### 757 results for qubit oscillator frequency

Contributors: Güngördü, Utkan, Kestner, J. P.

Date: 2018-01-01

Characterizing charge noise is of prime importance to the semiconductor spin **qubit** community. We analyze the echo amplitude data from a recent experiment [Yoneda et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 102 (2018)] and note that the data shows small but consistent deviations from a 1/fˣ noise power spectrum at the higher **frequencies** in the measured range. We report the results of using a physical noise model based on two-level fluctuators to fit the data and find that it can mostly explain the deviations. While our results are suggestive rather than conclusive, they provide what may be an early indication of a high-**frequency** cutoff in the charge noise. The location of this cutoff, where the power spectral density of the noise gradually rolls off from 1/f to 1/f² , crucial knowledge for designing precise **qubit** control pulses, is given by our fit of the data to be around 200 kHz....cutoff **frequency**...spin **qubit** ... Characterizing charge noise is of prime importance to the semiconductor spin **qubit** community. We analyze the echo amplitude data from a recent experiment [Yoneda et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 102 (2018)] and note that the data shows small but consistent deviations from a 1/fˣ noise power spectrum at the higher **frequencies** in the measured range. We report the results of using a physical noise model based on two-level fluctuators to fit the data and find that it can mostly explain the deviations. While our results are suggestive rather than conclusive, they provide what may be an early indication of a high-**frequency** cutoff in the charge noise. The location of this cutoff, where the power spectral density of the noise gradually rolls off from 1/f to 1/f² , crucial knowledge for designing precise **qubit** control pulses, is given by our fit of the data to be around 200 kHz.

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Contributors: Fan, Jaimie, Buschman, Timothy J.

Date: 2017-07-26

The current variety of treatment options for epilepsy leaves 30% of those who suffer from this chronic neurological disease without a cure. Therefore, this senior thesis project aims to uncover new insights about the brain structure that underlies susceptibility to epilepsy in hopes that a greater understanding of this underlying structure will catalyze the discovery of novel therapeutic methods which target these underlying differences in brain structure. To drive the discovery of new insights about underlying structure, this project addresses the following tension found in the literature: high **frequency** **oscillations** occur in both the brains of those with epilepsy and in the brains of those without epilepsy. Only when high **frequency** **oscillations** occur in the brains of those with epilepsy does the brain enter a state of unstable dynamics and seizure activity. This suggests that there is a difference in underlying structure between epileptic and non-epileptic brains, and this study uses computational modeling of neuronal firing to characterize these differences.
First, based on a firing rate model, we find that within the phase space of the weight values, there is a band of stability from which one might predict the stability of a set of weights. Then, in the next two versions of the model, we add Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic plasticity. Only through the addition of Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic plasticity does high **frequency** **oscillation**, the manipulation described in our driving question, have a lasting effect on the weights. With the addition of a rate based Hebbian plasticity model to the base firing rate model, we find that weights can be perturbed from this band of stability through Hebbian plasticity. Adding a weight based homeostatic plasticity model to the base firing rate and Hebbian plasticity model then gives insight into the fact that having a target weight within a certain location with respect to the band of stability can rescue stability of a set of original weights from the destabilizing effects of Hebbian plasticity. Finally, we explore the effect of high **frequency** **oscillation** on various weight combinations within the phase space, and we find that certain weight combinations are projected to an unstable state through high **frequency** **oscillation** while other weight combinations remain at a stable state even in the face of high **frequency** **oscillation**. The unifying characteristic of those weights which remain stable in the face of high **frequency** **oscillation** remains an open question. However, in the process of investigating high **frequency** **oscillations**, it was found that weights on the edge of the band of stability are more robust to instability through Hebbian plasticity than weights on the band of stability that are further from the edge.
These results suggest that the differential response to high **frequency** **oscillation** between epileptic and non-epileptic brains can be attributed at least in part to the location of weights with respect to the band of stability. ... The current variety of treatment options for epilepsy leaves 30% of those who suffer from this chronic neurological disease without a cure. Therefore, this senior thesis project aims to uncover new insights about the brain structure that underlies susceptibility to epilepsy in hopes that a greater understanding of this underlying structure will catalyze the discovery of novel therapeutic methods which target these underlying differences in brain structure. To drive the discovery of new insights about underlying structure, this project addresses the following tension found in the literature: high **frequency** **oscillations** occur in both the brains of those with epilepsy and in the brains of those without epilepsy. Only when high **frequency** **oscillations** occur in the brains of those with epilepsy does the brain enter a state of unstable dynamics and seizure activity. This suggests that there is a difference in underlying structure between epileptic and non-epileptic brains, and this study uses computational modeling of neuronal firing to characterize these differences.
First, based on a firing rate model, we find that within the phase space of the weight values, there is a band of stability from which one might predict the stability of a set of weights. Then, in the next two versions of the model, we add Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic plasticity. Only through the addition of Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic plasticity does high **frequency** **oscillation**, the manipulation described in our driving question, have a lasting effect on the weights. With the addition of a rate based Hebbian plasticity model to the base firing rate model, we find that weights can be perturbed from this band of stability through Hebbian plasticity. Adding a weight based homeostatic plasticity model to the base firing rate and Hebbian plasticity model then gives insight into the fact that having a target weight within a certain location with respect to the band of stability can rescue stability of a set of original weights from the destabilizing effects of Hebbian plasticity. Finally, we explore the effect of high **frequency** **oscillation** on various weight combinations within the phase space, and we find that certain weight combinations are projected to an unstable state through high **frequency** **oscillation** while other weight combinations remain at a stable state even in the face of high **frequency** **oscillation**. The unifying characteristic of those weights which remain stable in the face of high **frequency** **oscillation** remains an open question. However, in the process of investigating high **frequency** **oscillations**, it was found that weights on the edge of the band of stability are more robust to instability through Hebbian plasticity than weights on the band of stability that are further from the edge.
These results suggest that the differential response to high **frequency** **oscillation** between epileptic and non-epileptic brains can be attributed at least in part to the location of weights with respect to the band of stability.

