### 21982 results for qubit oscillator frequency

Contributors: Markku Penttonen, György Buzsáki

Date: 2003-04-01

**Oscillation** bands form an arithmetic progression on the logarithmic scale. For each band the **frequency** (Hz) or period ranges are shown together with their commonly used names.
...Brain **oscillators**...Alpha, gamma and theta **oscillations**...Behaviorally relevant brain **oscillations** relate to each other in a specific manner to allow neuronal networks of different sizes with wide variety of connections to cooperate in a coordinated manner. For example, thalamo-cortical and hippocampal **oscillations** form numerous **frequency** bands, which follow a general rule. Specifically, the center **frequencies** and **frequency** ranges of **oscillation** bands with successively faster **frequencies**, from ultra-slow to ultra-fast **frequency** **oscillations**, form an arithmetic progression on the natural logarithmic scale. Due to mathematical properties of natural logarithm, the cycle lengths (periods) of **oscillations**, as an inverse of **frequency**, also form an arithmetic progression after natural logarithmic transformation. As a general rule, the neuronal excitability is larger during a certain phase of the **oscillation** period. Because the intervals between these activation phases and the temporal window of activation vary in proportion to the length of the **oscillation** period, lower **frequency** **oscillations** allow for an integration of neuronal effects with longer delays and larger variability in delays and larger areas of involvement. Neural representations based on these **oscillations** could therefore be complex. In contrast, high **frequency** **oscillation** bands allow for a more precise and spatially limited representation of information by incorporating synaptic events from closely located regions with short synaptic delays and limited variability. The large family of **oscillation** **frequency** bands with a constant relation may serve to overcome the information processing limitations imposed by the synaptic delays. ... Behaviorally relevant brain **oscillations** relate to each other in a specific manner to allow neuronal networks of different sizes with wide variety of connections to cooperate in a coordinated manner. For example, thalamo-cortical and hippocampal **oscillations** form numerous **frequency** bands, which follow a general rule. Specifically, the center **frequencies** and **frequency** ranges of **oscillation** bands with successively faster **frequencies**, from ultra-slow to ultra-fast **frequency** **oscillations**, form an arithmetic progression on the natural logarithmic scale. Due to mathematical properties of natural logarithm, the cycle lengths (periods) of **oscillations**, as an inverse of **frequency**, also form an arithmetic progression after natural logarithmic transformation. As a general rule, the neuronal excitability is larger during a certain phase of the **oscillation** period. Because the intervals between these activation phases and the temporal window of activation vary in proportion to the length of the **oscillation** period, lower **frequency** **oscillations** allow for an integration of neuronal effects with longer delays and larger variability in delays and larger areas of involvement. Neural representations based on these **oscillations** could therefore be complex. In contrast, high **frequency** **oscillation** bands allow for a more precise and spatially limited representation of information by incorporating synaptic events from closely located regions with short synaptic delays and limited variability. The large family of **oscillation** **frequency** bands with a constant relation may serve to overcome the information processing limitations imposed by the synaptic delays.

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Contributors: Olivier Audouin, Jacques Bodin

