Heart failure affects approximately 1-3% of Western society. There is currently no cure and treatments largely delay disease progression. Consequently, there is great interest in identifying strategies that can improve cardiac function and reverse some of the negative consequences associated with heart failure. This thesis investigates the cardioprotective properties of a gene activated in the athlete’s heart [phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), p110α] in a setting of heart failure. Two double-transgenic mouse models were generated to assess the role of PI3K in a setting of cardiac stress (dilated cardiomyopathy, DCM). Mice either expressing a constitutively active mutant of PI3K (p110α) (caPI3K) or a dominant negative mutant of PI3K (p110α) (dnPI3K) were crossed with a transgenic mouse model of DCM [due to over-expression of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1)]. Increasing PI3K activity in the DCM model (caPI3K-Mst1) improved lifespan and cardiac function, whereas decreasing PI3K activity in the DCM model (dnPI3K-Mst1) had an adverse effect. The cardioprotective properties of PI3K (p110α) were mediated, at least in part, by the kinase Akt. Using the dnPI3K-Mst1 model, I was able to show that reduced PI3K (p110α) activity increases the heart’s susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF, the most common arrhythmia in cardiology departments worldwide). dnPI3K-Mst1 mice displayed overt atrial remodelling, varying degrees of conduction blockade and developed spontaneous AF. To assess a possible link between PI3K activity and AF in humans, PI3K (p110α) activity was measured in atrial appendages of patients with AF (acute or chronic) and compared to patients without AF. PI3K (p110α) activity was lower in patients with AF compared to patients in sinus rhythm. These results suggest that reduced PI3K (p110α) makes the heart more susceptible to the development of AF. Thus, strategies or agents that can activate PI3K (p110α) specifically in the heart may represent a useful therapeutic approach for AF. An unanticipated but novel finding was the observation that female dnPI3K-Mst1 mice showed faster disease progression than males. Prior to menopause, females are normally protected against cardiovascular disease compared with males. In contrast, in settings of aging, diabetes or hypertension [associated with depressed or defective PI3K (p110α) activity] females are more prone to cardiac disease than males. Taken together with my results, this suggests that there may be an interaction between PI3K (p110α) and estrogen, and that this interaction is essential for the cardioprotection seen in pre-menopausal women. Data obtained from dnPI3K-Mst1 mice suggests that PI3K (p110α) plays an important role in mediating cardioprotection in females. Unexpectedly, ovariectomy had a beneficial effect on the cardiac phenotype of Mst1 mice, but no significant effect in caPI3K-Mst1 or dnPI3K-Mst1 mice. The mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes will require further investigation. In summary, this thesis presents compelling evidence to support investigation into therapeutics that activate components of the PI3K (p110α) signalling pathway in a setting of cardiac stress.
Contributors:ASHLEE JADE CONWAY
This thesis describes the study of mutant mice which harbour congenital defects in various aspects of erythropoiesis, obtained through ENU mutagenesis. Mice were phenotyped and characterised in order to understand the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms which resulted in their red cell defects, as well as their clinical relevance to human red cell diseases.
Contributors:Danne, Alexander P
Post-conflict societies and transitional states, including those in our region the Pacific, are increasingly seen as fertile ground for the imposition of externally designed legal systems. Imposition can occur as a result of NGO advocacy, the transposition of 'ready made' legal systems by the international civil society or by supra-national and international organisations. Not only is the existence of local customary legal system.s often ignored during this process, but the strengths and inherent infrastructure of customary systems are often not capitalised on during the implementation phase of the new system, ultimately to the detriment of the state's legal system. The result of these,failures is that establishment of law and order proves more elusive than it otherwise could be. Customary and traditional legal systems, in their many varied,fbrms, continue to provide a source of social stability and a basis on which indigenous legal development could occur in numerous post-conflict and transitional states around the world. Additionally, customary law al.so,functions as a central element of peoples' cultural integrity and heritage. By using transitional South Sudan as a research case study, important lessons are brought to the fore about the advantages and importance of both acknowledging and building on existing local legal systems in transitional states. Customary legal systems can potentially provide a key avenue through which to expedite rule of law and judicial development in post-conflict and transitional states. Insights into this process are provided by an examination ofthe interfaces in South Sudan between local customary legal systems, nascent statutory regimes und internationally promoted human rights standards.
