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What does the ideal housing type look like? A 2015 online survey of individuals living in the Loire-Atlantique Département in France provided 1,134 interviews, which we analyze using a mixed-effect probit model. We look at the probability of living in the ideal housing type related to 28 variables of dwelling and respondent characteristics, density perception, district perception, type of municipality, and proximity to education, healthcare and food facilities. The issue is important because certain housing types yield greater land consumption and longer trips. Local governments support infill developments with higher built-up density levels to conserve land and support walking, cycling, and transit. We find that the probability of living in the ideal housing type has no relationship to density perception. What matters is a positive district perception and proximity to healthcare. Well-designed infill development with higher built-up density levels can succeed, associating a higher probability of living in the ideal housing type with suitable urban forms given the physical constraints of territories, in a sustainable development framework.
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Gómez
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In diesem Arbeitspapier untersuchen wir, ob eine Einbeziehung des Agrarsektors in die CO2-Bepreisung möglich und sinnvoll wäre. Die CO2-Bepreisung wird in Europa bereits seit Jahren praktiziert. Im EU-Emissionshandels-system (ETS) werden Emissionen von ca. 12.000 Großanlagen der Energiewirtschaft und der energieintensiven Industrie reguliert, außerdem die Emissionen des innereuropäischen Luftver-kehrs. Das ETS umfasst damit fast die Hälfte der Treibhausgasemissionen Europas. Die politisch festgelegten Einsparungsziele werden im ETS-Bereich erreicht (wenngleich unter Mitwirkung verschiedener anderer klimapolitischer Instrumente), während sie im non-ETS-Bereich bisher verfehlt werden. Die deutsche Bundesregierung hat nun im Herbst 2019 ein Klimaschutzgesetz vorgelegt, das ein umfangreiches Maßnahmenbündel vorsieht. Zu den wichtigsten Maßnahmen gehört hierbei die Einbeziehung der fossilen Heiz- und Kraftstoffe in den Emissionshandel. Zwar wird hierfür zu-nächst nur ein Handelssystem auf nationaler Basis vorgesehen, und in der Startphase sollen die CO2-Preise niedrig gehalten werden. Die langfristige Wirkung dieses Systemwechsels kann jedoch erheblich sein: Demnächst werden ca. 85 Prozent der Treibhausgasemissionen Deutschlands in den Emissionshandel einbezogen sein, so dass hier die Emissionsmengen entlang eines einmal beschlossenen Minderungspfades schrittweise reduziert werden können, ohne dass die Politik hierfür ständig neue Beschlüsse erkämpfen muss. Im Emissionshandel fehlen dann neben bestimmten Emissionen aus Industrieprozessen im We-sentlichen noch die Bereiche Landwirtschaft und Landnutzung. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es das Ziel des vorliegenden Arbeitsberichts, umfassend zu prüfen, ob nicht auch diese Bereiche einbe-zogen werden könnten. Zunächst zeigen wir auf Basis ökonomischer Theorie und politischer Erfahrung, worin die Vorteile der CO2-Bepreisung im Vergleich zu anderen klimapolitischen Optionen bestehen: (1) Die Emissi-onsminderungsziele werden entlang des politisch festgelegten Einsparungspfades erreicht. (2) Alle Unternehmen und alle Verbraucher werden über die Preise mit Knappheitssignalen ver-sorgt, so dass auch alle Menschen ständig am „Minderungs- und Innovationswettbewerb“ teil-nehmen. (3) Die Emissionsminderungen finden im Endeffekt dort statt, wo sie die geringsten volkswirtschaftlichen Kosten verursachen. (4) Das System basiert auf marktwirtschaftlichen Prin-zipien, ist somit besonders gut anschlussfähig für eine weltweit abgestimmte Klimaschutzpolitik...,DOI:10.3220/WP1576588334000,
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This study aimed at evaluating the most effective commercialisation pathway (smallholder and inclusive) and its impacts on productivity and welfare on smallholder rice farmers in the pathways versus rain-fed farmers in Mbarali District. Output and input commercialisation indices (CCI and ICI) and propensity score matching were used for data analysis. The overall output commercialisation was more than half of the produced rice (CCI=59%) but the use of improved inputs in the study area was low (ICI = 27%). The proportion of rice sold was higher in the inclusive pathway (80%) relative to smallholder pathway (70%) and rain-fed scheme (41%). Total factor productivity ranged between 1.17 - 1.21 and 0.98 – 1.02 in the smallholder and inclusive pathways respectively more than that in the rain-fed scheme. In terms of welfare, inclusive pathway was better-off relative to the two groups. Therefore, both smallholder and inclusive pathways should be adopted to explore the synergies.
