235 results for qubit oscillator frequency
Allelic diversity of variable number of tandem repeats provides phylogenetic clues regarding the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family
Contributors: Takayuki Wada, Tomotada Iwamoto
... The Beijing family is the putative hypervirulent lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has been endemic in East Asia and has disseminated worldwide. The genetic population structure of Beijing family strains with regard to Japan is notable in its high diversity and dominance of the ancestral sublineage, in contrast to the modern sublineage found worldwide. Therefore, it is expected to be a suitable population model for investigating the microevolutionary process of the lineage. Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) has become a reliable genotyping method for M. tuberculosis, but its dynamics in the phylogenetic process remains unclear. Using 355 clinical Beijing family isolates in Japan, genetic traits, including VNTR, were analyzed and subjected to minimum spanning tree (MST) reconstruction. In the results, the topology of the tree was tightly related to other genotypic characters. We also found that some VNTR alleles were specific to each sublineage and provided clues for reconstructing a valid MST topology for the population. It is suggested that VNTR typing can elucidate genetic markers representing the phylogenetic classification in the lineage.
Contributors: Suzanne R. Kalb, Theresa J. Smith, Hercules Moura, Karen Hill, Jianlong Lou, Isin N. Geren, Consuelo Garcia-Rodriguez, James D. Marks, Leonard A. Smith, James L. Pirkle
... Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the disease botulism, which can be lethal if untreated. Rapid determination of exposure to BoNT is an important public health goal. Previous work in our laboratory focused on the development of Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based endopeptidase method for detecting and differentiating BoNT A–G in buffer and BoNT A, B, E, and F in clinical samples. We introduce here the use of Endopep-MS to detect non-commercial subtypes of BoNT A, B, E, and F which have been associated with botulism outbreaks. We have now tested and successfully detected 15 of the 17 known subtypes of BoNT A, B, E, and F by Endopep-MS. Extraction of BoNT A and B from a complex mixture prior to analysis is accomplished by using monoclonal antibodies specific for the catalytically inactive heavy chain of the toxin. These antibodies have high-binding affinities and do not interfere with the catalytic activity of the light chain resulting in a lower limit of detection for BoNT A and B than previously reported. We also report for the first time limits of detection for BoNT A2, A3, B2, and bivalent B using Endopep-MS.
Contributors: Patricia Britten, Kristin Marcoe, Sedigheh Yamini, Carole Davis
... The purpose of this research was to design food intake patterns based on typical American food selections that would meet Dietary Guidelines and Dietary Reference Intake recommendations.
Original Articles - Influence of Preoperative Radiation Field on Postoperative Leak Rates in Esophageal Cancer Patients after Trimodality Therapy
Contributors: Aditya Juloori, Susan L. Tucker, Ritsuko Komaki, Zhongxing Liao, Arlene M. Correa, Stephen G. Swisher, Wayne L. Hofstetter, Steven H. Lin
... Postoperative morbidities, such as anastomotic leaks, are common after trimodality therapy (chemoradiation followed by surgery) for esophageal cancer. We investigated for factors associated with an increased incidence of anastomotic leaks.
GB virus C (GBV-C) evolutionary patterns revealed by analyses of reference genomes, E2 and NS5B sequences amplified from viral strains circulating in the Lisbon area (Portugal)
Contributors: Ricardo Parreira, Cristina Branco, João Piedade, Aida Esteves
... GBV-C is a non-pathogenic virus that is largely dispersed in different human populations. The phylogenetic analysis of the 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR) of the GBV-C genome has led to the segregation of viral strains into six genotypes, but incongruent results are frequently obtained depending on the genome region analyzed. In this report, different phylogenetic approaches and multivariate statistics were combined to disclose evolutionary patterns that contribute to shape GBV-C evolution.
Original article - Molecular genetic screening of MBS1 locus on chromosome 13 for microdeletions and exclusion of FGF9, GSH1 and CDX2 as causative genes in patients with Moebius syndrome
Contributors: Abdullah Uzumcu, Birsen Karaman, Guven Toksoy, Z. Oya Uyguner, Sukru Candan, Hacer Eris, Burak Tatli, Bilge Geckinli, Adnan Yuksel, Hulya Kayserili
... Moebius syndrome is a rare disorder primarily characterized by congenital facial palsy, frequently accompanied by ocular abduction anomalies, and occasionally associated with orofacial, limb and musculoskeletal malformations. Abnormal development of cranial nerves V through XII underlines the disease pathogenesis. Although some investigations suggested that a causative gene may lie on 13q12.2–q13, there have been no molecular studies targeting possible microdeletions in this region to date. In the present study, we performed microdeletion analyses on 13q12.11–q13 in nine patients, and sequenced three candidate genes in nineteen patients for functional relevance and further resolution of our screening. We ruled out microdeletions on the critical region as a common cause of Moebius syndrome and excluded FGF9, GSH1 and CDX2 genes.