Date: 2007-02-20

Extensive slug-test experiments have been performed at the Hydrogeological Experimental Site (HES) of Poitiers in France, made up of moderately fractured limestones. All data are publicly available through the “H+” database, developed within the scope of the ERO program (French Environmental Research Observatory, http://hplus.ore.fr). Slug-test responses with high-**frequency** (>0.12Hz) **oscillations** have been consistently observed in wells equipped with multiple concentric casing. These **oscillations** are interpreted as the result of inertia-induced fluctuations of the water level in the annular space between the inner and outer casing. In certain cases, these high-**frequency** **oscillations** overlap with lower **frequency** (**oscillations**, which leads to complex responses that cannot be interpreted using conventional models. Slug-test data have been processed in the Fourier-**frequency** domain, in order to remove the high-**frequency** component by a signal-filtering method. The corrected signals have been interpreted with the model of [McElwee, C.D., Zenner, M., 1998. A nonlinear model for analysis of slug-test data. Water Resour. Res. 34 (1), 55–66.], which accounts for the inertia of the water-column above the well screen, non-linear head losses in the well, and neglects the aquifer storage (quasi-steady-state approximation). Hydraulic conductivity values interpreted from dual-**frequency** slug-tests compare well to those interpreted from “standard” overdamped or underdamped slug-test responses....**Frequency** spectrum of the slug-test response in HES well M05, for an initial head displacement H0=0.2m (slug-test reference=STM5_02).
...Filtering of high-**frequency** **oscillations**: example of processing of the slug test STM5_02 (HES well M05, initial head displacement H0=0.2m).
...High-**frequency** **oscillations**...Filter shape in the **frequency** domain for ρ=0.9.
...Interpretation of high-**frequency** **oscillations**: inertia-induced water level fluctuations in the annular space between the inner PVC casing and the outer steel casing.
...Typical slug-test responses in HES wells. (a) “Standard” overdamped response; (b) “standard” underdamped response with low-**frequency** **oscillations**; (c) overdamped response with high-**frequency** **oscillations**; (d) underdamped response with dual-**frequency** **oscillations**.
... Extensive slug-test experiments have been performed at the Hydrogeological Experimental Site (HES) of Poitiers in France, made up of moderately fractured limestones. All data are publicly available through the “H+” database, developed within the scope of the ERO program (French Environmental Research Observatory, http://hplus.ore.fr). Slug-test responses with high-**frequency** (>0.12Hz) **oscillations** have been consistently observed in wells equipped with multiple concentric casing. These **oscillations** are interpreted as the result of inertia-induced fluctuations of the water level in the annular space between the inner and outer casing. In certain cases, these high-**frequency** **oscillations** overlap with lower **frequency** (<0.05Hz) **oscillations**, which leads to complex responses that cannot be interpreted using conventional models. Slug-test data have been processed in the Fourier-**frequency** domain, in order to remove the high-**frequency** component by a signal-filtering method. The corrected signals have been interpreted with the model of [McElwee, C.D., Zenner, M., 1998. A nonlinear model for analysis of slug-test data. Water Resour. Res. 34 (1), 55–66.], which accounts for the inertia of the water-column above the well screen, non-linear head losses in the well, and neglects the aquifer storage (quasi-steady-state approximation). Hydraulic conductivity values interpreted from dual-**frequency** slug-tests compare well to those interpreted from “standard” overdamped or underdamped slug-test responses.

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Contributors: Lucas C. Monteiro, A.V. Dodonov

Date: 2016-04-08

We consider the interaction between a single cavity mode and N≫1 identical **qubits**, assuming that any system parameter can be rapidly modulated in situ by external bias. It is shown that, for the **qubits** initially in the ground states, three photons can be coherently annihilated in the dispersive regime for harmonic modulation with **frequency** 3ω0−Ω0, where ω0 (Ω0) is the bare cavity (**qubit**) **frequency**. This phenomenon can be called “Anti-dynamical Casimir effect”, since a pair of excitations is destroyed without dissipation due to the external modulation. For the initial vacuum cavity state, three **qubit** excitations can also be annihilated for the modulation **frequency** 3Ω0−ω0. ... We consider the interaction between a single cavity mode and N≫1 identical **qubits**, assuming that any system parameter can be rapidly modulated in situ by external bias. It is shown that, for the **qubits** initially in the ground states, three photons can be coherently annihilated in the dispersive regime for harmonic modulation with **frequency** 3ω0−Ω0, where ω0 (Ω0) is the bare cavity (**qubit**) **frequency**. This phenomenon can be called “Anti-dynamical Casimir effect”, since a pair of excitations is destroyed without dissipation due to the external modulation. For the initial vacuum cavity state, three **qubit** excitations can also be annihilated for the modulation **frequency** 3Ω0−ω0.

