Data supporting 'Ultrafast Tracking of Exciton and Charge Carrier Transport in Optoelectronic Materials on the Nanometer Scale'
Contributors: Schnedermann, Christoph, Sung, Jooyoung, Pandya, raj, Verma, Sachin, Chen, YSR, Gauriot, Nicolas, Bretscher, Hope, Kukura, Philipp, Rao, Akshay
... This data set contains all data underlying the above mentioned publication 'Ultrafast Tracking of Exciton and Charge Carrier Transport in Optoelectronic Materials on the Nanometer Scale' The data is provided as .zip file, containing the main manuscript and supporting information (SI) data organised according to the figure number they appear as in the text. Figures (Main text) Figure 1: spatial and temporal profiles of pulses Figure 2: Pentacene: Point-spread-function, transient dynamics and retrieved fit results as well as the mean-square displacement curves. PDF figure provided Figure 3: Pentacene: Impulsive Raman experiment containing the transient and fitted dynamics as well as the Fourier transform power spectra Figure 4: Same data as in 2 but for Silicon SI_Figures (supporting information) Figure 1: Frequency-resolved Gating traces of pump and probe pulses Figure 2: Spectral phase retrieved for pump and probe Figure 3: Spectrally-dispersed transient absorption microscopy on Si and representative transient Figure 4: Pentacene Fitting overview: raw data, residual of fit and time-resolved standard deviations as well as histogram Figure 5: an-isotropic 2D gaussian fit to Pentacene data Figure 6: absorption spectrum of pentacene Figure 7: transient absorption spectroscopy of same pentacene films Figure 8: wavelength-resolved mean-square displacements of pentacene Figure 9: power-dependence of diffusion coefficient in pentacene
Enabling High Spectral Resolution of Liquid Mixtures in Porous Media by Antidiagonal Projections of Two-Dimensional 1H NMR COSY Spectra.
Contributors: Terenzi, Camilla, Sederman, Andrew, Mantle, Michael, Gladden, Lynn
Transcriptomic analysis of insecticide resistance in the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus.
Contributors: Silva Martins, Walter Fabricio, Wilding, Craig Stephen, Isaacs, Alison Taylor, Rippon, Emily Joy, Megy, Karyn, Donnelly, Martin James
Contributors: Paterson, DT, Eaves, TS, Hewitt, Duncan, Balmforth, NJ, Martinez, DM
... © 2019 American Physical Society. A combined theoretical and experimental study is presented for the flow-induced compaction of a one-dimensional fibrous porous medium near its gel point for deformation at low and high rates. The theory is based on a two-phase model in which the permeability is a function of local solid fraction, and the deformation of the solid is resisted by both a compressive yield stress and a rate-dependent bulk viscosity. All three material properties are parameterized and calibrated for cellulose fibers using sedimentation, permeation, and filtration experiments. It is shown that the incorporation of rate-dependence in the solid stress significantly improves the agreement between theory and experiment when the drainage flow is relatively rapid. The model is extended to rates outside the range where it was calibrated to understand the dynamics of a standard test for pulp suspensions: the Canadian Standard Freeness test. The model adequately captures all of the experimental findings, including the score of the freeness test, which is found to be sensitively controlled by the bulk solid viscosity and to a lesser degree by the permeability law, but depends only weakly on the compressive yield stress.
Computational modelling predicts substantial carbon assimilation gains for C3 plants with a single-celled C4 biochemical pump.
Contributors: Jurić, Ivan, Hibberd, Julian, Blatt, Mike, Burroughs, Nigel J
... Achieving global food security for the estimated 9 billion people by 2050 is a major scientific challenge. Crop productivity is fundamentally restricted by the rate of fixation of atmospheric carbon. The dedicated enzyme, RubisCO, has a low turnover and poor specificity for CO2. This limitation of C3 photosynthesis (the basic carbon-assimilation pathway present in all plants) is alleviated in some lineages by use of carbon-concentrating-mechanisms, such as the C4 cycle-a biochemical pump that concentrates CO2 near RubisCO increasing assimilation efficacy. Most crops use only C3 photosynthesis, so one promising research strategy to boost their productivity focuses on introducing a C4 cycle. The simplest proposal is to use the cycle to concentrate CO2 inside individual chloroplasts. The photosynthetic efficiency would then depend on the leakage of CO2 out of a chloroplast. We examine this proposal with a 3D spatial model of carbon and oxygen diffusion and C4 photosynthetic biochemistry inside a typical C3-plant mesophyll cell geometry. We find that the cost-efficiency of C4 photosynthesis depends on the gas permeability of the chloroplast envelope, the C4 pathway having higher quantum efficiency than C3 for permeabilities below 300 μm/s. However, at higher permeabilities the C4 pathway still provides a substantial boost to carbon assimilation with only a moderate decrease in efficiency. The gains would be capped by the ability of chloroplasts to harvest light, but even under realistic light regimes a 100% boost to carbon assimilation is possible. This could be achieved in conjunction with lower investment in chloroplasts if their cell surface coverage is also reduced. Incorporation of this C4 cycle into C3 crops could thus promote higher growth rates and better drought resistance in dry, high-sunlight climates.