Contributors:Nuzzolo, Carlo Rindi, Guidotti, Irene
The tenth Egypt and Austria conference took place in Prague from the 1st to 3rd October, 2014. It was organized by the Film and TV School of Academy of Performing Arts (FAMU) and the Faculty of Humanities (FHS UK) of the Charles University under the title: Visualizing the Orient. Central Europe and the Near East in the 19th and 20th Century.
The role of visualisation in the production of knowledge on Orient has become a subject of great interest in recent years. However, the question how the Oriental Other was represented in modern Central European visual culture has not yet stimulated an adequate scholarly interest. From the last decades of the 19th century onwards, the Orient became an integral part of a whole range of media and objects including photography, cinema, painting, and sculpture or book illustration. The Orient was staged, among others, in the most of Central European theatres and opera houses.
Last but not least, orientalist imaginations were incorporated into period pop culture objects, such as comic cartoons, advertising or fashion. Travels and travellers often played the role of actual or imaginary mediators The main goal of our conference is thus to discuss both the wide range of visual forms and the conceptual frameworks suitable for the analysis of their social impacts.
Title: Visualising Egypt, giving birth to collections: Amalia Nizzoli, Marianne Brocklehurst and their pioneering activity
Amalia Sola Nizzoli (1805 - ?) and Miss Marianne Brocklehurst (1832–1912) were among those early female personalities that travelled through Egypt leaving a detailed account of their journey. Amalia’s Memorie sull’Egitto (1841) and Marianne’s Diary (1873) still constitute exceptional testimonies of Egypt’s customs as viewed by two European travellers of the Nineteenth Century. Furthermore, their remarkable experiences are not limited to the recollection of events: both Amalia’s and Marianne’s journeys have also contributed to the creation of two collections of Egyptian antiquities in Italy (Museo Civico Archeologico, Bologna) and England (Macclesfield Museum, Macclesfield).The paper analyses and compares their impressions, the type of accounts they left, and the important events they witnessed as well as their significant contributions to Egyptology.
Contributors:ROUVE JAN FORBES
This thesis explores young rural adults’ psychosocial recovery beyond the 2009 Gippsland bushfires and addresses the paucity of research on young adults’ recovery from this disaster. Because of climate change, scientists predict such events are likely to increase in frequency and severity. Climate change has the potential to profoundly affect the Gippsland region’s social, environmental, economic, and health outcomes, and recovery needs into the future.
This performance-based research correlates three fundamental compositional parameters of Romanian composer Livia Teodorescu-Ciocanea’s work – timbre, texture and structure – with a set of performance guidelines resulting from Smolyar’s pianistic experience. Smolyar has intensively examined the timbral nuances that the pianoforte is able to achieve through an examination of the underlying structure and texture of Teodorescu-Ciocănea’s music, which is structured along spectralist lines and the composer’s innovative concept of ‘hypertimbralism’. The research aims to identify the role of timbre in the creation of musical meaning for each performance situation via score analysis and interpretative approaches depending on the physical requirements of playing the piano.
Bruwer, M., Presta, P. & Freeman, C. (2019, May). From global to local, a case study in using 101 Innovations in Scholarly Communication. Paper presented at the 2019 Medical Library Association 119th Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.
Objectives: This project set out to develop our research skills, inform
our professional practice and strengthen our capabilities to align with
the strategic objectives of a research intensive university. We embarked
on practitioner based research, utilising a globally conducted survey
to determine the tools used in the evolving scholarly communication
workflows of our early career researchers in the health sciences.
Methods: Our project team contacted the creators of “101 Innovations in
Scholarly Communication” and received permission to utilise their
survey. Ethics approval was obtained and the survey re-created using
Qualtrics. Permission was sought from the Faculties of Medicine, Nursing
& Health Sciences, and Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences to
distribute the survey. Approximately 1140 researchers received an
invitation via the assigned faculty mailing lists. Eighty-five
researchers initiated the survey and 84 completed it, yielding a
participation rate of 7.36%. Survey results were analysed using SPSS
software. Of the 84 who completed the survey, 18 indicated that they
were willing to be contacted further, and eight semi-structured
interviews were conducted, recorded and analysed in NVivo.
Results: Results indicated that although early career researchers are
overwhelmingly in support of open access and open science, tension
exists due to the expectations associated with advancing their careers.
