### 21982 results for qubit oscillator frequency

Contributors: Kouji Maeda, Byoung Chul Kim, Young Han Kim, Keisuke Fukui

Date: 2006-02-03

A crystallization monitoring system using a quartz crystal **oscillator** was implemented in the cooling crystallization of dilute lauric acid solutions for the investigation of the nucleation process of the solute. In addition, the microscopic observation of the **oscillator** surface was conducted to examine the number and size of yielded nuclei, and the observed results and the resonant **frequency** variation of the **oscillator** were analyzed to explain the nucleation process....Measured **frequency** drops from stearic acid deposition
...Comparison of the estimated masses from SEM photograph and **frequency** measurement and average mass ratio of SEM to **frequency**
...Variation of the resonant **frequency** of **oscillator** with lowered temperature in ethanol–water solution.
...Magnified plots of **frequency** variation while **oscillator** temperature decreases in lauric acid solutions of 0.05g/L (top), 0.15g/L (middle) and 0.25g/L (bottom).
...SEM photographs of bare **oscillator** (a) and **oscillators** taken at the coolant temperature of 7°C from 0.05g/L solution (b), 0.15g/L (c) and 0.25g/L (d).
...Quartz crystal **Oscillator**...Resonant **frequency** ... A crystallization monitoring system using a quartz crystal **oscillator** was implemented in the cooling crystallization of dilute lauric acid solutions for the investigation of the nucleation process of the solute. In addition, the microscopic observation of the **oscillator** surface was conducted to examine the number and size of yielded nuclei, and the observed results and the resonant **frequency** variation of the **oscillator** were analyzed to explain the nucleation process.

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Contributors: Tadashi Watanabe

Date: 2009-03-23

Time evolutions of normalized amplitude of rotating–**oscillating** droplets.
...Dependencies of (a) **frequency** shift and (b) aspect ratio on rotation rate and amplitude.
...We study the shape **oscillations** of a rotating liquid droplet numerically. The relation between the aspect ratio of the droplet shape and the **frequency** shift is made clear, and the large-amplitude **oscillations** with no **frequency** shift are demonstrated to be possible. Our results indicate that the accurate measurement of **oscillation** **frequencies**, which are not suffered from **frequency** shift, could be conducted by controlling the rotation rate and the amplitude, and thus more reliable surface tension would be obtained....**Oscillation**...Relation between **frequency** shift and aspect ratio.
...**Frequency** shift ... We study the shape **oscillations** of a rotating liquid droplet numerically. The relation between the aspect ratio of the droplet shape and the **frequency** shift is made clear, and the large-amplitude **oscillations** with no **frequency** shift are demonstrated to be possible. Our results indicate that the accurate measurement of **oscillation** **frequencies**, which are not suffered from **frequency** shift, could be conducted by controlling the rotation rate and the amplitude, and thus more reliable surface tension would be obtained.

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Contributors: V.J. Law

Date: 2008-02-19

**Frequency** pulling...**Oscillator** phase noise...Spectral density of switching **frequency** as a function flowing afterglow interaction (free space and surface material at 8mm from DBD nozzle). Data acquisition resolution=1Hz.
...Passive radio spectroscopy is employed to examine plasma process instabilities generated by the interaction between the power source **oscillator** and the plasma load. A fixed **frequency** of 13.56MHz and a 170–180kHz Flyback transformer are considered. The carrier **frequencies** are interrogated using a resolution bandwidth that constitutes ∼1/7000–1/580 of the target **oscillator** **frequencies** with a sweep time of less than 0.06s across the phase noise disturbance. Within these spectrum analyzer measurement parameters, **oscillator** phase noise (1/fn=1–3, discrete spurs and raised noise floor) is shown to be linked to plasma load mismatch and periodic instabilities. In the case of the Flyback circuit, it is found that the **oscillator** **frequency** pulling and modulation are linked to the plasma reactance. These results indicate that **oscillator** phase noise can be used as a non-invasive plasma process metrology tool....A typical fixed **frequency** output from a radio **frequency** generator coupled to a non-linear plasma load. **Oscillator** signal, phase noise, ±spurs, and the noise floor.
...Trace of 2N0335 transistor switching **frequency** and damped **oscillation**. Data acquisition resolution=0.05μs.
... Passive radio spectroscopy is employed to examine plasma process instabilities generated by the interaction between the power source **oscillator** and the plasma load. A fixed **frequency** of 13.56MHz and a 170–180kHz Flyback transformer are considered. The carrier **frequencies** are interrogated using a resolution bandwidth that constitutes ∼1/7000–1/580 of the target **oscillator** **frequencies** with a sweep time of less than 0.06s across the phase noise disturbance. Within these spectrum analyzer measurement parameters, **oscillator** phase noise (1/fn=1–3, discrete spurs and raised noise floor) is shown to be linked to plasma load mismatch and periodic instabilities. In the case of the Flyback circuit, it is found that the **oscillator** **frequency** pulling and modulation are linked to the plasma reactance. These results indicate that **oscillator** phase noise can be used as a non-invasive plasma process metrology tool.

