Contributors: Graves, Gary R.
... NH-Vertebrate Zoology
Revisions of Anatomical Descriptions of the Pharyngeal Jaw Apparatus in Moray Eels of the Family Muraenidae (Teleostei: Anguilliformes)
Contributors: Johnson, G. David
... Fishes of the family Muraenidae (moray eels) comprise two subfamilies of highly specialized benthic forms. As first documented and described in two earlier papers, morays have a highly specialized raptorial feeding apparatus in which they move their upper pharyngeal jaws forward into the oral cavity to grasp prey and transport it back into the esophagus. Here I revisit the descriptive aspects of the second paper and compare them to my own investigations of the topographic anatomy of this apparatus. Regrettably, my observations of the relevant anatomical details and terminology differ markedly from those presented in that paper. Accordingly, I describe and illustrate my observations, compare them to previous descriptions, and discuss possible functional implications. In contrast to the earlier paper, I offer detailed argumentation and justification for my terminology and identification of relevant gill-arch muscles in muraenids. Based on my re-interpretation of the topographic anatomy of the pharyngeal musculature, three conspicuously different anatomical mechanisms of pharyngeal jaw protrusion and retraction are identified.
... Annual Report 2018
Contributors: Gibbons, J. Whitfield
Flora and Vegetation of Clipperton (La Passion) Atoll, North-Eastern Pacific Ocean: Three centuries of changes and recent plant dynamics
Contributors: Payri, Claude E., N'Yeurt, Antoine D. R., Mattio, Lydiane
Contributors: Poupin, Joseph, Cleva, Regis, Bouchard, Jean-Marie, Dinhut, Vincent, Dumas, Jacques
Contributors: Selfridge, J., Bachran, K., McElveen, D., Robbins, Robert K., Ransom, T.
... ABSTRACT. The frosted elfin (Callophrys irus Godart) is a globally rare butterfly that inhabits disturbance-dependent habitats often managed by prescribed fire. Natural history observations and published data are equivocal on whether frosted elfin caterpillars pupate below or above the soil surface, and some evidence suggests that pupation sites differ for caterpillars that feed on lupine (Lupinus spp.) versus wild indigo (Baptisia spp.). Pupation site has important implications for management because pupae located beneath the soil surface will likely be afforded greater protection from fire than those above the soil surface. Our study of both lupine- and indigo-feeding larvae at a single site in Worcester County, Maryland, found that pupation occurs above the soil surface in the leaf litter 92% of the time, and does not differ significantly with food plant preference. We recommend that land managers using prescribed fire as a habitat management tool for frosted elfin habitat assume some level of pupal mortality in burned areas and utilize a rotational burn schedule that maintains areas of unburned refugia in high-density elfin areas. We also recommend that managers try to establish a metapopulation structure for frosted elfin to address the possibility of natural occurring fires.
A fully resolved backbone phylogeny reveals numerous dispersals and explosive diversifications throughout the history of Asteraceae
Contributors: Mandel, Jennifer R., Dikow, Rebecca B., Siniscalchi, Carolina M., Thapa, Ramhari, Watson, Linda E., Funk, Vicki A.
... The sunflower family, Asteraceae, comprises 10% of all flowering plant species and displays an incredible diversity of form. Asteraceae are clearly monophyletic, yet resolving phylogenetic relationships within the family has proven difficult, hindering our ability to understand its origin and diversification. Recent molecular clock dating has suggested a Cretaceous origin, but the lack of deep sampling of many genes and representative taxa from across the family has impeded the resolution of migration routes and diversifications that led to its global distribution and tremendous diversity. Here we use genomic data from 256 terminals to estimate evolutionary relationships, timing of diversification(s), and biogeographic patterns. Our study places the origin of Asteraceae at ~83 MYA in the late Cretaceous and reveals that the family underwent a series of explosive radiations during the Eocene which were accompanied by accelerations in diversification rates. The lineages that gave rise to nearly 95% of extant species originated and began diversifying during the middle Eocene, coincident with the ensuing marked cooling during this period. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses support a South American origin of the family with subsequent dispersals into North America and then to Asia and Africa, later followed by multiple worldwide dispersals in many directions. The rapid mid-Eocene diversification is aligned with the biogeographic range shift to Africa where many of the modern-day tribes appear to have originated. Our robust phylogeny provides a framework for future studies aimed at understanding the role of the macroevolutionary patterns and processes that generated the enormous species diversity of Asteraceae.
Contributors: Frade, Pedro R., Bongaerts, Pim, Baldwin, Carole C., Trembanis, Arthur C., Bak, Rolf P. M., Vermeij, Mark J. A., Loya, Yossi, Puglise, Kimberly A., Bridge, Tom C. L.
... NH-Vertebrate Zoology
Contributors: Newcomer, Katherine, Tracy, Brianna M., Chang, Andrew L., Ruiz, Gregory M.
... Long-term measurements are imperative to detect, understand, and predict changes in coastal biological communities, but can be both costly and difficult to implement. Here, we compare measurement methods used to document community structure and assess changes in marine systems, and explore potential applications in citizen science. The use of photographs for species identifications and monitoring has become a popular and useful data collection tool, but its use requires evaluation of its effectiveness in comparison to data collected from live examinations. We used settlement panels in San Francisco Bay, a well-studied and vital coastal ecosystem, to compare standardized measures of the invertebrate fouling community through examination of live organisms in the field and via photographs. Overall, our study found that live measurements were more accurate and better represented these marine communities, having higher richness and diversity measurements than photographic measurements. However, photographic analyses accurately captured the relative abundances of some species and functional groups. We suggest that highly recognizable target taxa or broad scale comparisons of functional group composition are easily tracked through photographs and offer the best potential for research conducted by citizen scientists.