de los derechos sociales humanos y la apuesta por otro liberalismo, el de las eternas minorías
Contributors: Mauricio Andrés Gallo Callejas
... En aras de defender la idea de los derechos sociales humanos, el artículo presenta el pensamiento político de Judith N. Shklar como alternativa a los actuales enfoques liberales de los derechos humanos, esto es, a las concepciones políticas, a la ética del discurso, a los enfoques naturalistas y a los estrictamente jurídicos. El principal reto consiste en responder a esa mentalidad política conservadora que vincula tal idea con la justificación de la violencia y que en Colombia resulta claramente ejemplificada por Jorge Giraldo.
Contributors: Piperigkou, Zoi, Franchi, Marco, Götte, Martin, Karamanos, Nikos
... Even though the role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the modulation of breast cancer cells' behavior is thoroughly studied, the biological functions of its isoform, ERβ, are less elucidated. The suppression of ERβ in the aggressive ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells resulted in the inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and major changes in the basic functional properties and expression levels of certain matrix components of breast cancer cells. This arrest in metastatic potential of breast cancer cells suggests the contribution of ERβ in the induction of a more aggressive phenotype in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The epigenetic alterations are responsible for the ability of the tumor cells to metastasize. Here, we report for the first time that the suppression of ERβ in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells leads to significant changes in the expression profiles of specific microRNAs, including miR-10b, miR-200b and miR-145. Growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in estrogen-free medium has a diverse impact on miRNA expression and the behavior of these cells, suggesting the specific effect of estradiol on the miRNA expression profile depending on the ER status of breast cancer cells. Enhanced miR-10b expression or silencing of miR-145 clearly revealed that these microRNAs can regulate the functional properties, EMT program and the expression of major matrix components known to be implicated in breast cancer aggressiveness. Our data revealed that miR-10b is strongly implicated in the regulation of functional properties, EMT program and Erk1/2 signaling in shERβ MDA-MB-231 cells, thus affecting the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, including syndecan-1, proteolytic behavior, especially MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9 expression and subsequently the aggressiveness of these cells. Accordingly, the inhibition of miR-145 expression significantly increased the aggressiveness of shERβ MDA-MB-231 cells and induced EMT. Moreover, miR-145 inhibition resulted in important changes in the gene and protein levels of ECM mediators, such as HER2 and several MMPs, whereas it significantly increased the phosphorylated levels of Erk1/2 kinases in these cells, suggesting the crucial role of miR-145 in this signaling pathway. These novel results suggest that the alterations in cell behavior and in ECM composition caused by the suppression of ERβ in MDA-MB-231 cells are closely related to certain epigenetic miRNA-induced alterations. Targeting the ERβ-regulated miR-10b and miR-145 is a promising tool for diagnosis and pharmaceutical targeting in breast cancer.
Contributors: Schünemann, Bernd
... What is the basis of the crimes perpetrated by State officials (special delicts)? The answer to this question was not always important in the history of the penal doctrine, because only from the work of Claus Roxin was renewed the debate on this type of crimes. The different positions in discussion take their arguments back to the very same concept of a punishable act, whether it is understood as the injury of an interest or as the injury to the validity of the rule. Peru has not been a scenario alien to this debate, since the arguments of the various Supreme Court rulings in the proceedings against Fujimori give proof of this. In this article, it is argued that most special delicts should be understood as special guarantor crimes, because their authors, far from violating a duty, actually have control over the vulnerability of an interest, or over the supervision of a source of danger. This position, which starts from understanding crime as the injury of a legal right, considers that the margin of crimes of duty infringement is very reduced and, most of the times, it does not receive a criminal response. In this way, the position led by Günther Jakobs, which understands crime as an injury to the validity of the rule and, therefore, to special delicts, such as those based on the violation of a special institutional duty, suffers from two conceptual vacuums. On the one hand, it has not been able to outline a necessary differentiation between internal and external duties of an institution. On the other hand, it has not been able to explain why or how the individual injury of an institutional duty could harm the institution as a whole. Finally, we analyze the consequences of these approaches for the dogmatics of authorship and participation, the advantages and disadvantages of the reception of these perspective in the Peruvian and German legal systems; as well as, the validity of functionalism and the problem of private participant.
