247 results for qubit oscillator frequency
Genetic and evolutionary analysis of cell-fusing agent virus based on Thai strains isolated in 2008 and 2012
Contributors: Atsushi Yamanaka, Supatra Thongrungkiat, Pongrama Ramasoota, Eiji Konishi
... Increasing attention is being devoted to ecological and evolutionary relationships between insect-specific flaviviruses and globally important human-pathogenic flaviviruses such as dengue viruses. One such insect flavivirus, cell-fusing agent virus (CFAV), remains poorly investigated. In this study, we isolated 13 and 16 CFAV strains from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in Thailand in 2008 and 2012, respectively, and performed genetic and evolutionary analyses based on gene regions encoding the envelope protein (E) and nonstructural proteins 3 (NS3) and 5 (NS5). Consistent with previously reported CFAV strains, E, NS3 and NS5 regions comprised 1,290, 1,761 and 2,664 nucleotides, respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid identities of these three regions were >98% among the 29 isolates, and approximately 95–96% and 96–99%, respectively, between the isolates and previously reported CFAV strains. When amino acid sequences from representative strains of six insect-specific and seven mosquito-borne flaviviruses were compared, average identities of 14.9%, 31.8% and 44.3% were calculated for E, NS3 and NS5 regions, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide and amino acid data indicated that the Thai CFAV isolates of the current study were distinct from previously reported CFAV strains from Indonesia and Puerto Rico. Analysis of each gene region consistently uncovered a clade made up of nearly the same subset of Thai CFAV isolates; this result, and the isolation of CFAV from mosquitoes reared from larvae, suggest that the virus is maintained by vertical transmission and conserved in a particular environment without considerable evolutionary alteration. The most recent common ancestor of the Thai CFAV isolates in this study was dated to 11–27years ago, and is estimated to have diverged 46–86years ago from previously reported CFAV strains. Superinfection with CFAV of Aedes mosquitoes carrying dengue viruses present in Thailand for over 50years has most likely taken place.
Strong modulation of ectopic focus as a mechanism of repetitive interpolated ventricular bigeminy with heart rate doubling
Contributors: Kan Takayanagi, Shiro Nakahara, Noritaka Toratani, Ryuji Chida, Sayuki Kobayashi, Yoshihiko Sakai, Akihiro Takeuchi, Noriaki Ikeda
... Repetitive interpolated ventricular bigeminy (RIVB) can introduce a doubling of the ventricular rate.
Organ-specific proteomics analysis for identification of response mechanism in soybean seedlings under flooding stress
Contributors: Amana Khatoon, Shafiq Rehman, Susumu Hiraga, Takahiro Makino, Setsuko Komatsu
... Flooding is one of the severe environmental factors which impair growth and yield in soybean plant. To investigate the organ specific response mechanism of soybean under flooding stress, changes in protein species were analyzed using a proteomics approach. Two-day-old soybeans were subjected to flooding for 5days. Proteins were extracted from root, hypocotyl and leaf, and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In root, hypocotyl and leaf, 51, 66 and 51 protein species were significantly changed, respectively, under flooding stress. In root, metabolism related proteins were increased; however these proteins were decreased in hypocotyl and leaf. In all 3 organs, cytoplasm localized proteins were decreased, and leaf chloroplastic proteins were also decreased. Isoflavone reductase was commonly decreased at protein level in all 3 organs; however, mRNA of isoflavone reductase gene was up-regulated in leaf under flooding stress. Biophoton emission was increased in all 3 organs under flooding stress. The up-regulation of isoflavone reductase gene at transcript level; while decreased abundance at protein level indicated that flooding stress affected the mRNA translation to proteins. These results suggest that concurrence in expression of isoflavone reductase gene at mRNA and protein level along with imbalance in other disease/defense and metabolism related proteins might lead to impaired growth of root, hypocotyl and leaf of soybean seedlings under flooding stress.