Original article - POMT2 intragenic deletions and splicing abnormalities causing congenital muscular dystrophy with mental retardation
Contributors: Akiko Yanagisawa, Céline Bouchet, Susana Quijano-Roy, Sandrine Vuillaumier-Barrot, Nigel Clarke, Sylvie Odent, Diana Rodriguez, Norma B. Romero, Makiko Osawa, Tamao Endo
... Alpha-dystroglycanopathies are a group of congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) with autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by abnormal glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. Although six genetic causes have been identified (FKTN, POMGNT1, POMT1, POMT2, FKRP, and LARGE) many alpha-dystroglycanopathy patients remain without a genetic diagnosis after standard exon sequencing. To date POMT2 mutations have been identified in CMD cases with a wide range of clinical severities from Walker–Warburg syndrome to limb girdle muscular dystrophy without structural brain or ocular involvement.
Original paper - Implication of different effector mechanisms by cord blood–derived and peripheral blood–derived cytokine-induced killer cells to kill precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines
Contributors: Ludovic Durrieu, William Lemieux, Mame Massar Dieng, François Fontaine, Michel Duval, Françoise Le Deist, Elie Haddad
... Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells ex vivo–expanded from cord blood (CB) or peripheral blood (PB) have been shown to be cytotoxic against autologous and allogeneic tumor cells. We have previously shown that CD56+ CIK cells (CD3+CD56+ and CD3−CD56+) are capable of killing precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines. However, the lytic pathways used by CD56+ PB and CB-CIK cells to kill B-ALL cell lines have not been studied.
Brief communication - FLT3/internal tandem duplication subclones in acute myeloid leukemia differ in their engraftment potential in NOD/SCID mice
Contributors: Alice M.S. Cheung, Howard C.H. Chow, Yok-Lam Kwong, Raymond Liang, Anskar Y.H. Leung
... In this study, we tested if FLT3/internal tandem duplication (ITD) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) might occur at different hierarchical stages during leukemogenesis. In 56 AML cases, 10 showed FLT3/ITD (single ITD=5; multiple ITD=5). Myeloblasts from seven cases (CD34-selected=4; unselected=3) were transplanted into NOD/SCID mice. Five cases engrafted successfully into 14 mice. Two patients carried single FLT3/ITD subclones, which were maintained during primary and secondary transplantations. In three patients with multiple FLT3/ITD subclones, some subclones persisted or expanded while others diminished upon transplantation. Their different engraftment capabilities in NOD/SCID mice supported the proposition that FLT3/ITD might occur at different stages during leukemogenesis.
Clinical Investigation - Suppressed soluble Fms–like tyrosine kinase-1 production aggravates atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease
Contributors: Masaru Matsui, Yukiji Takeda, Shiro Uemura, Takaki Matsumoto, Ayako Seno, Kenji Onoue, Hideo Tsushima, Katsuhiko Morimoto, Tsunenari Soeda, Satoshi Okayama
... Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) die of cardiovascular diseases for unknown reasons. Blood vessel formation in plaques and its relationship with plaque stability could be involved with signaling through the Flt-1 receptor and its ligands, vascular endothelial growth factor, and the closely related placental growth factor (PlGF). Flt-1 also exists as a circulating regulatory splice variant short-inhibitory form (sFlt-1) that serves as a decoy receptor, thereby inactivating PlGF. Heparin releases sFlt-1 by displacing the sFlt-1 heparin-binding site from heparin sulfate proteoglycans. Heparin could provide diagnostic inference or could also induce an antiangiogenic state. In the present study, postheparin sFlt-1 levels were lower in CKD patients than in control subjects. More importantly, sFlt-1 levels were inversely related to atherosclerosis in CKD patients, and this correlation was more robust after heparin injection, as verified by subsequent cardiovascular events. Knockout of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and/or sFlt-1 showed that the absence of sFlt-1 worsened atherogenesis in ApoE-deficient mice. Thus, the relationship between atherosclerosis and PlGF signaling, as regulated by sFlt-1, underscores the underappreciated role of heparin in sFlt-1 release. These clinical and experimental data suggest that novel avenues into CKD-dependent atherosclerosis and its detection are warranted.