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Contributors: Yulia P. Emelianova, Alexander P. Kuznetsov, Ludmila V. Turukina, Igor R. Sataev, Nikolai Yu. Chernyshov

Date: 2014-04-01

Charts of the Lyapunov exponents for the four dissipatively coupled phase **oscillators** on the **frequency** detunings parameter plane (Δ1,Δ3). Values of the parameters are μ=0.4, (а) Δ2=0.4, (b) Δ2=2.4. Resonance conditions in the chain of **oscillators** are shown by arrows.
...Examples of phase portraits for the system (2). (a) Two-**frequency** resonance regime of the type 1:3 for Δ1=−1.5, Δ2=1, μ=0.6; (b) three-**frequency** regime for Δ1=−1, Δ2=1, μ=0.25.
...A structure of the **oscillation** **frequencies** parameter space for three and four dissipatively coupled van der Pol **oscillators** is discussed. Situations of different codimension relating to the configuration of the full synchronization area as well as a picture of different modes in its neighborhood are revealed. An organization of quasi-periodic areas of different dimensions is considered. The results for the phase model and for the original system are compared....Chart of the Lyapunov exponents for three coupled van der Pol **oscillators** on the **frequency** detunings parameter plane. Numbers correspond to cycle periods in the Poincaré section. Values of the parameters are λ=0.1,μ=0.04.
...Chart of the Lyapunov exponents for three coupled van der Pol **oscillators** on the **frequency** detunings parameter plane. Numbers correspond to cycle periods in the Poincaré section. Values of the parameters are λ=1,μ=0.4.
...Chain of van der Pol **oscillators**...Full synchronization area for the four phase **oscillators** on the **frequency** detunings parameter space (Δ1,Δ2,Δ3).
... A structure of the **oscillation** **frequencies** parameter space for three and four dissipatively coupled van der Pol **oscillators** is discussed. Situations of different codimension relating to the configuration of the full synchronization area as well as a picture of different modes in its neighborhood are revealed. An organization of quasi-periodic areas of different dimensions is considered. The results for the phase model and for the original system are compared.

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Contributors: Atsushi Tomeda, Shogo Morisaki, Kenichi Watanabe, Shigeki Kuroki, Isao Ando

Date: 2003-07-24

The plots of 1H signal width for the crystalline region of polyethylene thin film on the surface of on an piezoelectric **oscillator** plate against **oscillation** **frequency** in the range from 1 Hz to 2 MHz (a) and in the expanded range from 1 Hz to 100 kHz (b) at 40 °C.
...The plots of 1H signal width for the non-crystalline region of polyethylene thin film on the surface of on a piezoelectric **oscillator** plate against **oscillation** **frequency** in the range from 1 Hz to 2 MHz (a) in the expanded range from 1 Hz to 100 kHz (b) at 40 °C.
...A diagram of an NMR glass tube with an piezoelectric **oscillator** plate. The polyethylene thin film was molten and adhered on the surface of piezoelectric **oscillator** plate. The **oscillation** of an piezoelectric **oscillator** plate is generated by AD alternator.
...The 1H NMR spectrum of polyethylene thin film on an piezoelectric **oscillator** plate made of inorganic material was observed, which is **oscillated** with high **frequency** by application of AD electric current in the Hz–MHz range. From these experimental results, it is shown that dipolar interactions in solid polyethylene are remarkably reduced by high **frequency** **oscillation** and then the signal width of the crystalline component is significantly reduced with an increase in **oscillation** **frequency**. This means that the introduction of the high **frequency** **oscillation** for solids has large potentiality of obtaining the high resolution NMR spectrum. ... The 1H NMR spectrum of polyethylene thin film on an piezoelectric **oscillator** plate made of inorganic material was observed, which is **oscillated** with high **frequency** by application of AD electric current in the Hz–MHz range. From these experimental results, it is shown that dipolar interactions in solid polyethylene are remarkably reduced by high **frequency** **oscillation** and then the signal width of the crystalline component is significantly reduced with an increase in **oscillation** **frequency**. This means that the introduction of the high **frequency** **oscillation** for solids has large potentiality of obtaining the high resolution NMR spectrum.