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Contributors: Varnava, Christiana

Date: 2018-02-07

Sources of entangled pairs of photons can be used for encoding signals in quantum-encrypted communications, allowing a sender, Alice, and a receiver, Bob, to exchange keys without the possibility of eavesdropping. In fact, any quantum information system would require single and entangled photons to serve as **qubits**. For this purpose, semiconductor quantum dots (QD) have been extensively studied for their ability to produce entangled light and function as single photon sources.
The quality of such sources is evaluated based on three criteria: high efficiency, small multi-photon probability, and quantum indistinguishability. In this work, a simple quantum dot-based LED (E-LED) was used as a quantum light source for on-demand emission, indicating the potential for use as quantum information devices. Limitations of the device include the fine-structure splitting of the quantum dot excitons, their coherence lengths and charge carrier interactions in the structure.
The quantum dot-based light emitting diode was initially shown to operate in pulsed mode under AC bias **frequencies** of up to several hundreds of MHz, without compromising the quality of emission. In a Hong-ou-Mandel interference type experiment, the quantum dot photons were shown to interfere with dissimilar photons from a laser, achieving high two-photon interference (TPI) visibilities. Quantum entanglement from a QD photon pair was also measured in pulsed mode, where the QD-based entangled-LED (E-LED) was electrically injected at a **frequency** of 203 MHz.
After verifying indistinguishability and good entanglement properties from the QD photons under the above conditions, a quantum relay over 1km of fibre was demonstrated, using input **qubits** from a laser source. The average relay fidelity was high enough to allow for error correction for this BB84-type scheme. To improve the properties of the QD emission, an E-LED was developed based on droplet epitaxy (D-E) QDs, using a different QD growth technique. The relevant chapter outlines the process of QD growth and finally demonstration of quantum entanglement from an electrically injected diode, yielding improvements compared to previous E-LED devices.
For the same reason, an alternative method of E-LED operation based on resonant two-photon excitation of the QD was explored. Analysis of Rabi **oscillations** in a quantum dot with a bound exciton state demonstrated coupling of the ground state and the biexciton state by the external **oscillating** field of a laser, therefore allowing the transition between the two states. The results include a considerable improvement in the coherence length of the QD emission, which is crucial for future quantum network applications. We believe that extending this research can find application in quantum cryptography and in realising the interface of a quantum network, based on semiconductor nanotechnology. ... Sources of entangled pairs of photons can be used for encoding signals in quantum-encrypted communications, allowing a sender, Alice, and a receiver, Bob, to exchange keys without the possibility of eavesdropping. In fact, any quantum information system would require single and entangled photons to serve as **qubits**. For this purpose, semiconductor quantum dots (QD) have been extensively studied for their ability to produce entangled light and function as single photon sources.
The quality of such sources is evaluated based on three criteria: high efficiency, small multi-photon probability, and quantum indistinguishability. In this work, a simple quantum dot-based LED (E-LED) was used as a quantum light source for on-demand emission, indicating the potential for use as quantum information devices. Limitations of the device include the fine-structure splitting of the quantum dot excitons, their coherence lengths and charge carrier interactions in the structure.
The quantum dot-based light emitting diode was initially shown to operate in pulsed mode under AC bias **frequencies** of up to several hundreds of MHz, without compromising the quality of emission. In a Hong-ou-Mandel interference type experiment, the quantum dot photons were shown to interfere with dissimilar photons from a laser, achieving high two-photon interference (TPI) visibilities. Quantum entanglement from a QD photon pair was also measured in pulsed mode, where the QD-based entangled-LED (E-LED) was electrically injected at a **frequency** of 203 MHz.
After verifying indistinguishability and good entanglement properties from the QD photons under the above conditions, a quantum relay over 1km of fibre was demonstrated, using input **qubits** from a laser source. The average relay fidelity was high enough to allow for error correction for this BB84-type scheme. To improve the properties of the QD emission, an E-LED was developed based on droplet epitaxy (D-E) QDs, using a different QD growth technique. The relevant chapter outlines the process of QD growth and finally demonstration of quantum entanglement from an electrically injected diode, yielding improvements compared to previous E-LED devices.
For the same reason, an alternative method of E-LED operation based on resonant two-photon excitation of the QD was explored. Analysis of Rabi **oscillations** in a quantum dot with a bound exciton state demonstrated coupling of the ground state and the biexciton state by the external **oscillating** field of a laser, therefore allowing the transition between the two states. The results include a considerable improvement in the coherence length of the QD emission, which is crucial for future quantum network applications. We believe that extending this research can find application in quantum cryptography and in realising the interface of a quantum network, based on semiconductor nanotechnology.