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Catch-and-release (C&R) could be an interesting management tool in recreational fisheries as long as mortality remains low and the anglers’ well-being does not drop. We used a choice experiment to examine the potential of C&R angling as a monitoring tool for the salmon recreational fishery in Brittany (France). Anglers were asked to choose between hypothetical fishing day trips differing in terms of their combination of relevant attributes and levels. From the analysis of respondents’ trade-offs between the fishing trip’s attributes, willingness-to-pay were estimated for each level of attribute. Our results show that anglers prefer unrestrictive regulations. All in all, the majority of the anglers nonetheless hold a positive valuation of a C&R fishing day, which could therefore be used to generate economic returns for the river once the TAC is reached. Lastly, the fishing season, and especially the level of river use, impact more on the value of fishing than C&R.
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This article analyses the contribution of LEADER methodology to address the problem of depopulation in Sierra Grande-Tierra de Barros county (Badajoz). To this end, the risk of depopulation of each territorial entity is analysed and prioritised, and the relevance, effectiveness and efficiency of LEADER aids in their contribution to population setting are studied. The results obtained show that, although LEADER methodology has been useful in facing the challenge of depopulation, its application is not enough to ensure a horizon of viability for the municipalities with the greatest demographic problems.
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The global trend towards intensification and industrialization of animal production with regional concentration of livestock plants and increasing numbers of animals and stockpiles leads to a raise in bioaerosol emissions to the environment in certain areas and to an increasing concern about health impairment of the population in the vicinity. The essential sources of the bioaerosols are the animals and their faeces, the litter and the feed. The particles from there get into the airborne state and emit from the stables also into the environment. Hundreds of different viruses, bacteria and mold fungi have been detected worldwide in agricultural livestock farming. The bacterium group of the Staphylococcaceae appears to be most suitable for animal husbandry as a specific indicator or guiding parameter. Bioaerosols can be measured online with particle spectrometers and offline using classical methods, i. e. sampling on site with subsequent evaluation by means of culture-based or molecular biological methods in the laboratory. The classical detection methods are best suited to the complexity of bioaerosols in agricultural livestock farming. The sampling of bioaerosols should be carried out as far as possible using standardized systems which have high physical and biological collection efficiency in order to ensure comparability of the data. The selection of the collection system should always depend on the question primarily. After the bioaerosols have been collected in a sample, the evaluation is usually carried out via cultivation and / or various biochemical and molecular biological methods. Especially the latter allow, in combination with the classical culture-based methods, for a detailed insight into the composition of bioaerosols. But here a further standardization of the methods for bioaerosols is necessary. Endotoxins, on the other hand, are predominantly detected by the LAL test, which, however, is still very susceptible to disturbances. Most data on bioaerosol measurements in agricultural livestock farming available for this review are from the USA and Germany. Here, the concentrations of bacteria, molds and endotoxins were measured in the stables of pigs, cattle and chickens. The highest concentrations of airborne bacteria were found in stables for chickens, followed by turkeys, ducks, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, horses and rabbits, with the different husbandry and production stages having a significant influence. In the emission of the stables, the published emission factors for airborne microorganisms differ considerably for the animal species and part of the keeping system, also by the different sampling conditions, collection methods and different methods for the determination of the concentrations. The concentrations of the airborne bacteria in livestock during the day and night can deviate by a factor of ten. The deviation may further increase to a factor of 1000 if emission factors are calculated on the basis of the specific volumetric flow rates. This must be taken into account in the calculation of annual average values of emission factors. During transportation, i. e. the transport of bioaerosols via the air, the micro-organisms are largely exposed to wind and weather. The extent to which they are carried is primarily dependent on two parameters: the tenacity, i. e. the ability to survive the airborne condition, and the size and composition of the bioaerosol particles, i. e. how quickly they sediment. How long microorganisms are viable in the air is depending on very many factors and, due to the previously used test systems, only insufficiently studied. Regarding the particle size, most of the air-borne microorganisms are found in the agricultural livestock farming in significantly larger particle size or mass fractions than the size of the individual cells of the organisms can be assumed. 