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Contributors: Atsushi Tomeda, Shogo Morisaki, Kenichi Watanabe, Shigeki Kuroki, Isao Ando

Date: 2003-07-24

The plots of 1H signal width for the crystalline region of polyethylene thin film on the surface of on an piezoelectric **oscillator** plate against **oscillation** **frequency** in the range from 1 Hz to 2 MHz (a) and in the expanded range from 1 Hz to 100 kHz (b) at 40 °C.
...The plots of 1H signal width for the non-crystalline region of polyethylene thin film on the surface of on a piezoelectric **oscillator** plate against **oscillation** **frequency** in the range from 1 Hz to 2 MHz (a) in the expanded range from 1 Hz to 100 kHz (b) at 40 °C.
...A diagram of an NMR glass tube with an piezoelectric **oscillator** plate. The polyethylene thin film was molten and adhered on the surface of piezoelectric **oscillator** plate. The **oscillation** of an piezoelectric **oscillator** plate is generated by AD alternator.
...The 1H NMR spectrum of polyethylene thin film on an piezoelectric **oscillator** plate made of inorganic material was observed, which is **oscillated** with high **frequency** by application of AD electric current in the Hz–MHz range. From these experimental results, it is shown that dipolar interactions in solid polyethylene are remarkably reduced by high **frequency** **oscillation** and then the signal width of the crystalline component is significantly reduced with an increase in **oscillation** **frequency**. This means that the introduction of the high **frequency** **oscillation** for solids has large potentiality of obtaining the high resolution NMR spectrum. ... The 1H NMR spectrum of polyethylene thin film on an piezoelectric **oscillator** plate made of inorganic material was observed, which is **oscillated** with high **frequency** by application of AD electric current in the Hz–MHz range. From these experimental results, it is shown that dipolar interactions in solid polyethylene are remarkably reduced by high **frequency** **oscillation** and then the signal width of the crystalline component is significantly reduced with an increase in **oscillation** **frequency**. This means that the introduction of the high **frequency** **oscillation** for solids has large potentiality of obtaining the high resolution NMR spectrum.

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Contributors: Satoshi Takahashi, Michio Hori