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Contributors: Niko Bako, Adrijan Baric

Date: 2013-12-01

**Oscillator**...Block scheme of the **oscillator**.
...Reference current and the **oscillator** **frequency** variations as a function of supply voltage and temperature obtained by simulations. (a) Reference current variation for typical (TT), slow (SS) and fast (FF) process corners with respect to the reference current at room temperature. (b) **Frequency** variation for typical, slow and fast corners with a supply voltage as a parameter with respect to **frequency** at room temperature.
...A low-power, 3.82MHz **oscillator** based on a feedback loop is presented. The **oscillator** does not need a stable current reference to obtain a stable **frequency** independent of voltage and temperature variations because of the usage of negative feedback. The **frequency** variation, in the temperature range from −20°C to 80°C, is±0.6% and it depends only on the temperature coefficient of the resistor R, while the reference current variations are −11%/+25% in the same temperature range. The **oscillator** power consumption is 5.1μW and the active area is 0.09mm2. The proposed **oscillator** is implemented in a 0.18μm CMOS process and the simulation results are shown....The **oscillator** layout.
...Supply voltage compensated **frequency**...Simulated **oscillator** output.
...Temperature compensated **frequency** ... A low-power, 3.82MHz **oscillator** based on a feedback loop is presented. The **oscillator** does not need a stable current reference to obtain a stable **frequency** independent of voltage and temperature variations because of the usage of negative feedback. The **frequency** variation, in the temperature range from −20°C to 80°C, is±0.6% and it depends only on the temperature coefficient of the resistor R, while the reference current variations are −11%/+25% in the same temperature range. The **oscillator** power consumption is 5.1μW and the active area is 0.09mm2. The proposed **oscillator** is implemented in a 0.18μm CMOS process and the simulation results are shown.

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Contributors: L.-E. Wernersson, M. Ärlelid, M. Egard, E. Lind

Date: 2009-03-01

Measured and simulated output power spectrum for the **oscillators** at Vg=0V and Vc=1.0V (left). The fundamental **oscillation** is at 15.71GHz. The bias stability diagram of the **oscillator** (right).
...Measured **oscillation** **frequency** as a function of gate bias at Vc=2.4V. The arrows indicate the two sweep directions.
...Measured **oscillator** output power for varying DC gate biases. The squares represent the fundamental **oscillation** **frequency**, the circles the 2nd harmonic and the stars the 3rd harmonic **oscillation**.
...Measured performance operating the **oscillator** as a mixer.
...Measured (circles) and simulated (squares) **oscillation** **frequencies** for different wave-guides specified in Table 1. The data points for D are solid while C are open.
...A gated tunnel diode has been introduced into a wave-guide **oscillator** circuit and the gate is used to tune the **oscillation** **frequency** and to turn the **oscillator** on and off. **Oscillators** with **oscillation** **frequencies** in the range of 9–22GHz with a typical **oscillator** output power about −20dBm have been fabricated. We found that the output power remains essentially constant over a gate bias range (about −260–200mV at Vc =1.0V in one **oscillator**), while it rapidly drops to the noise level over a gate bias range of less than 60mV above or below the threshold, respectively. In the region with constant power, a total **frequency** tuning of about 30% is achieved. The maximum **oscillation** **frequency**, fmaxosc, of the gated tunnel diode is set by the tunnel diode and the gate–collector capacitance, and does not depend on the gate–emitter capacitance. This **oscillator** implementation, in particular, eliminates the need for a separate switch in the realisation of **oscillator**-based ultra-wide band impulse radios. ... A gated tunnel diode has been introduced into a wave-guide **oscillator** circuit and the gate is used to tune the **oscillation** **frequency** and to turn the **oscillator** on and off. **Oscillators** with **oscillation** **frequencies** in the range of 9–22GHz with a typical **oscillator** output power about −20dBm have been fabricated. We found that the output power remains essentially constant over a gate bias range (about −260–200mV at Vc =1.0V in one **oscillator**), while it rapidly drops to the noise level over a gate bias range of less than 60mV above or below the threshold, respectively. In the region with constant power, a total **frequency** tuning of about 30% is achieved. The maximum **oscillation** **frequency**, fmaxosc, of the gated tunnel diode is set by the tunnel diode and the gate–collector capacitance, and does not depend on the gate–emitter capacitance. This **oscillator** implementation, in particular, eliminates the need for a separate switch in the realisation of **oscillator**-based ultra-wide band impulse radios.