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Contributors: Walter, Stefan, Nunnenkamp, Andreas, Bruder, Christoph

Date: 2018-10-31

Synchronization is a universal phenomenon that is important both in fundamental studies and in technical applications. Here we investigate synchronization in the simplest quantum-mechanical scenario possible, i.e., a quantum-mechanical self-sustained **oscillator** coupled to an external harmonic drive. Using the power spectrum we analyze synchronization in terms of **frequency** entrainment and **frequency** locking in close analogy to the classical case. We show that there is a steplike crossover to a synchronized state as a function of the driving strength. In contrast to the classical case, there is a finite threshold value in driving. Quantum noise reduces the synchronized region and leads to a deviation from strict **frequency** locking. ... Synchronization is a universal phenomenon that is important both in fundamental studies and in technical applications. Here we investigate synchronization in the simplest quantum-mechanical scenario possible, i.e., a quantum-mechanical self-sustained **oscillator** coupled to an external harmonic drive. Using the power spectrum we analyze synchronization in terms of **frequency** entrainment and **frequency** locking in close analogy to the classical case. We show that there is a steplike crossover to a synchronized state as a function of the driving strength. In contrast to the classical case, there is a finite threshold value in driving. Quantum noise reduces the synchronized region and leads to a deviation from strict **frequency** locking.

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Contributors: Orazkhan B., Kuttybekova С., Baymakhan A., Baymakhan R.