Date: 2005-08-21

Time series of the lefties in the model with large reproductive susceptibility c. The thin line is the **frequency** of species x's lefty, xL. The bold line is the **frequency** of the lefty of species y, yL. **Frequencies** of the morphs **oscillate**. While lefty of species x, xL, increases, that of species y, yL, decreases. The reproductive susceptibility c=5. Other parameters and initial values are same to those of Fig. 2.
...Time series of the model with its susceptibility c large. Horizontal axis is time. Vertical axis is fraction of species x, (xL+xR), or species y, (yL+yR). Each curve in the graphs is labeled by x or y. Species x increases with time, while species y decreases in (a), (b), (c), and (f). Lefty–righty **frequency** in each species **oscillates**, which affects the coexistence of two competing species (c=5,Ty=6) (a) Tx=4; (b) Tx=5.2; (c) Tx=5.8; (d) Tx=6.2; (e) Tx=7; (f) Tx=9. Other parameter values are same to those in Fig. 2.
...Time series of the lefties in the model with small reproductive susceptibility c. **Frequencies** of the morphs in each species do not **oscillate** and tend to a point in the continuum of the equilibria. The thin line is the **frequency** of species x's lefty, xL. The bold line is the **frequency** of the lefty of species y, yL. Parameter values are: b=0.75,c=0.5,Tx=4,Ty=6. Initial values are xL(t)=0.2,xR(t)=0.1(-Tx⩽t⩽0),yL(t)=0.6,yR(t)=0.1(-Ty⩽t⩽0).
...Scale-eating cichlids in Lake Tanganyika exhibit genetically determined lateral asymmetry, especially in their mouth-opening. **Frequencies** of the morphs **oscillate** due to strong **frequency**-dependent selection caused by the switching of prey's attention, and its delayed effect by their growth period. Two scale-eaters coexist in similar densities at south shore of the lake, with their morph **frequencies** **oscillating** in phase. We investigated the effect of the **oscillation** in morph **frequencies** to the coexistence of competing species. If the difference of two species’ growth period is large, the **oscillation** facilitates the coexistence of the two species, while small difference of growth periods hinders their coexistence. In the latter case, the species with shorter growth period drives the other species to the extinction....**Frequency**-dependent selection...**Oscillation**...**Frequency** of the righty morph in P. microlepis (thin line) and P. straeleni (bold line). The data are plotted for years ’88, ’90, ’92, ’93, ’94 (P. microlepis only), and ’95.
... Scale-eating cichlids in Lake Tanganyika exhibit genetically determined lateral asymmetry, especially in their mouth-opening. **Frequencies** of the morphs **oscillate** due to strong **frequency**-dependent selection caused by the switching of prey's attention, and its delayed effect by their growth period. Two scale-eaters coexist in similar densities at south shore of the lake, with their morph **frequencies** **oscillating** in phase. We investigated the effect of the **oscillation** in morph **frequencies** to the coexistence of competing species. If the difference of two species’ growth period is large, the **oscillation** facilitates the coexistence of the two species, while small difference of growth periods hinders their coexistence. In the latter case, the species with shorter growth period drives the other species to the extinction.

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Contributors: Stephan André, Valentina Brosco, Alexander Shnirman, Gerd Schön

Date: 2010-01-01

Superconducting **qubits**...Recent experiments demonstrated the possibility to realize a single-**qubit** maser, by coupling an electrical resonator to a superconducting **qubit**. In the present paper we extend earlier work on single-atom lasers to account for the strong **qubit**–resonator coupling. We focus in particular on the spectral properties of the lasing radiation and we discuss phase locking induced by an additional ac driving of the resonator....Coherent amplitude versus the **qubit**–**oscillator** detuning, Δ, and the driving-**oscillator** detuning ωdr-ω0. The amplitude of the driving field is E0=κ/2, and the coupling constant is given by g/ω0=0.0045. Other parameters as in Fig. 1.
... Recent experiments demonstrated the possibility to realize a single-**qubit** maser, by coupling an electrical resonator to a superconducting **qubit**. In the present paper we extend earlier work on single-atom lasers to account for the strong **qubit**–resonator coupling. We focus in particular on the spectral properties of the lasing radiation and we discuss phase locking induced by an additional ac driving of the resonator.

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Contributors: Binbin Qiu, Junjie Yan, Jiping Liu, Daotong Chong, Quanbin Zhao, Xinzhuang Wu