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Contributors: Z.K. Peng, Z.Q. Lang, S.A. Billings, Y. Lu

Date: 2007-11-01

The output **frequency** response of a nonlinear system.
...The restoring force of a bilinear **oscillator**.
...The output **frequency** response of a linear system.
...Bilinear **oscillator**...The polynomial approximation result for a bilinear **oscillator**
...Nonlinear output **frequency** response function...Bilinear **oscillator** model.
...In this paper, the new concept of nonlinear output **frequency** response functions (NOFRFs) is extended to the harmonic input case, an input-independent relationship is found between the NOFRFs and the generalized **frequency** response functions (GFRFs). This relationship can greatly simplify the application of the NOFRFs. Then, beginning with the demonstration that a bilinear **oscillator** can be approximated using a polynomial-type nonlinear **oscillator**, the NOFRFs are used to analyse the energy transfer phenomenon of bilinear **oscillators** in the **frequency** domain. The analysis provides insight into how new **frequency** generation can occur using bilinear **oscillators** and how the sub-resonances occur for the bilinear **oscillators**, and reveals that it is the resonant **frequencies** of the NOFRFs that dominate the occurrence of this well-known nonlinear behaviour. The results are of significance for the design and fault diagnosis of mechanical systems and structures which can be described by a bilinear **oscillator** model. ... In this paper, the new concept of nonlinear output **frequency** response functions (NOFRFs) is extended to the harmonic input case, an input-independent relationship is found between the NOFRFs and the generalized **frequency** response functions (GFRFs). This relationship can greatly simplify the application of the NOFRFs. Then, beginning with the demonstration that a bilinear **oscillator** can be approximated using a polynomial-type nonlinear **oscillator**, the NOFRFs are used to analyse the energy transfer phenomenon of bilinear **oscillators** in the **frequency** domain. The analysis provides insight into how new **frequency** generation can occur using bilinear **oscillators** and how the sub-resonances occur for the bilinear **oscillators**, and reveals that it is the resonant **frequencies** of the NOFRFs that dominate the occurrence of this well-known nonlinear behaviour. The results are of significance for the design and fault diagnosis of mechanical systems and structures which can be described by a bilinear **oscillator** model.

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Contributors: M. Domínguez, J. Pons, J. Ricart, E. Figueras