Sperm phosphoproteome profiling by ultra performance liquid chromatography followed by data independent analysis (LC–MSE) reveals altered proteomic signatures in asthenozoospermia
Contributors: Priyanka P. Parte, Parimala Rao, Shweta Redij, Vivian Lobo, Serena J. D'Souza, Rahul Gajbhiye, Vijay Kulkarni
... Sperm motility is an important prerequisite for successful fertilization and is regulated by cyclic AMP activated protein kinase A which phosphorylates flagella proteins like axonemal dynein and initiates motility. Increase in calcium influx reverses this process by dephosphorylation that is mediated by calcineurin. Analyzing the phosphoenriched fractions of spermatozoa lysates from eight normozoospermic-, and asthenozoospermic-samples, respectively, by Nano UPLC–MSE, the present study investigates the phosphoproteins involved in sperm motility in an attempt to identify the key pathways regulating sperm motility and likely to be altered in spermatozoa of asthenozoospermic individuals. 66 phosphoproteins were differentially regulated in asthenozoospermia. The deregulated proteins comprised predominantly the HSPs, cytoskeletal proteins, proteins associated with the fibrous sheath, and those associated with energy metabolism. EM analysis of these spermatozoa demonstrated significant defects in mitochondria, and fibrous sheath and these defects could be correlated with the altered proteome. Pathway analysis revealed that carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cAMP mediated PKA signaling, PI3K/AKT signaling and pathway regulating actin based motility by Rho were significantly altered indicating that motility in spermatozoa is regulated through the concerted effort of these pathways. The data identified signature molecules that have the potential as biomarkers for diagnosing etiology of asthenozoospermia.
Contributors: Christin F. Down, Julie Millour, Eric W.-F. Lam, Roger J. Watson
... The promoters of genes which regulate entry into and progress through mitosis are typically induced maximally in G2 by transcription factors that include B-Myb and FoxM1. As FoxM1 gene transcription is a target of B-Myb, we investigated in this study how these transcription factors functionally interact to regulate these G2/M genes. Using a 3T3 cell line containing floxed B-myb alleles (B-mybF/F) that could be conditionally deleted by Cre recombinase, we confirmed that B-myb knockout caused both decreased mRNA expression of several G2/M genes, including FoxM1, and delayed entry into mitosis. Although FoxM1 protein expression was actually unaffected by B-myb knockout when quiescent B-mybF/F 3T3 cells re-entered the cell cycle upon serum-stimulation, chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that FoxM1 binding to G2/M promoters was substantially reduced. FoxM1 transcriptional activity requires sequential phosphorylation by Cyclin-dependent kinases and Plk1, which are B-Myb target genes, and we found that phosphorylation at Plk1-specific sites was somewhat reduced upon B-myb knockout. Neither this effect nor nuclear accumulation of FoxM1, which was unaffected by B-myb knockout, was sufficient to account for the dependence on B-Myb for FoxM1 promoter binding, however. More significantly, assays using paired Birc5 (survivin) promoter-luciferase reporters with either wild-type or mutated Myb binding sites showed that FoxM1 was unable to bind and activate the promoter in the absence of B-Myb binding. Our data suggest that B-Myb is required as a pioneer factor to enable FoxM1 binding to G2/M gene promoters and explains how these transcription factors may collaborate to induce mitosis.
Contributors: Hongbing Jiang, Leiyun Weng, Na Zhang, Minetaro Arita, Renqing Li, Lijuan Chen, Tetsuya Toyoda
... An unusual enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemic has begun in China since 2008. EV71 RNA polymerases (3Dpol) showed polymerase activity with an Mn2+. Little activity was detected with Co2+, and no activity was detected with Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, or Zn2+. It is a primer-dependent polymerase, and the enzyme functioned with both di- and 10-nucleotide RNA primers. DNA primer, dT15, increased primer activity, similar to other enterovirus 3Dpol. However, EV71 3Dpol initiated de novo transcription with a poly(C) template and genome RNA. Its RNA binding activity was weak. Terminal nucleotidyl transferase and reverse transcriptase activity were not detected. The Km and Vmax for EV71 3Dpol were calculated from classic Lineweaver–Burk plots. The Km values were 2.35±0.05 (ATP), 5.40±0.93 (CTP), 1.12±0.10 (GTP) and 2.81±0.31 (UTP), and the Vmax values were 0.00078±0.00005/min (ATP), 0.011±0.0017/min (CTP), 0.050±0.0043/min (GTP) and 0.0027±0.0005/min (UTP). The Km of EV71 3Dpol was similar to that of foot and mouth disease virus and rhinovirus. Polymerase activity of BrCr-TR strain and a strain from a clinical isolate in Beijing, 2008 were similar, indicating the potential for 3Dpol as an antiviral drug target.