Date: 2014-01-01

Dominant **frequency**...The first and the second dominant **frequencies** variation with the steam mass flux.
...The first and the second dominant **frequencies** variation with the water temperature.
...The dominant **frequency** regime map.
...Pressure **oscillation**...**Frequency** spectrums of pressure **oscillation** at different water temperatures and steam mass flux.
...Experimental investigations and analysis on the dominant **frequency** of pressure **oscillation** for sonic steam jet in subcooled water have been performed. It was found that sometimes there is only one dominant **frequency** for pressure **oscillation**, and sometimes there is a second dominant **frequency** for pressure **oscillation**. The first dominant **frequency** had been investigated by many scholars before, but the present study mainly investigated the characteristics of the second dominant **frequency**. The first dominant **frequency** is mainly caused by the periodical variation of the steam plume and the second dominant **frequency** is mainly caused by the generating and rupture of the large steam bubbles. A dominant **frequency** regime map related to the water temperature and steam mass flux is given. When the water temperature and the steam mass flux are low, there is only one dominant **frequency** of pressure **oscillation**. When the water temperature or the steam mass flux is high, the second dominant **frequency** appears for pressure **oscillation**. The second dominant **frequency** decreases with the increasing water temperature and steam mass flux. Meanwhile, the second dominant **frequency** at high steam mass flux and water temperature is lower than the first dominant **frequency** at low steam mass flux and water temperature. A dimensionless correlation is proposed to predict the second dominant **frequency** for sonic steam jet. The predictions agree well with the present experimental data, the discrepancies are within ±20%....The dominant **frequencies** in different measurement points by Qiu et al. [14].
... Experimental investigations and analysis on the dominant **frequency** of pressure **oscillation** for sonic steam jet in subcooled water have been performed. It was found that sometimes there is only one dominant **frequency** for pressure **oscillation**, and sometimes there is a second dominant **frequency** for pressure **oscillation**. The first dominant **frequency** had been investigated by many scholars before, but the present study mainly investigated the characteristics of the second dominant **frequency**. The first dominant **frequency** is mainly caused by the periodical variation of the steam plume and the second dominant **frequency** is mainly caused by the generating and rupture of the large steam bubbles. A dominant **frequency** regime map related to the water temperature and steam mass flux is given. When the water temperature and the steam mass flux are low, there is only one dominant **frequency** of pressure **oscillation**. When the water temperature or the steam mass flux is high, the second dominant **frequency** appears for pressure **oscillation**. The second dominant **frequency** decreases with the increasing water temperature and steam mass flux. Meanwhile, the second dominant **frequency** at high steam mass flux and water temperature is lower than the first dominant **frequency** at low steam mass flux and water temperature. A dimensionless correlation is proposed to predict the second dominant **frequency** for sonic steam jet. The predictions agree well with the present experimental data, the discrepancies are within ±20%.

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Contributors: Z.K. Peng, Z.Q. Lang, S.A. Billings, Y. Lu

Date: 2007-11-01

The output **frequency** response of a nonlinear system.
...The restoring force of a bilinear **oscillator**.
...The output **frequency** response of a linear system.
...Bilinear **oscillator**...The polynomial approximation result for a bilinear **oscillator**
...Nonlinear output **frequency** response function...Bilinear **oscillator** model.
...In this paper, the new concept of nonlinear output **frequency** response functions (NOFRFs) is extended to the harmonic input case, an input-independent relationship is found between the NOFRFs and the generalized **frequency** response functions (GFRFs). This relationship can greatly simplify the application of the NOFRFs. Then, beginning with the demonstration that a bilinear **oscillator** can be approximated using a polynomial-type nonlinear **oscillator**, the NOFRFs are used to analyse the energy transfer phenomenon of bilinear **oscillators** in the **frequency** domain. The analysis provides insight into how new **frequency** generation can occur using bilinear **oscillators** and how the sub-resonances occur for the bilinear **oscillators**, and reveals that it is the resonant **frequencies** of the NOFRFs that dominate the occurrence of this well-known nonlinear behaviour. The results are of significance for the design and fault diagnosis of mechanical systems and structures which can be described by a bilinear **oscillator** model. ... In this paper, the new concept of nonlinear output **frequency** response functions (NOFRFs) is extended to the harmonic input case, an input-independent relationship is found between the NOFRFs and the generalized **frequency** response functions (GFRFs). This relationship can greatly simplify the application of the NOFRFs. Then, beginning with the demonstration that a bilinear **oscillator** can be approximated using a polynomial-type nonlinear **oscillator**, the NOFRFs are used to analyse the energy transfer phenomenon of bilinear **oscillators** in the **frequency** domain. The analysis provides insight into how new **frequency** generation can occur using bilinear **oscillators** and how the sub-resonances occur for the bilinear **oscillators**, and reveals that it is the resonant **frequencies** of the NOFRFs that dominate the occurrence of this well-known nonlinear behaviour. The results are of significance for the design and fault diagnosis of mechanical systems and structures which can be described by a bilinear **oscillator** model.