These attitudes signal that key developments in scholarly communication
in coming years will foreseeably be related to open access. To remain
relevant and prepare ourselves for future roles, librarians need to be
cognisant of the big changes in practices ahead.
This project connected theory to practice and highlighted gaps in
existing knowledge. By presenting to colleagues on the project and
sharing newly gained knowledge, the librarians initiated dialogue around
new developments such as open peer review, preprints and
Conclusions: Librarians must increasingly adapt and take control of
their professional development in order to remain relevant within a
changing university environment. In addition to maintaining familiarity
with scholarly communication tools and other factors that contribute to
the openness of research, the project resulted in increased visibility
and standing within the organisation. It enabled librarians to expand
their networks and afforded opportunities to collaborate externally. The
librarians have been invited to contribute and participate in a number
of projects, committees and working parties, and to facilitate training
sessions for peers and faculty.
Contributors:Thomas, Karen Kartomi
Video excerpts of recordings taken from one of the most popular Mendu theatre performances in Natuna, the episode in which the heroine Siti Mahdewi has an evil spell cast on her that transforms her into a White Elephant. It was staged by an all-male cast at night beginning around 8pm and finishing after midnight, inside a traditional stage frame with mystical Pulai tree planted at the front, located in Ceruk village, near the capital of Natuna, Ranai.
0.00-1.54 Scene: The hero Dewa Mendu sings and dances a mantra around a White Elephant attempting to break the spell, with his brother Angkaran Dewa comically warning Dewa Mendu of the potential danger in carrying out such magic.
1.55-3.38 When Dewa Mendu's mantra succeeds in lifting the spell, the White Elephant sheds its elephant skin to reveal princess Siti Mahdewi in exile from the kingdom ruled by her father, King Langakdura. The brothers attempt to attract her attention. Mixture of singing by Siti Mahdewi and comic dialogue between the brothers.
3.39-5.49 As the three characters attempt to find their way through the jungle to the kingdom of King Langkadura, they meet three of the king's masked clown servants chopping wood for the palace kitchen.
5.50-9.53 Set in the king's meeting hall, King Langkadura and his three ministers discuss the lay of the land. The clowns arrive with the three travellers. The king is informed, and the clowns are allowed to enter the meeting hall to address the king and to bring in the travellers including his long-lost daughter, Siti Mahdewi, now no longer an elephant. In a playful mood, the clown servants wait outside, while the king expresses his joy in song.
9.54-10.59 The king meets with Dewa Mendu and his brother, expresses his gratitude, asks him to marry his daughter Siti Mahdewi and to succeed him as king.
11.00-11.57 Joget dance between two female characters and males invited from the audience, to mark the end of the evening.
Further information about this performance can be found in Chapter 11, 'Mendu theatre performance in the Natuna Islands (1984-2013): transformations in function, performance practices and style' by Karen Kartomi Thomas, in Margaret Kartomi (ed), Performing the Arts of Indonesia: Malay Identity and Politics in the Music, Dance and Theatre of the Riau Islands, Copenhagen: Nias Press, 2019.
See also K.S. Kartomi. 1986. "Mendu Theatre on the Island of Bunguran" BA thesis. Clayton: Monash University, and "The Biola in the Riau Islands" short film documentary, directed by K.S. Kartomi Thomas, edited by S. Rossanno, produced by M.Kartomi at MAMU
Codebooks for raw datasets to PaRCADS Study 1 & 2
Contributors:O'Connor, Justen, Penney, Dawn
Internationally and within Australia, there is increasing recognition that patterns of participation in sport are changing, with so called ‘informal’ sport displacing organised sport in terms of popularity in many people’s lives. Health and Physical Education (HPE) can learn from informal sport in order to effectively support sustained participation in physical activity and sport that is relevant to young people’s involvement now and in the future. This 'what works for informal sport' sheet can be used by students and teachers to evaluate environmental, task, personal and social factors that influence their participation in various forms of informal sport and physical activity. The documents can be used as an initial assessment tool to gauge what young people know and understand in relation to participation and be added to formatively as a unit progresses and concepts are revisited. The forms can also serve to inform young people about things they will need to consider when starting an informal sporting group or looking to participate in one. Understanding these elements has implications for lifelong and lifewide participation, and with a focus on considering the needs of others in low-competitive contexts, extend relevance and appeal for many students.