Date: 2007-05-01

Theory and simulation results of the normalized digital **frequency** fD as a function of the f0/fS ratio and ρ=0.01. The r and δ values which identify each f0/fS segment are also specified.
...Oscilloscope screen captures of resonator position, input pulses (D6), delayed comparator output (D3) and sample clock (D0), for a PDO topology with m=1 and a ‘not perfect’ **frequency** fS=46.093kHz (r=2).
...Pulsed digital **oscillators**, MEMS, **Oscillators**, Sigma-delta...This paper describes new theoretical and experimental results showing that the pulsed digital **oscillator**, a set of sigma–delta-based **oscillator** structures for MEMS recently introduced by the authors, can maintain a good **oscillation** behaviour even for sampling **frequencies** below the Nyquist limit. Specifically, the theory is extended to the undersampling region and the complete set of ‘perfect’ **frequencies** (sampling **frequencies** at which the **oscillation** **frequency** is the natural **frequency** of the resonator) is analyzed. Therefore, an extension of the use of this kind of **oscillators** to high **frequency** applications becomes straightforward....Oscilloscope screen captures of resonator position, input pulses (D6), delayed comparator output (D3 and D1) and sample clock (D0), for a PDO topology with m=2 and the ‘perfect’ **frequency** fS=44.052kHz (r=2).
... This paper describes new theoretical and experimental results showing that the pulsed digital **oscillator**, a set of sigma–delta-based **oscillator** structures for MEMS recently introduced by the authors, can maintain a good **oscillation** behaviour even for sampling **frequencies** below the Nyquist limit. Specifically, the theory is extended to the undersampling region and the complete set of ‘perfect’ **frequencies** (sampling **frequencies** at which the **oscillation** **frequency** is the natural **frequency** of the resonator) is analyzed. Therefore, an extension of the use of this kind of **oscillators** to high **frequency** applications becomes straightforward.

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Contributors: Binbin Qiu, Junjie Yan, Jiping Liu, Daotong Chong, Quanbin Zhao, Xinzhuang Wu

Date: 2014-01-01

Dominant **frequency**...The first and the second dominant **frequencies** variation with the steam mass flux.
...The first and the second dominant **frequencies** variation with the water temperature.
...The dominant **frequency** regime map.
...Pressure **oscillation**...**Frequency** spectrums of pressure **oscillation** at different water temperatures and steam mass flux.
...Experimental investigations and analysis on the dominant **frequency** of pressure **oscillation** for sonic steam jet in subcooled water have been performed. It was found that sometimes there is only one dominant **frequency** for pressure **oscillation**, and sometimes there is a second dominant **frequency** for pressure **oscillation**. The first dominant **frequency** had been investigated by many scholars before, but the present study mainly investigated the characteristics of the second dominant **frequency**. The first dominant **frequency** is mainly caused by the periodical variation of the steam plume and the second dominant **frequency** is mainly caused by the generating and rupture of the large steam bubbles. A dominant **frequency** regime map related to the water temperature and steam mass flux is given. When the water temperature and the steam mass flux are low, there is only one dominant **frequency** of pressure **oscillation**. When the water temperature or the steam mass flux is high, the second dominant **frequency** appears for pressure **oscillation**. The second dominant **frequency** decreases with the increasing water temperature and steam mass flux. Meanwhile, the second dominant **frequency** at high steam mass flux and water temperature is lower than the first dominant **frequency** at low steam mass flux and water temperature. A dimensionless correlation is proposed to predict the second dominant **frequency** for sonic steam jet. The predictions agree well with the present experimental data, the discrepancies are within ±20%....The dominant **frequencies** in different measurement points by Qiu et al. [14].
... Experimental investigations and analysis on the dominant **frequency** of pressure **oscillation** for sonic steam jet in subcooled water have been performed. It was found that sometimes there is only one dominant **frequency** for pressure **oscillation**, and sometimes there is a second dominant **frequency** for pressure **oscillation**. The first dominant **frequency** had been investigated by many scholars before, but the present study mainly investigated the characteristics of the second dominant **frequency**. The first dominant **frequency** is mainly caused by the periodical variation of the steam plume and the second dominant **frequency** is mainly caused by the generating and rupture of the large steam bubbles. A dominant **frequency** regime map related to the water temperature and steam mass flux is given. When the water temperature and the steam mass flux are low, there is only one dominant **frequency** of pressure **oscillation**. When the water temperature or the steam mass flux is high, the second dominant **frequency** appears for pressure **oscillation**. The second dominant **frequency** decreases with the increasing water temperature and steam mass flux. Meanwhile, the second dominant **frequency** at high steam mass flux and water temperature is lower than the first dominant **frequency** at low steam mass flux and water temperature. A dimensionless correlation is proposed to predict the second dominant **frequency** for sonic steam jet. The predictions agree well with the present experimental data, the discrepancies are within ±20%.

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