Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Upper Paleozoic Sangre De Cristo Formation, southwestern San Miguel County, New Mexico
Contributors: Lucas, Spencer G., Krainer, Karl, Dimichele, William A., Voigt, Sebastian, Berman, David S., Henrici, Amy C., Tanner, Lawrence H., Chaney, Dan S., Elrick, Scott D., Nelson, W. John
De Novo characterization of transcriptomes from two North American Papaipema stem-borers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Contributors: Oppenheim, Sara J., Feindt, Wiebke, DeSalle, Rob, Goldstein, Paul Z.
Contributors: Pesendorfer, Mario B., Langin, Kathryn M., Cohen, Brian, Principe, Zachary, Morrison, Scott A., Sillett, T. S.
Contributors: Robertson, Jeanne M., Langin, Kathryn M., Sillett, T. S., Morrison, Scott A., Ghalambor, Cameron K., Funk, W. C.
Approaches for the Direct Estimation of Rate of Increase in Population Size ( ? ) Using Capture-Recapture Data
Contributors: Nichols, James D., Sillett, T. Scott, Hines, James E., Holmes, Richard T., Ralph, C. John, Rich, Terrell D.
Increasing conservation translocation success by building social functionality in released populations
Contributors: Goldenberg, Shifra Z., Owen, Megan A., Brown, Janine L., Wittemyer, George, Oo, Zaw Min, Leimgruber, Peter
... The importance of animal behavior to successful wildlife translocations has been acknowledged in recent decades, and it has been increasingly considered and more frequently incorporated into translocation management and research. However, explicit consideration of social behavior is often overlooked in this context. Social relationships take a variety of forms (e.g., cooperative partners, members of a dominance hierarchy, territorial neighbors) and play important roles in survival, reproduction, and resource exploitation. We review the ways in which concepts from studies of social behavior in wild populations may be leveraged to increase translocation success. Social structure and cohesion, social roles, social learning, and social competency may all be important to consider in building populations that are resilient and likely to persist. We argue that relevant data collected at all stages of translocation, including candidate selection, and during pre-release, release, and post-release monitoring, may inform the establishment of functional social structure post-release in species dependent on social processes. Integrating knowledge of social behavior into management decisions may be particularly useful when comparing the success of alternative release protocols or release candidate behavioral traits. Complementary datasets on a range of fitness-related metrics post-release will further leverage our understanding of social establishment in translocated populations. We illustrate the potential of these ideas using Asian and African elephants as a model. Both species are particularly challenging to manage but are translocated frequently; thus, evidence-based protocols for conservation translocations of elephants are urgently needed. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Intact vs. homogenized subsampling: testing impacts of pre-extraction processing of multi-species samples on invasive species detection
Contributors: Lohan, Katrina M. Pagenkopp, Campbell, Tracy L., Guo, Jinchen, Wheelock, Melinda, DiMaria, Ruth A., Geller, Jonathan B.
... With the increasing use of metagenetics for invasive species monitoring in aquatic habitats, fully assessing sample pre-processing is essential for appropriate data interpretation. This includes the impact of subsampling before DNA extraction, a common practice for processing zooplankton and other mixed samples where the volume of the sample exceeds the maximum allowed in a commercial DNA extraction kit. Our goal for this study was to assess the impact of these preprocessing methods on detecting invasive species through 1) examining operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness assessments and 2) detecting low abundance OTUs in mixed samples. We used tagged amplicon high throughput sequencing (HTS) to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene from zooplankton samples collected from multiple bays. We then used a step-wise approach to assess the impacts of replication and homogenizing DNA extracts on the resulting OTU richness. We compared the results from 1) a single, intact subsample, 2) multiple, intact subsample replicates, 3) a single, homogenized subsample, or 4) multiple, homogenized subsample replicates. We expected OTU richness to be highest for multiple subsamples and for those homogenized, with subsequent impacts on rare OTU detection. Our results showed that homogenizing a sample prior to DNA extraction increased the number of OTUs recovered, particularly low abundance OTUs. Additionally, processing a greater number of extraction replicates increased the OTU richness of each sample, regardless of the extraction pre-processing conducted. However, with the increasing OTUs, more sequences per replicate were required to detect all OTUs. Thus, when detection of low abundance OTUs is a goal, particularly for early detection of invasive species, homogenizing multispecies samples is recommended due to the clear increase in rare OTUs detected.
Contributors: Lockshin, Nora S., Bennett, R. William,III
... Over the course of the Field Book Project, the Smithsonian Institution Archives in partnership with the Smithsonian Libraries and the Biodiversity Heritage Library, numerous volumes of manuscripts, notes and albums have been assessed, treated at various levels, digitized, and rehoused to ensure access and long-term preservation. These many opportunities have provided ample scope for exploring how best to meet the needs of the books as well as those of the Field Book Project, by adapting established conservation and preservation treatments and developing best practices to preserve the physical material culture and intellectual contents of these particular types of commonplace book.
Demographic Tipping Points as Early Indicators of Vulnerability for Slow-Breeding Megafaunal Populations
Contributors: de Silva, Shermin, Leimgruber, Peter
... Decisions based on trends in population abundance and distribution may fail to protect populations of slow-breeding, long-lived megafauna from irrevocable decline if they ignore demographic constraints. For such taxa, we urge that effort be directed at understanding the interactions among vital rates governing population growth rates, rather than on predicting probabilities of extinction. The proximity of a population to demographic tipping points, i.e., where growth rate switches from positive to negative, can signal vulnerability to perturbation long before numbers drop below a point of no return. We define the "demographic safe space" as the combination of key vital rates that support a non-negative growth rate and illustrate this approach for Asian elephants. Through simulations, we find that even with optimal reproduction, Asian elephant populations cannot tolerate annual female mortality rates exceeding 7.5%. If adult mortality is very low (3%/year), populations can tolerate high annual mortality in calves below age 3 (up to 31.5%/year), or slow female reproduction (primiparity at 30 years or average inter-birth interval of up to 7.68 years). We then evaluate the potential impact of current threats, showing that near-optimal reproduction and high calf survival is necessary to offset even modestly increased mortality among adult female age classes. We suggest that rather than rely on simple counts or "viability" assessments, conservation planners for slow-breeding megafauna should consider demographic tipping points and strive to keep populations within their safe spaces.
The Gateways Project 2018: Surveys in Groswater Bay and Excavations at Hart Chalet, Grand Isle, and Grand Plain
Contributors: Fitzhugh, William W., Fitzhugh, William W.
... This monograph reports archaeological surveys and excavations in Hamilton Inlet and Groswater Bay, Labrador that expand information on the prehistory and recent Innu, Inuit, and settler cultures. Results from the Quebec Lower North Shore include knowledge of 17-18th century Inuit and their interactions with Europeans, including the first evidence of Inuit occupation of the St. Paul River region.