ELITES AND POLITICS: WHO GOVERNS US? Measuring and comparing species of capital in the Chilean political elite, 1990-2010
Contributors: Garrido-Vergara, Luis Abelardo
... In this study, the Bourdieusian concepts of species of capital and habitus are applied to the field of elites. Although sociological research has examined the reproduction of Chile’s elites, there is little empirical evidence as to how different forms of capital operate within them. Based on a survey of the country’s elites, this thesis examines the effect of different forms of capital (cultural, social and political) on access to strategic positions in the legislative and executive branches of government. It focuses on the political elite in the 20 years between 1990, when military dictator Augusto Pinochet handed over the presidency to Patricio Aylwin, his democratically elected successor, and 2010, the end of President Michelle Bachelet’s first government. At least three points are germane to this analysis: (1) understanding the nature of the party elites during the political transition; (2) describing and explaining the main aspects of the party elites’ background and social resources, including their family networks (independent variables); and (3) exploring the effect of those variables on individuals’ chances of achieving strategic positions in the political field, comparing the legislative and executive branches as represented by deputies and ministers (dependent variable). The data was obtained through a survey of 386 members of the nucleus of the Chilean political elite, enquiring about their social, academic and family background, social resources and professional and political careers, among other topics. The empirical analysis includes network analysis of family capital and six logit models for three periods: 1990-2000, 2000-2010 and 1990-2010. The results indicate that age, gender and variables related to cultural, social and political capital are relevant for becoming both a deputy and a minister, but with opposite effects. Only family capital has a significant effect in the same direction for the two branches of government. However, the effects of the variables vary when differentiating by period. The originality of the research lies in the collection and analysis of new empirical data that throws light on a subject of longstanding speculation .
Contributors: Schleicher, Judith, Eklund, Johanna, Barnes, Megan, Geldmann, Jonas, Oldekop, Johan A, Jones, Julia PG
... The awareness of the need for robust impact evaluations in conservation is growing, and statistical matching techniques are increasingly being use to assess the impacts of conservation interventions. Used appropriately, matching approaches are powerful tools, but they also pose potential pitfalls. We present important considerations and best practice when using matching in conservation science. We identify three steps in a matching analysis. The first step requires a clear theory of change to inform selection of treatment and controls, accounting for real world complexities and potential spill-over effects. The second step involves selecting the appropriate covariates and matching approach. The third step is assessing the quality of the matching by carrying out a series of checks. The second and third steps can be repeated and should be finalized before outcomes are explored. Future conservation impact evaluations could be improved by increased planning of evaluations alongside the intervention, better integration of qualitative methods, considering spill-over effects at larger spatial scales, and more publication of pre-analysis plans. This will require more serious engagement of conservation scientists, practitioners and funders to mainstream robust impact evaluations into conservation. We hope that this paper will improve the quality of evaluations, and help direct future research to continue to improve the approaches on offer.
Expression Atlas update--a database of gene and transcript expression from microarray- and sequencing-based functional genomics experiments.
Contributors: Petryszak, Robert, Burdett, Tony, Fiorelli, Benedetto, Fonseca, Nuno A, Gonzalez-Porta, Mar, Hastings, Emma, Huber, Wolfgang, Jupp, Simon, Keays, Maria, Kryvych, Nataliya
Contributors: Schleicher, Judith, Zaehringer, Julie, Fastre, Constance, Vira, Bhaskar, Visconti, Piero, Sandbrook, Christopher
... In light of continuing biodiversity loss globally, one ambitious proposal has gained considerable traction amongst conservationists: the goal to protect half the Earth. Our analysis suggests that at least 1 billion people live in places that would be protected if the Half Earth proposal were implemented within all ecoregions. Considering the social and economic impacts of such proposals is central to addressing social and environmental justice concerns, and assessing their acceptability and feasibility.
Contributors: Rae, Christopher
... Ribosomes translate messenger RNA (mRNA) into protein in all living cells. The faultless production of protein is critical for a vast array of catalytic and structural roles and is essential for the survival of the cell. Ribosomes themselves are made up of both RNA and protein, and are composed of two subunits, each with a separate function. The small subunit reads the mRNA message, directing the large subunit to synthesize a sequence of amino acids to form a protein. In many cases, mRNA may be damaged or truncated in such a way that ribosomes reach the end of the message and become trapped. Rescuing stalled ribosomes is essential as an otherwise lethal build-up of unproductive ribosomes diminishes the translation capacity of a cell. This study focuses on an essential pathway called trans-translation, which resolves stalled ribosomes in nearly all bacteria. Two factors, transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and small protein B (SmpB), form a complex that rescues the ribosome by terminating translation and releasing the ribosome from the mRNA message. In vitro biochemistry in conjunction with cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) was used to visualize frozen snapshots of the ribosome undergoing trans-translation. The structures reveal the coordinated movement of tmRNA and SmpB through the ribosome. Binding interactions between tmRNA-SmpB and the ribosome explain why trans-translation only begins on ribosomes that reach the end of an mRNA and not for actively translation ones. SmpB plays an essential role in positioning tmRNA as together they mimic both a tRNA and mRNA. The movement of tmRNA-SmpB results in a stepwise message swapping from the original mRNA to tmRNA, facilitating the rescue of stalled ribosomes. Overall, this structural study advances our atomic level understanding of the mechanism of trans-translation.