Contributors: Hafize İlhan Özkan, Özlem Alpaslan, Alperen Erkazancı, Hüsamettin Elmas, Salih Sandal, M. Serdar Yümlü, Habib Gültekin, Máire Daly, Darragh O'Suilleabhain, Elaine Walsh
... This report acts as a guideline for all activities related to the preparation and execution of CUTLER pilots. For each pilot city, we first briefly describe the pilot scenario, policy making challenges and the expected benefits from the use of the CUTLER platform. In Thessaloniki, the CUTLER platform will be used to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate the use of a new controlled parking system. In Antalya, CUTLER will be used to improve the touristic capabilities of the area surrounding Düden Brook Waterfalls by evaluating concrete measures and actions for accessibility, water usage, environmental protection and mobility. In Antwerp, the platform will be used to monitor and evaluate the Strategic Urban Waterplan of the city and the implementation of green streets and even steer new urban developments. Finally, Cork County Council will utilize the platform to facilitate evidence-based decisions for the touristic exploitation of Camden Fort Meagher, focusing on future access points (by land and sea), facilities (i.e. car parking) and access mechanisms (i.e. modes of transport) in the pilot area. Moreover, for each city pilot, we discuss the expected use of the CUTLER platform and its impact to policy making, as well as summarize the pilot preparation activities. Preparation activities include: a) definition of all stakeholders to be involved in the pilot implementation, their roles and responsibilities and their level of involvement; b) co-creation activities; and c) data collection activities. We also discuss in details identified risks for pilot implementation and envisaged mitigation measures.
Contributors: Galani Lia, Tecmen Ayse
... Innovation in cultural heritage developed by UoA and Bilgi
D6.1 - Methodologies and tools for big data analysis via text mining and geo-social characterization, aiming to opinion extraction, trend detection and predictive analysis
Contributors: Chandan Kumar, Jun Sun, Nico Daheim, Steffen Staab, Ioannis Kompatsiaris, Panagiotis Karadimos, Filareti Tsalakanidou
... Deliverable D6.1 describes CUTLER’s approach for the analysis of the social impact of public administration policies related to the water element in waterfront cities. It discusses the necessary methodology that would reflect the opinion of the society with regard to policy implementation in such cities. In this regard, we propose an extensive approach to detect the trends and provide historical analysis from news articles comments, Twitter feeds, and events. More specifically, the approach includes the components of information filtering, extraction and analytics. Filtering techniques are essential to remove irrelevant data before information extraction and analytics. The information extraction techniques will be used to obtain the most relevant information from news articles, event logs, and social media feeds. The analytics process will apply text mining, spatio-temporal analysis, and sentiment analysis methods to induce relevant knowledge about social behavior, trends, and opinion.
Contributors: Lemenkova Polina
... CHRIS (Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) - new imaging spectrometer carried on board a space platform PROBA (Project for On Board Autonomy) The satellite was successfully launched in late October 2001, Shriharikota (India) Region of interest – Thorney Island (UK), Chichester harbour Chichester harbour has unique wetland environment : place for rare bird colonies. Monitoring this place - important ecological task for environmental managers. To obtain a good-quality natural-coloured image of wetlands we need: nadir-taken colour CHRIS image with bands combination of corresponding spectral channels. For the quality of CHRIS images .hdr files were examined: 1) CHRIS...47AO_41.hdr (taken at +36°) 3) CHRIS...47A2_41.hdr (taken at +55°) 2) CHRIS...47A1_41.hdr (taken at -36°) 4) CHRIS...47A3_41.hdr (taken at -55°) 5) CHRIS...479F_41.hdr (taken at nadir) Images taken at the nadir are of good quality, while those at different angles have defects. The work demonstrated CHRIS/PROBA application for Earth Observation purposes, environmental mapping and GIS.