Date: 2017-11-14

main **frequencies**...The information database on the accuracy of the computed values of the **frequency** characteristics of free **oscillations** of a triangular-shaped dam rigidly fixed to a rock foundation decided by different authors is analyzed. As a result of the analysis of the influence of the finite element forms, a special criterion is proposed that allows to assign a minimum amount of the design of the target nodal masses. The results of a finite element calculation for finding the **frequency** characteristics of a complex large-scale object-consisting of mountain slope systems in the interrelation between themselves and with a deformable base-are presented. The shape of **oscillations** corresponding to five rock-**frequencies** with respect to a rock base is shown ... The information database on the accuracy of the computed values of the **frequency** characteristics of free **oscillations** of a triangular-shaped dam rigidly fixed to a rock foundation decided by different authors is analyzed. As a result of the analysis of the influence of the finite element forms, a special criterion is proposed that allows to assign a minimum amount of the design of the target nodal masses. The results of a finite element calculation for finding the **frequency** characteristics of a complex large-scale object-consisting of mountain slope systems in the interrelation between themselves and with a deformable base-are presented. The shape of **oscillations** corresponding to five rock-**frequencies** with respect to a rock base is shown

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Contributors: Rosaleny, Lorena E., Cardona-Serra, Salvador, Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro, Escalera-Moreno, Luis, Baldoví, José J., Gołȩbiewska, Violetta, Wlazło, Karolina, Casino, Patricia, Prima-García, Helena, Coronado, Eugenio

Date: 2018-08-16

The pursuit of novel functional building blocks for the emerging field of quantum computing is one of the most appealing topics in the context of quantum technologies. Herein we showcase the urgency of introducing peptides as versatile platforms for quantum computing. In particular, we focus on lanthanide-binding tags, originally developed for the study of protein structure. We use pulsed electronic paramagnetic resonance to demonstrate quantum coherent **oscillations** in both neodymium and gadolinium peptidic **qubits**. Calculations based on density functional theory followed by a ligand field analysis indicate the possibility of influencing the nature of the spin **qubit** states by means of controlled changes in the peptidic sequence. We conclude with an overview of the challenges and opportunities opened by this interdisciplinary field. ... The pursuit of novel functional building blocks for the emerging field of quantum computing is one of the most appealing topics in the context of quantum technologies. Herein we showcase the urgency of introducing peptides as versatile platforms for quantum computing. In particular, we focus on lanthanide-binding tags, originally developed for the study of protein structure. We use pulsed electronic paramagnetic resonance to demonstrate quantum coherent **oscillations** in both neodymium and gadolinium peptidic **qubits**. Calculations based on density functional theory followed by a ligand field analysis indicate the possibility of influencing the nature of the spin **qubit** states by means of controlled changes in the peptidic sequence. We conclude with an overview of the challenges and opportunities opened by this interdisciplinary field.

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### A time and **frequency** domain analysis of the effect of vibrating fuel assemblies on the neutron noise

Contributors: Vidal-Ferràndiz A, A. Carreno, D. Ginestar, C. Demaziere, G. Verdu

Date: 2020-03-01

The mechanical vibrations of fuel assemblies have been shown to give rise to high levels of neutron
noise, triggering in some circumstances the necessity to operate nuclear reactors at a reduced
power level. This work analyses the eect in the neutron field of the **oscillation** of one single
fuel assembly. Results show two dierent eects in the neutron field caused by the fuel assembly
vibration. First, a global slow variation of the total reactor power due to a change in the criticality
of the system. Second, an **oscillation** in the neutron flux in-phase with the assembly vibration. This
second eect has a strong spatial dependence that can be used to localize the **oscillating** assembly.
This paper shows a comparison between a time-domain and a **frequency**-domain analysis of the
phenomena to calculate the spatial response of the neutron noise. Numerical results show a really
close agreement between these two approaches....**frequency** domain ... The mechanical vibrations of fuel assemblies have been shown to give rise to high levels of neutron
noise, triggering in some circumstances the necessity to operate nuclear reactors at a reduced
power level. This work analyses the eect in the neutron field of the **oscillation** of one single
fuel assembly. Results show two dierent eects in the neutron field caused by the fuel assembly
vibration. First, a global slow variation of the total reactor power due to a change in the criticality
of the system. Second, an **oscillation** in the neutron flux in-phase with the assembly vibration. This
second eect has a strong spatial dependence that can be used to localize the **oscillating** assembly.
This paper shows a comparison between a time-domain and a **frequency**-domain analysis of the
phenomena to calculate the spatial response of the neutron noise. Numerical results show a really
close agreement between these two approaches.