30% to 70% of the bacteria can be found in mass fractions larger than PM10 though, where the distribution of the different bioaerosol components can be very different and not uniformly correlated with the distribution of the dust fractions. The immission concentrations of bioaerosols exponentially decrease with the distance to the emission source, mainly depending on the particle size and meteorological conditions. Instead of carrying out complex measurements, the spread of bioaerosols can also be simulated with computer models. Up to now, however, the models have often surpassed the emissions, since night reduction, particle size distributions and abortions are still not taken into account. From hundreds of publications, it has been known for a long time that bioaerosols probably interact synergistically with other air pollutants on livestock breeders' health, of the staff working there and also the animals. No dose / effect relationship has been established so far. To date there has been no clear statement as to the possible danger to the inhabitants of animal husbandry. Therefore, no general limit values are formulated for bioaerosols, except for a certain extent for endotoxins, which can be expected to have a detrimental effect on health. Instead, an environmental assessment of individual cases usually takes place from the precautionary principle. A number of measures are available to reduce the bio-aerosol emissions as a precaution. Thanks to a good stable management and hygienic concept supported by technical solutions, for example, the exhaust air purification, a significant reduction of livestock husbandry originating bioaerosols of well over 90% can be achieved. Whether in the future the derivation of a dose / response relationship for bioaerosols or at least a valid environmental medical assessment of the emissions is possible remains to be seen. Until then, in the medium term, the indicator organisms and guiding parameters for bioaerosols from livestock husbandry should be (re)considered and viruses should be included. This comprises the validation and further development of high-volume collectors for bioaerosols. In the case of dispersion modelling, the particle size distributions of the microorganisms and the different levels of emissions between day and night must be considered for the short term. This also applies to the tenacity, where new measurement systems are needed in order to obtain meaningful data. It should also be a medium-term goal to reduce the bio-aerosol concentrations already in the stable. Concepts for adapted exhaust air purification plants are available for this purpose, which together with further measures can lead to a reduction of 90% to 99%. There still is a lot to do.,DOI:10.3220/WP1578478975000,
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Productivity in rain-fed and irrigated rice farming ecosystems are very important for Ghana’s self-sufficiency in rice. This paper, therefore, provides a synthesis of the irrigated and rain-fed rice farming ecosystems in Ghana using recent advances in the production economics literature. Specifically, the technical efficiency differential in the irrigated and rain-fed rice farming ecosystems are estimated using stochastic and bias-corrected data envelopment metafrontier methods. Technical efficiency drivers of the individual rice farming ecosystems are also examined. Using a sample of 381 for the modelling, the estimated results showed that farms under the irrigated rice farming ecosystem are more technically efficient (71%) compared to those under the rain-fed rice farming ecosystem (59%). However, overall technical efficiency falls short of about 36%, suggesting a substantial level of inefficiency in both rice farming ecosystems. In addition, the results revealed male farmers are more technically efficient compared to female farmers. Also, membership of farming associations has efficiency reducing effect. The study proposes that to improve rice productivity, resources should be invested in improving the managerial skills of farmers operating under the two rice farming ecosystems and in infrastructural development.
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Agricultural commodity prices play an important role in the production decisions of farmers and ranchers, including planted/harvested acreage of crops or inventory of livestock and, thus, the supply of agricultural commodities. This report examines changes in global demand and supply factors that contributed to agricultural commodity price declines during 2014-19 and changes that contributed to the rising trend in prices that peaked in 2007/08 and 2011/12. Additionally, the report projects how global commodity prices and trade could change out to 2021/22 given various assumptions on key factors, such as the growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and agricultural production across countries. Information on these factors and their market impacts can inform and enhance public and private decision making on issues relating to agricultural markets. Model results suggest that if GDP growth slows in developing and emerging economies by 2.3 percentage points annually (the average annual rate of decline experienced in these countries over 2007-09), commodity prices would decrease on average by 4 percent per year over 2018/19 to 2021/22. However, the volume of global commodity trade would remain relatively stable. Second, if crop production by major producing countries (including the United States) were to decline by 3 percentage points, commodity prices are projected to rise by an average of 12 percent per year over 2018/19 to 2021/22. The volume of global commodity trade is projected to fall by an average of 2 percent per year for this scenario. Third, if U.S. crop production increases by an average of 1 percentage point, average commodity prices decline by 2 percent, and the volume of global commodity trade increases by an average of less than 1 percent over 2018/19 to 2021/22.
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This paper reports an analysis of the behavior and perception of migrant agricultural workers in relation to central human capacities. Seven dimensions of analysis were aligned to the human central capabilities proposed by Nussbaum. The results showed that physical health and emotions infringe human development of workers. The capabilities of practical reason, affiliation and control over the environment showed discrimination and social segregation. The results provide evidence on the quality of life and general welfare situation of migrant farm workers from a perspective for human development.
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