Uganda (2015): Monitoring Equity and Quality of Care for Family planning services at Profam in Uganda. Round .
Contributors: Kaula, Henry, Buyungo, Peter
... In 2008, PACE started the Womenâs Health Program (WHP), a reproductive health program that focuses on provision of long term methods (LTM) of family planning and provision of post abortion care (PAC) services. WHP aims to ensure women of reproductive age from various socio economic strata have access to these services whenever they need them. The study aims to understand whether the Profam franchise is providing equitable access to services. Using a client exit approach, the study will determine whether these outlets are reaching people that are marginalized and less able than others to access health services.
Contributors: Khim Sotheary
... Client satisfaction is known to impact several aspects of client behavior: intention return to a facility, intention to recommend a facility to others, and adherence to provider's advice. By using satisfaction as a proxy for clients’ future intentions, program and research teams can use results from this questionnaire to flag areas that need improvement in PSI facilities. This survey was conducted among female clients who have received any FP service/counseling at a SQHN provider. Clients were approached and asked informed consent for an interview immediately after they left from the facility.
Data from: "Transcriptome sequences for Campanula gentilis" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 April 2015 – 31 May 2015
Contributors: Demet, Töre, Luebert, Federico, Mansion, Guilhem, Muller, Ludo A. H.
... In this report, we present the transcriptome of a single accession of Campanula gentilis Kovanda, obtained through the sequencing of both a normalized and a non-normalized cDNA library generated from stem and leaf tissue. The resources we provide include the raw sequence reads, the assembled contigs, the putative open reading frames, the contig/ORF annotations and the normalized as well as non-normalized expression levels.
Contributors: Kosimov, Sherzod
... Project reports and related publications
Contributors: Qodax, Aden, Kays Megan
... Since the launch of the programs, PSI/Somaliland has been promoting Water Treatment (BiyoSifeeye), Birth spacing (Nasiye products) and Diarrheal Treatment (Shuban-Daweeye) products and life saving behaviours (i.e. health facility delivery, Antenatal care, Infant and Young child feeding practices) through a variety of channels, such as mass media (national TV and radio channels), peer education, community-theatre, interpersonal communication, information, education and communication (IEC) materials, including outdoor advertising and special events. This study measured media consumption habits of Somali women as well as their recall of PSI messaging.
Data from: Spatiotemporal analysis of gene flow in Chesapeake Bay Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin)
Contributors: Converse, Paul E., Kuchta, Shawn R., Roosenburg, Willem M., Henry, Paula F.P., King, Tim L., Haramis, G. Michael
... There is widespread concern regarding the impacts of anthropogenic activities on connectivity among populations of plants and animals, and understanding how contemporary and historical processes shape metapopulation dynamics is crucial for setting appropriate conservation targets. We used genetic data to identify population clusters and quantify gene flow over historical and contemporary time frames in the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin). This species has a long and complicated history with humans, including commercial over-harvesting and subsequent translocation events during the early twentieth century. Today, terrapins face threats from habitat loss and mortality in fisheries bycatch. To evaluate population structure and gene flow among Diamondback Terrapin populations in the Chesapeake Bay region, we sampled 617 individuals from 15 localities, and screened individuals at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Our goals were to demarcate metapopulation structure, quantify genetic diversity, estimate effective population sizes, and document temporal changes in gene flow. We found that terrapins in the Chesapeake Bay region harbor high levels of genetic diversity and form four populations. Effective population sizes were variable. Among most population comparisons, estimates of historical and contemporary terrapin gene flow were generally low (m ≈ 0.01). However, we detected a substantial increase in contemporary gene flow into Chesapeake Bay from populations outside the bay, as well as between two populations within Chesapeake Bay, possibly as a consequence of translocations during the early twentieth century. Our study shows that inferences across multiple time scales are needed to evaluate population connectivity, especially as recent changes may identify threats to population persistence.
Thailand (2014): HIV/AIDS TRaC Study among Transgenders in Pattaya, Sattahip and Sriracha. Second Round.
Contributors: Duangta Pawa, Yaowalak Jittakoat, Gary Mundy
... This study is the second round of the Tracking Results Continuously (TRaC) survey among transgenders. The purpose of the TRaC survey is to provide evidence for monitoring and implementation of PSI/Thailand's HIV prevention program. Information from this study will be used to develop behavior change communication interventions for HIV prevention including branding, key messages, and/or campaigns for condom use, lubricant use, and HIV and STI testing. The study population for this TRaC were transgender women in Pattaya, Sattahip and Sriracha, aged 18-35. Time-location sampling was used to recruit this hard-to-reach group, and a structured questionnaire designed in tablet was used to collect data. Coarsened Exact Matching (CEM) was used to match treated individuals with those in a control group, based on specific covariates, in order to estimate the effect of treatment on the behavioral outcomes of interest.