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Contributors: Gülnur Birol, Abdel-Qader M Zamamiri, Martin A. Hjortsø

Date: 2000-07-01

**Frequency** spectra (a), (b) and (c) correspond to the **frequency** spectra of signals in Fig. 6 (a), (b) and (c), respectively. By construction, **frequency** spectrum in (a) is equal to the sum of the spectra in (b) and (c).
...Period and amplitude of **oscillation** versus average dilution rate (h−1) calculated by FFT analysis in intervals of 512 data points of the filtered data shown in Fig. 4.
...**Frequency** spectra of the exhaust CO2 signal shown in Fig. 1: (a) through (d) correspond to regions 1 through 4 of Fig. 1, respectively; (e) shows the **frequency** spectrum of the overall signal.
...Autonomous **oscillations**...Calculated periods of **oscillations**, in minutes, obtained by FFT analysis of various signals
...Measurements of state variables from **oscillating** chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analyzed by Fourier transformation. Of the signals tested, carbon dioxide and oxygen in the exit gas stream and dissolved oxygen in the medium, all gave identical results. Analysis of data from reactors operated at fixed conditions showed that after **oscillations** start, they pass through an extended transient lasting several days, before the **oscillation** period becomes constant. Under transient operating conditions, Fourier analysis revealed expected qualitative trends in the change of **oscillation** period with dilution rate....Filtered CO2 signal of the ramp experiment shown in Fig. 3. The filtered signal was obtained by subtracting moving signal averages from the original signal and represents the **oscillating** part of the signal.
... Measurements of state variables from **oscillating** chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analyzed by Fourier transformation. Of the signals tested, carbon dioxide and oxygen in the exit gas stream and dissolved oxygen in the medium, all gave identical results. Analysis of data from reactors operated at fixed conditions showed that after **oscillations** start, they pass through an extended transient lasting several days, before the **oscillation** period becomes constant. Under transient operating conditions, Fourier analysis revealed expected qualitative trends in the change of **oscillation** period with dilution rate.

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Contributors: Yoshihiro Maegaki, Imad Najm, Kiyohito Terada, Harold H Morris, William E Bingaman, Norimasa Kohaya, Atsumi Takenobu, Yoko Kadonaga, Hans O Lüders

Date: 2000-01-01

Cortical distributions of SEPs and high-**frequency** **oscillations** to median nerve stimulation in Patient 5. (A) Typical high-**frequency** **oscillation** potential recorded at electrode A5. (B) The location of recording electrodes. (C) Cortical distributions of the SEPs and high-**frequency** **oscillations**. P20/N20 are distributed diffusely around the primary hand sensorimotor area, while P25 is elicited in a restricted cortical area. Most **oscillation** potentials show a cortical distribution similar to that of P20/N20. Two later **oscillations** (n21 and p22) are elicited in a restricted cortical area similar to P25.
...Typical examples of high-**frequency** **oscillations** to median nerve stimulation recorded with a restricted bandpass filter of 500–2000 Hz compared with SEPs recorded with a wide bandpass filter of 30–2000 Hz. The SEPs and high-**frequency** **oscillations** were recorded at the same precentral electrodes (A1 in Patient 2 and A5 in Patient 5). Note the better isolated **oscillation** potentials on restricted filtering as a result of the attenuation of slower SEP components. Most of the **oscillation** potentials can be identified with both bandpass filters. p22 can only be seen on restricted bandpass filtering in Patient 2. The latencies of **oscillations** differed by 0.11 ms for the two different bandpass filters.
...Clinical and imaging characteristics of 8 patients for whom high-**frequency** **oscillations** were evaluateda
...Cortical distributions of SEPs and high-**frequency** **oscillations** to median nerve stimulation in Patient 7. (A) Typical high-**frequency** **oscillation** potential recorded at electrode C1. (B) The location of recording electrodes on the 3-dimensional MRI reconstruction. (C) Cortical distributions of the SEPs and high-**frequency** **oscillations**. Most **oscillation** potentials are distributed similar to or more diffusely than P20/N20. Three later **oscillations** (n18, p18 and n19) are elicited in a restricted cortical area similar to P25.
...High-**frequency** **oscillation**...Objective: To elucidate the generator sources of high-**frequency** **oscillations** of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), we recorded somatosensory evoked high-**frequency** **oscillations** directly from the human cerebral cortex....The locations of the subdural electrode array and functional brain mapping in each patient. SEPs and high-**frequency** **oscillations** were recorded from the electrodes enclosed by solid lines. Electrodes A7 and C4, and A4 were not used for recording because of disconnection of the wires in Patients 5 and 7, respectively. CS, central sulcus.
... Objective: To elucidate the generator sources of high-**frequency** **oscillations** of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), we recorded somatosensory evoked high-**frequency** **oscillations** directly from the human cerebral cortex.

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