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Abstract: Location: Slovenia Year: 2017 The EO data were collected for the whole year on a interval of about 5 days. For each point (pixel) which has dimensions 10x10 meters 10 metrices were calculated: 4 raw band measurements (red, green, blue - RGB and near infrared - NIR) and 6 relevant vegetation-related derived indices (normalized differential vegetation index - NDVI, normalized differential water index - NDWI, enhanced vegetation index - EVI, soil-adjusted vegetation index - SAVI, structureintensive pigment index - SIPI and atmospherically resistant vegetation index - ARVI). On this basic metrices, the 18 indices were calculated. The derived indices are based on extensive domain knowledge and are used for assessing vegetation properties and are defined in [Valero et al. 2016]. Aside from 180 total features from before mentioned indices also the height and land inclination are included which were obtained from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Slovenia. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: EVENT LABEL: * LATITUDE: 46.000000 * LONGITUDE: 15.000000 * LOCATION: Slovenia
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Abstract: In this experiment, we assessed the different transmission steps from the first to the second intermediate host: i) cercarial emergence from periwinkles, ii) cercarial activity and survival after emergence, iii) cercarial infectivity in mussels, and iv) susceptibility of mussels to cercarial infection. For iii) cercariae were treated but not the mussels, whereas for iv) mussels were treated but not the cercariae. The experiment was run in August-September 2017 in the climate chambers of GEOMAR in Kiel. All experiments were conducted using temperature and salinity (fully crossed) as well as time (only for cercarial output) as fixed factors, and periwinkle/mussel identity nested within water bath as random factor. Temperature levels applied were 19 and 23°C. Salinity levels applied were 13, 16 and 19. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: The Late Neogene witnessed various major paleoceanographic changes that culminated in intense Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). The cause and effects of these changes are still debated. We use a multiproxy approach to determine the relative timing of the closure of the Panama gateway, changes in Atlantic circulation, global cooling and ice sheet growth. Benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca records from a Pacific and an Atlantic Site have been produced and are interpreted in terms of bottom water temperatures. These Mg-temperature records are combined with published benthic d13C, N18O and erosion records to reconstruct the flow of proto-North Atlantic Deep Water (proto-NADW) over the past 12 Ma. The results suggest that between 12.5and 10.5 Ma, and again between about 8.5 and 6 Ma, a nutrient-depleted water mass that was colder (by 1-2˚C) and fresher than the intervening deep water mass filled the Atlantic basin. This proto-NADW became warmer (by ~1˚C) and saltier between 6 and 5Ma, coincident with the restriction of surface water flow through the Central American Seaway. The Mg-temperature records define a subsequent global cooling trend of~3.5˚C between 5 Ma and today. Early NHG in the late Miocene was perhaps related to the formation of the relatively cold, fresh proto-NADW. The formation of the warmer and saltier proto-NADW in the early Pliocene may have initially limited Northern Hemisphere ice growth. However, the increased moisture released at high northern latitudes associated with formation of 'warm' proto-NADW, coupled with the global temperature decrease of deep (and hence polar surface) waters, likely helped initiate the intense NHG of the Plio-Pleistocene. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: A deep-sea temperature record for the past 50 million years has been produced from the magnesium/calcium ratio (Mg/Ca) in benthic foraminiferal calcite. The record is strikingly similar in form to the corresponding benthic oxygen isotope (δ18O) record and defines an overall cooling of about 12°C in the deep oceans with four main cooling periods. Used in conjunction with the benthic δ18O record, the magnesium temperature record indicates that the first major accumulation of Antarctic ice occurred rapidly in the earliest Oligocene (34 million years ago) and was not accompanied by a decrease in deep-sea temperatures. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: Paired benthic foraminiferal trace metal and stable isotope records have been constructed from equatorial Pacific Ocean Drilling Program Site 1218. The records include the two largest abrupt (<1 Myr) increases in the Cenozoic benthic oxygen isotope record: Oi‐1 in the earliest Oligocene (∼34 Ma) and Mi‐1 in the earliest Miocene (∼23 Ma). The paired Mg/Ca and oxygen isotope records are used to calculate seawater δ18O (δw). Calculated δw suggests that a large Antarctic ice sheet formed during Oi‐1 and subsequently fluctuated throughout the Oligocene on both short (<0.5 Myr) and long (2–3 Myr) timescales, between about 50 and 100% of its maximum earliest Oligocene size. The magnitudes of these fluctuations are consistent with estimates of sea level derived from sequence stratigraphy. The transient expansion of the Antarctic ice sheet at Mi‐1 is marked in the benthic δ18O record by two positive excursions between 23.7 and 22.9 Ma, each with a duration of 200–300 kyr. Bottom water temperatures decreased by ∼2°C over the 150 kyr immediately prior to both rapid δ18O excursions. However, the onset of each of these phases of ice growth is synchronous, within the resolution of the records, with the onset of a 2°C warming over ∼150 kyr. We suggest that the warming during these glacial expansions reflect increased greenhouse forcing prompted by a sudden decrease in global chemical weathering rates as Antarctic basement silicate rocks became blanketed by an ice sheet. This represents a negative feedback process that might have operated during major abrupt growth phases of the Antarctic ice sheet. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: When using these data please cite: Lear et al. 2004. This workbook includes both the raw isotope data and the screened data (=raw data minus a handful of fliers, that we attribute to a failing collector on the mass spec) (see text in paper for definition of "fliers“). Please note that for δ13C, in Figure 3 of the paper, a few fliers were included. Therefore to reproduce Figure 3B, the column "δ13C plotted Lear et al 04" will need to be used. In all other cases please use "δ13C screened". To reproduce Figure 3A please use "δ18O screened Lear et al 04“. Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: Not Available Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: Concentration and relative abundances of planktonic foraminifera in plankton tows and surface sediments of the the Barents Sea, from 69°50,686 N to 75°36,095 N. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: Physical data (temperature, salinity, pressure, oxygen and velocity) of a cruise in the Mediterranran Sea with the German research vessel Maria S. Merian, cruise MSM72 from March 02 to April 03, 2018. The cruise started in Iraklion, Greece and ended in Cadiz, Spain. One of the main goals of the cruise was to contribute to the understanding of long-term changes and trends in physical parameters, in order to evaluate the hydrographical situation after the major climatological shifts in the eastern and western part of the basin, known as the Eastern and Western Mediterranean Transients. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: The geochemical measurements within the long-lived, crustose coralline red alga Clathromorphum compactum in calibration experiments, and the environmental conditions selected for the controlled laboratory aquaria. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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Abstract: The presented daily mean sea ice draft time series are derived from bottom track mode measurements from multiple upward-looking Workhorse 300 kHz Sentinel Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs, manufactured by Teledyne RDI). ADCP moorings were deployed and recovered during multiple TRANSDRIFT expeditions to the Laptev Sea (2003 to 2016). A total of 13 data files, named to indicate the location of the deployment (station name) and the sampling period, provide values of daily mean sea ice draft (in m) and time. Sea ice draft is derived from ADCP bottom track data following Belter et al. (in review). An additional info file provides the coordinates of the stations, expedition specifics and serial numbers of the instruments. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Not Available Supplemental Information: Short processing summary: In ice covered regions like the Laptev Sea upward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) that are operating in bottom track (BT) mode use acoustic pulses to measure range (the distance between the instrument and the ice surface above). Multiple studies have shown that ADCP-internal pressure measurements provide instrument depth and therefore the means to derive sea ice draft. Due to the lack of internal pressure sensors the presented sea ice draft data from Laptev Sea ADCPs is based on a different approach to determine instrument depth. We provide a short summary of the individual processing steps presented in detail by Belter et al., (currently in review at The Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology): 1. Determination of open water periods: ADCP measurements of surface and error velocity provide information about surface inconsistencies in vertical velocity between the four measuring beams. Differences in the vertical velocity are small during ice-covered periods and large when open water occurs. Based on this assumption open water can be distinguished from ADCP error velocity data. 2. Determination of instrument depth: Tilt-corrected range values measured during open water periods therefore provide instrument depth. In order to calculate sea ice draft the most frequently occurring open water range value was selected as constant instrument depth value for the respective sampling period and mooring. 3. Derivation of sea ice draft: Laptev Sea ADCP sea ice draft, d, was calculated for each mooring data set using the following equation: d = z - r • cos(t), with z being the most frequently occurring tilt-corrected open water range value per sampling period and mooring, the range value r (distance between instrument and ice surface) and the instrument tilt angle t. Coverage: Not Available
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