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Contributors: Senior, Roger J

Date: 2007-01-01

The quantum statistics of a laser result in noise when measurements of the beam are made. This noise sets a classical limit beyond which a laser cannot be used with increasing sensitivity. This quantum noise limit is imposed on many of the uses of lasers currently, especially in power limited devices such as optical communications. The statistics of the laser photon field can be modified to produce a non-classical state resulting in lower noise than the quantum noise limit when detected appropriately. This state, called a squeezed state, has been measured previously from a cavity enhanced optical parametric **oscillator** (OPO) only at **frequency** sidebands within the linewidth of the cavity. ¶ This thesis reports measurements of squeezing at microwave **frequency** sidebands on an optical beam produced by an optical parametric **oscillator**. This is the first reported measurement of squeezing at **frequency** sidebands at higher longitudinal modes of the cavity from an OPO. Noise reduction below the quantum noise limit is measured at sideband **frequencies** of 5 MHz, 1.7 GHz, 3.4 GHz and 5.1 GHz, corresponding to the zeroth, first, second and third longitudinal modes from the squeezed beam. These results are the highest **frequency** sideband measurements of squeezing to date. In addition to measuring squeezing at different longitudinal modes for the fundamental Gaussian spatial mode, non-classical noise reduction is measured at the same **frequencies** for a squeezed higher order spatial mode, TEM10. ¶ A single mode theoretical model of the OPO is presented, based on the work of ref. [1]. Computer simulations of the squeezing predicted by this model are developed and compared to the experimental results, showing excellent agreement between the different longitudinal modes for each of the two spatial modes measured. ... The quantum statistics of a laser result in noise when measurements of the beam are made. This noise sets a classical limit beyond which a laser cannot be used with increasing sensitivity. This quantum noise limit is imposed on many of the uses of lasers currently, especially in power limited devices such as optical communications. The statistics of the laser photon field can be modified to produce a non-classical state resulting in lower noise than the quantum noise limit when detected appropriately. This state, called a squeezed state, has been measured previously from a cavity enhanced optical parametric **oscillator** (OPO) only at **frequency** sidebands within the linewidth of the cavity. ¶ This thesis reports measurements of squeezing at microwave **frequency** sidebands on an optical beam produced by an optical parametric **oscillator**. This is the first reported measurement of squeezing at **frequency** sidebands at higher longitudinal modes of the cavity from an OPO. Noise reduction below the quantum noise limit is measured at sideband **frequencies** of 5 MHz, 1.7 GHz, 3.4 GHz and 5.1 GHz, corresponding to the zeroth, first, second and third longitudinal modes from the squeezed beam. These results are the highest **frequency** sideband measurements of squeezing to date. In addition to measuring squeezing at different longitudinal modes for the fundamental Gaussian spatial mode, non-classical noise reduction is measured at the same **frequencies** for a squeezed higher order spatial mode, TEM10. ¶ A single mode theoretical model of the OPO is presented, based on the work of ref. [1]. Computer simulations of the squeezing predicted by this model are developed and compared to the experimental results, showing excellent agreement between the different longitudinal modes for each of the two spatial modes measured.

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Contributors: Van Wijk, B. C. M., Pogosyan, A., Hariz, M. I., Akram, H., Foltynie, T., Limousin, P., Horn, A., Ewert, S., Brown, P., Litvak, V.