Contributors: Hassane Adakal, Damien F. Meyer, Catherine Carasco-Lacombe, Valérie Pinarello, Florian Allègre, Karine Huber, Frederic Stachurski, Serge Morand, Dominique Martinez, Thierrry Lefrançois
... Heartwater, caused by the intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia ruminantium, is a major tick-borne disease of livestock in Africa also introduced in the Caribbean. The main problem encountered with the control of this disease is the lack of efficient vaccine in the field. This is thought to be related to the high genetic diversity of strains circulating in a same area. A set of eight circulating strains was isolated from a herd of cows in a small locality in Burkina-Faso and analyzed along with two reference strains, i.e. ERGA and ERWO, for which full-length genome was available. A MLST analysis was developed based on the genes gltA, groEL, lepA, lipA, lipB, secY, sodB and sucA. Phylogeny analysis was conducted both on concatenated MLST loci and on each individual locus. This showed differing phylogenies for each individual target gene. Most of the recorded polymorphism was borne by three strains: 331, 469 and 623. The neutrality hypothesis could not be rejected. Recombination and linkage disequilibrium were shown to have occurred. A core of seven strains displayed little polymorphism and signs of most likely ancient recombination events. The two reference strains, one from the Caribbean separated from west African strains three centuries ago and another one isolated in South Africa, were very closely related to the core strains whereas the three differing strains displayed recombination and most of the parcimony informative sites. These data suggest that some strains are in genomic stasis, as expected for intracellular parasites, while others emerge in the same area with DNA polymorphism. This work also shows that the MLST scheme developed can discriminate between these two kinds of strains.
Allelic diversity of variable number of tandem repeats provides phylogenetic clues regarding the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family
Contributors: Takayuki Wada, Tomotada Iwamoto
... The Beijing family is the putative hypervirulent lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has been endemic in East Asia and has disseminated worldwide. The genetic population structure of Beijing family strains with regard to Japan is notable in its high diversity and dominance of the ancestral sublineage, in contrast to the modern sublineage found worldwide. Therefore, it is expected to be a suitable population model for investigating the microevolutionary process of the lineage. Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) has become a reliable genotyping method for M. tuberculosis, but its dynamics in the phylogenetic process remains unclear. Using 355 clinical Beijing family isolates in Japan, genetic traits, including VNTR, were analyzed and subjected to minimum spanning tree (MST) reconstruction. In the results, the topology of the tree was tightly related to other genotypic characters. We also found that some VNTR alleles were specific to each sublineage and provided clues for reconstructing a valid MST topology for the population. It is suggested that VNTR typing can elucidate genetic markers representing the phylogenetic classification in the lineage.
Integrated miRNA and mRNA profiling of tumor-educated macrophages identifies prognostic subgroups in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer
Contributors: Annalen Bleckmann, Andreas Leha, Stephan Artmann, Kerstin Menck, Gabriela Salinas-Riester, Claudia Binder, Tobias Pukrop, Tim Beissbarth, Florian Klemm
Stable feature selection of miR-iTEM in breast cancer datasets. List of stably selected miRNAs from the different miRNA sets (miR-iTEM list, miR-Oxford ER + list, all miRNAs list) and their corresponding inclusion frequencies (in % of all cross validation runs) for the two external breast cancer datasets. “-“ indicates that this miRNA was not present in the respective list of miRNAs. ...Stable feature selection of miR-iTEM in breast cancer datasets. List of stably selected miRNAs from the different miRNA sets (miR-iTEM list, miR-Oxford ER + list, all miRNAs list) and their corresponding inclusion frequencies (in % of all cross validation runs) for the two external breast cancer datasets. “-“ indicates that this miRNA was not present in the respective list of miRNAs. ... Various studies have identified aberrantly expressed miRNAs in breast cancer and demonstrated an association between distinct miRNAs and malignant progression as well as metastasis. Even though tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are known mediators of these processes, little is known regarding their miRNA expression upon education by malignant cells in vivo.
Brief communication - Expression patterns of photoperiod and temperature regulated heading date genes in Oryza sativa
Contributors: Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi, Gaurav Sablok, XuFeng Bai, Micael Wendell, Odd-Arne Rognli, HuiHui Yu, YongZhong Xing
... In plants, flowering is a major biological phenomenon, which is regulated by an array of interactions occurring between biotic and abiotic factors. In our study, we have compared the expression profiles of flowering genes involved in the flowering pathway, which are influenced by conditions like photoperiod and temperature from seedling to heading developmental stages in two Oryza sativa indica varieties, viz., Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63 using a expression network approach. Using the network expression approach, we found 17 co-expressed genes having the same expression profile pattern as three key photoperiod flowering genes Hd1, Ehd1 and Hd3a. We also demonstrated that these three co-expressed genes have a similar simulation pattern as temperature flowering genes. Based on our observations, we hypothesize that photoperiod and temperature regulate flowering pathways independently. The present study provides a basis for understanding the network of co-expressed genes involved in flowering pathway and presents a way to demonstrate the behavior of specific gene sets in specific cultivars.