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Conventional methods for producing test norms are often plagued with “jumps” or “gaps” (i.e., discontinuities) in norm tables and low confidence for assessing extreme scores. We propose a new approach for producing continuous test norms to address these problems that also has the added advantage of not requiring assumptions about the distribution of the raw data: Norm values are established from raw data by modeling the latter ones as a function of both percentile scores and an explanatory variable (e.g., age). The proposed method appears to minimize bias arising from sampling and measurement error, while handling marked deviations from normality—such as are commonplace in clinical samples. In addition to step-by-step instructions in how to apply this method, we demonstrate its advantages over conventional discrete norming procedures using norming data from two different psychometric tests, employing either age norms (N = 3,555) or grade norms (N = 1,400).
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Background:The administration of medication or fluids via the intravenous route is a common intervention for many hospital inpatients. However, little research has explored the safety and quality of intravenous therapy from the patient’s perspective, despite the role of the patient in patient safety receiving increased attention in recent years.Objective:To explore patients’ perspectives on the perceived quality and safety of intravenous infusions and identify implications for practice.Method:Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with 35 hospital patients receiving intravenous infusions in critical care, oncology day care, general medicine, and general surgery areas within 4 National Health Service hospitals in England. Data were analyzed thematically.Results:Four underlying and interlinked themes were identified: knowledge about intravenous infusions, challenges associated with receiving intravenous infusions, the role of health-care professionals, and patients’ attitudes toward receiving infusions.Conclusions:Patients were generally satisfied with receiving infusions; however, factors that contributed to decreased feelings of quality and safety were identified, suggesting areas for intervention. Issues to do with infusion pump alarms, reduced mobility, cannulation, and personal preferences for information, if given more attention, may improve patients’ experiences of receiving intravenous infusions.
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Supplemental material, WES809897_SupplementaryMaterial_Final_proof for The Hiring Prospects of Foreign-Educated Immigrants: A Factorial Survey among German Employers by Andreas Damelang, Martin Abraham, Sabine Ebensperger and Felix Stumpf in Work, Employment and Society
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Supplemental Material for Entrepreneurship in the Digital Era: Creating Your Own Online Business by Todd A. Finkle and Timothy Olsen in Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy
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Two important West African timber tree species with differing successional status, Mansonia altissima A. Chev and Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum were investigated in this study. Triplochiton scleroxylon is a pioneer species found in open forests, whereas Mansonia altissima is a nonpioneer light-demanding tree species occurring in closed forests. Amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were used to compare the genetic diversities of these two timber species in stands with different degrees of human impact (isolated forest patch, logged forest, farmland, plantation, and primary forest). Contrasting effects of human impact on genetic diversity were detected for these two timber species. The results suggested severe effects of human impact on the genetic diversity of Mansonia altissima, a nonpioneer species. However, no adverse effect was recorded in Triplochiton scleroxylon, a pioneer species. These findings indicate that nonpioneer tree species could be more prone to genetic erosion than pioneer tree species as a result of adverse human impacts. Therefore, conservation of genetic diversity in both pioneer and nonpioneer tree species populations would likely necessitate different measures.
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Bone marrow and adipose tissue human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded in highly performing 3D gelatin–chitosan hybrid hydrogels of varying chitosan content in the presence of human platelet lysate and evaluated for their proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Both bone marrow and adipose tissue human mesenchymal stem cells in gelatin–chitosan hybrid hydrogel 1 (chitosan content 8.1%) or gelatin–chitosan hybrid hydrogel 2 (chitosan 14.9%) showed high levels of viability (80%–90%), and their proliferation and osteogenic differentiation was significantly higher with human platelet lysate compared to fetal bovine serum, particularly in gelatin–chitosan hybrid hydrogel 1. Mineralization was detected early, after 21 days of culture, when human platelet lysate was used in the presence of osteogenic stimuli. Proteomic characterization of human platelet lysate highlighted 59 proteins mainly involved in functions related to cell adhesion, cellular repairing mechanisms, and regulation of cell differentiation. In conclusion, the combination of our gelatin–chitosan hybrid hydrogels with hPL represents a promising strategy for bone regenerative medicine using human mesenchymal stem cells.
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Supplemental_material-848845 for What We Can Learn From Failure: An EHR-Based Child Protection Alert System by Conrad Krawiec, Seth Gerard, Sarah Iriana, Rachel Berger and Benjamin Levi in Child Maltreatment
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Supplemental material, Appendix_EandB for Can an Outdoor Learning Environment Improve Children’s Academic Attainment? A Quasi-Experimental Mixed Methods Study in Bangladesh by Matluba Khan, Sarah McGeown and Simon Bell in Environment and Behavior
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Supplemental material, Online_Supplement_Methods for Comparing CST Lesion Metrics as Biomarkers for Recovery of Motor and Proprioceptive Impairments After Stroke by Sonja E. Findlater, Rachel L. Hawe, Erin L. Mazerolle, Abdulaziz S. Al Sultan, Jessica M. Cassidy, Stephen H. Scott, G. Bruce Pike and Sean P. Dukelow in Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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Extracranial injury is frequently present in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, no reliable biomarker exists nowadays to evaluate the magnitude and extension of extracranial injury as well as the identification of patients who are at risk of developing secondary injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify new possible peptide biomarkers by mass spectrometry analysis in patients with TBI and ascertain whether the novel biomarker discovered by peptide mass fingerprinting, serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), is capable of reflecting the condition of the patient and both intracranial and extracranial injury extension. Demographic characteristics, clinical data, and serum samples were prospectively collected from 120 patients with TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score 3-15) on admission. Biomarkers were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracranial lesion volume was measured from the semiautomatic segmentation of hematoma on computed tomography (CT) using Analyze software. Functional outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at hospital discharge and GOS extended scores at 6 months. The SAA1 levels were significantly associated with intracranial (GCS score at admission, lesion load measured with cranial CT, and pupil responsiveness) and extracranial clinical severity (all Abbreviated Injury Scale regions, Injury Severity Score, major extracranial injury, polytrauma, and orthopedic fractures presence), along with systemic secondary insults and functional outcome. SAA1 was is associated with the volume of traumatic intracranial lesions. The SAA1 levels were correlated with astroglial S100β and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuronal neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and axonal total tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNF-H) injury markers. SAA1 predicts unfavorable outcome and mortality at hospital discharge (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.90, 0.82) and 6 months (AUC = 0.89). SAA1 can be established as a marker for the overall patient condition due to its involvement in the neuroendocrine axis of the systemic response to craniocerebral trauma.
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