Date: 2017-01-01

Cross-**frequency** coupling...Parkinsonian bradykinesia and rigidity are typically associated with excessive beta band **oscillations** in the subthalamic nucleus. Recently another spectral peak has been identified that might be implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease: high-**frequency** **oscillations** (HFO) within the 150–400 Hz range. Beta-HFO phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) has been found to correlate with severity of motor impairment. However, the neuronal origin of HFO and its usefulness as a potential target for deep brain stimulation remain to be established. For example, it is unclear whether HFO arise from the same neural populations as beta **oscillations**. We intraoperatively recorded local field potentials from the subthalamic nucleus while advancing DBS electrodes in 2 mm steps from 4 mm above the surgical target point until 2 mm below, resulting in 4 recording sites. Data from 26 nuclei from 14 patients were analysed. For each trajectory, we identified the recording site with the largest spectral peak in the beta range (13–30 Hz), and the largest peak in the HFO range separately. In addition, we identified the recording site with the largest beta-HFO PAC. Recording sites with largest beta power and largest HFO power coincided in 50% of cases. In the other 50%, HFO was more likely to be detected at a more superior recording site in the target area. PAC followed more closely the site with largest HFO (45%) than beta power (27%). HFO are likely to arise from spatially close, but slightly more superior neural populations than beta **oscillations**. Further work is necessary to determine whether the different activities can help fine-tune deep brain stimulation targeting....**Oscillations** ... Parkinsonian bradykinesia and rigidity are typically associated with excessive beta band **oscillations** in the subthalamic nucleus. Recently another spectral peak has been identified that might be implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease: high-**frequency** **oscillations** (HFO) within the 150–400 Hz range. Beta-HFO phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) has been found to correlate with severity of motor impairment. However, the neuronal origin of HFO and its usefulness as a potential target for deep brain stimulation remain to be established. For example, it is unclear whether HFO arise from the same neural populations as beta **oscillations**. We intraoperatively recorded local field potentials from the subthalamic nucleus while advancing DBS electrodes in 2 mm steps from 4 mm above the surgical target point until 2 mm below, resulting in 4 recording sites. Data from 26 nuclei from 14 patients were analysed. For each trajectory, we identified the recording site with the largest spectral peak in the beta range (13–30 Hz), and the largest peak in the HFO range separately. In addition, we identified the recording site with the largest beta-HFO PAC. Recording sites with largest beta power and largest HFO power coincided in 50% of cases. In the other 50%, HFO was more likely to be detected at a more superior recording site in the target area. PAC followed more closely the site with largest HFO (45%) than beta power (27%). HFO are likely to arise from spatially close, but slightly more superior neural populations than beta **oscillations**. Further work is necessary to determine whether the different activities can help fine-tune deep brain stimulation targeting.

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Contributors: Orchini, A, Illingworth, SJ, Juniper, Matthew

Date: 2015-05-14

Many thermoacoustic systems exhibit rich nonlinear behaviour. Recent studies show that this nonlinear dynamics can be well captured by low-order time domain models that couple a level set kinematic model for a laminar flame, the G-equation, with a state-space realization of the linearized acoustic equations. However, so far the G-equation has been coupled only with straight ducts with uniform mean acoustic properties, which is a simplistic configuration. In this study, we incorporate a wave-based model of the acoustic network, containing area and temperature variations and **frequency**-dependent boundary conditions. We cast the linear acoustics into state-space form using a different approach from that in the existing literature. We then use this state-space form to investigate the stability of the thermoacoustic system, both in the **frequency** and time domains, using the flame position as a control parameter. We observe **frequency**-locked, quasiperiodic, and chaotic **oscillations**. We identify the location of Neimark–Sacker bifurcations with Floquet theory. We also find the Ruelle–Takens–Newhouse route to chaos with nonlinear time series analysis techniques. We highlight important differences between the nonlinear response predicted by the **frequency** domain and the time domain methods. This reveals deficiencies with the **frequency** domain technique, which is commonly used in academic and industrial studies of thermoacoustic systems. We then demonstrate a more accurate approach based on continuation analysis applied to time domain techniques. ... Many thermoacoustic systems exhibit rich nonlinear behaviour. Recent studies show that this nonlinear dynamics can be well captured by low-order time domain models that couple a level set kinematic model for a laminar flame, the G-equation, with a state-space realization of the linearized acoustic equations. However, so far the G-equation has been coupled only with straight ducts with uniform mean acoustic properties, which is a simplistic configuration. In this study, we incorporate a wave-based model of the acoustic network, containing area and temperature variations and **frequency**-dependent boundary conditions. We cast the linear acoustics into state-space form using a different approach from that in the existing literature. We then use this state-space form to investigate the stability of the thermoacoustic system, both in the **frequency** and time domains, using the flame position as a control parameter. We observe **frequency**-locked, quasiperiodic, and chaotic **oscillations**. We identify the location of Neimark–Sacker bifurcations with Floquet theory. We also find the Ruelle–Takens–Newhouse route to chaos with nonlinear time series analysis techniques. We highlight important differences between the nonlinear response predicted by the **frequency** domain and the time domain methods. This reveals deficiencies with the **frequency** domain technique, which is commonly used in academic and industrial studies of thermoacoustic systems. We then demonstrate a more accurate approach based on continuation analysis applied to time domain techniques.

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