Kenya (2013-2014) Insights into Potential Users and Messaging for HIV Oral Self-Test Kits in Kenya. Round 1
Contributors: PSI, Kenya, PSI, Kenya
... The National AIDS & STI Control Programme has a policy framework on HIV oral self-testing but the policy guidelines are yet to be adopted in the country as there is inadequate information on whether their use would be acceptable and if so, who is likely to seek oral HIV self-testing, what are the incentives of different types of individuals to self-test, what messaging and other methods might be effective for increasing the acceptability and demand for self-tests, particularly among groups th at this approach might want to target. PSI implemented a cross-sectional exploratory study to identify populations most likely to access oral HIV self-test kits and associated incentives for self-testing. The data will also explore how this information can inform the development of messages and other relevant approaches to increase demand for oral HIV self-testing among potential consumers. The main objective of this study is to inform the design and implementation of pilot projects to increase the use of HIV oral self-testing in Kenya. This will involve identifying factors associated with potential uptake of HIV self-testing among the general and key population groups. The specific aims are to: 1) Determine likely users of oral HIV self-test kits among the general population and key populations at risk in urban and rural settings; 2) Identify incentives for using oral HIV self-test kits among the general population and key populations at risk in urban and rural settings; 3) Identify and test key messages and approaches to increase demand and use of oral HIV self-test kits. A mixed method study that includes of a quantitative component [a closed-ended questionnaire survey] and a qualitative component [an open-ended questionnaire interviews] with individuals from the community is proposed. The study groups will be as follows: 1) General population women (18-49 years) and men (18-49 years; 2) Key population groups FSW (18-49 years) and MSM (18-49 years)
Distinctive proteolytic activity of cell envelope proteinase of Lactobacillus helveticus isolated from airag, a traditional Mongolian fermented mare's milk
Contributors: Mari Miyamoto, Hiroshi M. Ueno, Masayuki Watanabe, Yumi Tatsuma, Yasuyuki Seto, Taku Miyamoto, Hadjime Nakajima
... Airag is a traditional fermented milk of Mongolia that is usually made from raw mare's milk. Lactobacillus helveticus is one of the lactic acid bacteria most frequently isolated from airag. In this study, we investigated the genetic and physiological characteristics of L. helveticus strains isolated from airag and clarified their significance in airag by comparing them with strains from different sources. Six strains of L. helveticus were isolated from five home-made airag samples collected from different regions of Mongolia. The optimal temperature for acidification in skim milk was 30 to 35°C for all the Mongolian strains, which is lower than those for the reference strains (JCM 1554 and JCM 1120T) isolated from European cheeses. All of the strains had a prtH1-like gene encoding a variant type of cell envelope proteinase (CEP). The CEP amino acid sequence in Snow Brand Typeculture (SBT) 11087 isolated from airag shared 71% identity with PrtH of L. helveticus CNRZ32 (AAD50643.1) but 98% identity with PrtH of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 (AEG40278.1) isolated from a traditional fermented milk in Tibet. The proteolytic activities of the CEP from SBT11087 on artificial substrate (N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide) and pure casein were measured using an intact-cell degradation assay. The activity of the CEP from SBT11087 was observed to be weak and exhibited a lower optimal temperature (40°C) than those from the reference strains (45–50°C). The specificity of the SBT11087 CEP for αS1-casein was typical of the CEPs previously reported in L. helveticus, as determined through the degradation profiles obtained through gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses. In contrast, the degradation profile of β-casein revealed that the CEP of SBT11087 primarily hydrolyzes its C-terminal domain and hydrolyzed nine of the 16 cleavage sites shared among the CEPs of other L. helveticus strains. Thus, the CEP of SBT11087 is distinct from those from previously reported L. helveticus strains in terms of its optimal temperature and its degradation of β-casein. Therefore, the Mongolian L. helveticus strains differ from other strains of the species in different collections and are specifically suited for the natural lactic acid bacterial population in airag.
Contributors: Liedigk, Rasmus, Roos, Christian, Brameier, Markus, Zinner, Dietmar
... Background: The evolutionary history of the Old World monkey tribe Papionini comprising the genera Macaca, Mandrillus, Cercocebus, Lophocebus, Theropithecus, Rungwecebus and Papio is still matter of debate. Although the African Papionini (subtribe Papionina) are generally considered to be the sister lineage to the Asian Papionini (subtribe Macacina), previous studies based on morphological data, nuclear or mitochondrial sequences have shown contradictory phylogenetic relationships among and within both subtribes. To further elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among papionins and to estimate divergence ages we generated mitochondrial genome data and combined them with previously published sequences. Results: Our mitochondrial gene tree comprises 33 papionins representing all genera of the tribe except Rungwecebus. In contrast to most previous studies, the obtained phylogeny suggests a division of the Papionini into three main mitochondrial clades with similar ages: 1) Papio, Theropithecus, Lophocebus; 2) Mandrillus, Cercocebus; and 3) Macaca; the Mandrillus + Cercocebus clade appears to be more closely related to Macaca than to the other African Papionini. Further, we find paraphyletic relationships within the Mandrillus + Cercocebus clade as well as in Papio. Relationships among Theropithecus, Lophocebus and Papio remain unresolved. Divergence ages reveal initial splits within the three mitochondrial clades around the Miocene/Pliocene boundary and differentiation of Macaca species groups occurred on a similar time scale as those found between genera of the subtribe Papionina. Conclusion: Due to the largely well-resolved mitochondrial phylogeny, our study provides new insights into the evolutionary history of the Papionini. Results show some contradictory relationships in comparison to previous analyses, notably the paraphyly within the Cercocebus + Mandrillus clade and three instead of only two major mitochondrial clades. Divergence ages among species groups of macaques are similar to those among African Papionini genera, suggesting that diversification of the mitochondrial genome is of a similar magnitude in both subtribes. However, since our mitochondrial tree represents just a single gene tree that most likely does not reflect the true species tree, extensive nuclear sequence data is required to illuminate the true species phylogeny of papionins and to trace possible ancient hybridization events among lineages.