This paper revisits the development models promoted in recent national plans in PNG, the influences that framed their ambitious visions and their compatibility with the earlier NGDPs. Learning from the failed attempts at implementing the National Goals and Directive Principles (NGDPs), this paper suggests making them justiciable and institutionalised — as suggested by the Constitutional Planning Committee (CPC) —for the purpose of vetting development policies and programs.
The thesis investigates the political economy of the revival of aristocratic politics in post-authoritarian Indonesia. It attempts to explore why some aristocrats have staged successful political comebacks in post-Suharto politics, while others have failed to do so. Using the case of the Yogyakarta Sultanate as my main case study, I argue that those aristocrats who have been the most successful in post-Suharto politics are those who - over time - have developed and maintained their capacity to control land as an essential power resource. This thesis uses the theoretical framework of land access. According to this framework, control over land is determined not only by legal ownership but can also be established through a web of informal power relations. By opening access to land, it can be used as a resource of power accummulation, just as would be the case if its status was legal property. Subsequently, access can be transformed into legal property, codifying the official control over the power resource of land. Applied to the case of the Yogyakarta Sultanate, this thesis shows how the royal houses' initial land property rights were first downgraded to land access after 1945; how the sultan defended this access amidst rapid political and social change until the 2010s; and how he ultimately succeeded in re-establishing property rights over land in 2012. During the colonial period, the Yogyakarta Sultanate gained land control (in the form of property rights) from the Dutch as a result of the system of indirect rule. Tolerated by the Dutch, the sultanate used land as the basis of its political economy through a land lease and apanage system. The sultan gave usage rights to his aristocrats in return for loyalty and military assistance. The peasants worked on the land in a crop sharing system under intermediaries. The socio-political upheaval of the 1940s and 1950s threatened the sultanate's land control, as its land property rights were gradually undermined by the Japanese occupation, the revolution and the establishment of democracy. The sultan, however, succeeded in defending land access through a series of political maneuvres. These maneuvres also helped him to circumvent the restrictions on aristocratic land ownership imposed by the Basic Agrarian Law of 1960. Even as the New Order regime pressured him to implement the Law in Yogyakarta in 1984, he found loopholes to prevent its full execution. Thus, when Suharto fell in 1998, the sultanate had a sound power base built on land and the clients that depended on its usage. From this power base, Sultan Hamengku Buwono X launched a campaign for the full restoration of aristocratic powers. Supported by his loyalists living on and benefitting from traditional land, he succeeded spectacularly: he first regained the position of governor that the sultanate had lost after Hamengku Buwono IX's death in 1988; then managed to get approval for the permanent entrenchment of the sultan's family in that position; and finally was able to restore the sultanate's land property rights. Subsequently, he used his governorship to identify, register and certify this land. After having analysed the Yogyakarta Sultanate in detail, the thesis tests whether the findings derived from this case hold in other areas. It finds that the level of land control also determined the outcome of aristocratic revival campaigns in Ubud, Ternate, Gowa and Palembang. Hence, the the thesis highlights the central role of land as a political resource available (or unavailable) to aristocracies after 1998. This perspective, in turn, adds a significant nuance to the literature on aristocratic politics that has often been dominated by anthropological studies in the mystical, religious or otherwise spiritual control of royals over their former subjects.
In a flurry of activity over the last nine months, the United States has rediscovered the strategic value of the freely associated states in Micronesia. This In Brief is in two parts: in the first Stewart Firth examines the geopolitical context of the United States’ relations with the freely associated states, including China’s interest in the region; in the second he describes how the United States is updating its Pacific Islands policy, both in the freely associated states and in the region more generally.
Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the world, directly affecting 2-3% of the population over the age of 65. People diagnosed with the disorder can experience motor, autonomic, cognitive, sensory and neuropsychiatric symptoms that can significantly impact quality of life. Uncertainty still exists about the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie a range of clinical features of the disorder, linked to structural as well as functional brain changes. This thesis thus aimed to uncover neuroimaging biomarkers associated with clinical dysfunction in PD. A 'hubs-and-spokes' neural circuit-based approach can contribute to this aim, by analysing the component elements and also the interconnections of important brain networks. This thesis focusses on structures within basal ganglia-thalamocortical neuronal circuits that are linked to a range functions impacted in the disorder, and that are vulnerable to the consequences of PD pathology. This thesis investigated neuronal 'hubs' by studying the morphology of the caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus and neocortex. The caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus are all vital subcortical 'hubs' that play important roles in a number of functional domains that are compromised in PD. The neocortex, on the other hand, has a range of 'hubs' spread across it, regions of the brain that are crucial for neuronal signalling and communication. The interconnections, or 'spokes', between these hubs and other brain regions were investigated using seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analyses. Finally, a morphological analysis was used to investigate possible structural changes to the corpus callosum, the major inter-hemispheric white matter tract of the brain, crucial to effective higher-order brain processes. This thesis demonstrates that the caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, corpus callosum and neocortex are all atrophied in PD participants with dementia. PD participants also demonstrated a significant correlation between volumes of the caudate nuclei and general cognitive functioning and speed, while putamina volumes were correlated with general motor function. Cognitively unimpaired PD participants demonstrated minimal morphological alterations compared to control participants, however they demonstrated significant increases in functional connectivity of the caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus with areas across the frontal lobe, and decreases in functional connectivity with parietal and cerebellar regions. PD participants with mild cognitive impairment and dementia show decreased functional connectivity of the thalamus with paracingulate and posterior cingulate cortices, respectively. This thesis contributes a deeper understanding of the relationship between structures of basal ganglia-thalamocortical neuronal circuits, corpus callosal and neocortical morphology, and the clinical dysfunction associated with PD. This thesis suggests that functional connectivity changes are more common in early stages of the disorder, while morphological alterations are more pronounced in advanced disease stages.
The class of integrable Non-Linear Sigma Models (NLSM) have many interesting applications in Quantum Field Theory, Condensed Matter Physics and String Theory. However, despite being integrable, their study still presents many challenges. In this thesis the quantization of integrable NLSM is considered within the framework of the Quantum Inverse Scattering Method. The main focus are the O(3) and O(4) NLSM and their integrable deformations. On these examples, we will encounter and discuss the long-standing conceptual challenges of quantizing NLSM in general. A key technical tool, that will allow us to make progress, is the so-called ODE/IQFT correspondence. Among the results presented in this thesis is a new approach to the problem with non-ultralocality; a study of the integrable structures in the O(3) model as well as its deformation; and a remarkable relation between the Casimir energies of the deformed O(4) model and certain solutions of the modified sinh-Gordon equation. The original obtained results of the thesis have been published in the papers, whose preprints can be found on the arXiv 1409.0449, 1706.09941, 1805.07417.
Nuclear reactions are incredibly complex, involving collisions between composite sys- tems where many-body dynamics determine outcomes. Successful models have been de- veloped to explain particular behaviour of reactions in distinct energy and mass regimes, but a unifying picture remains elusive. Particular problems have become evident in standard Coupled channels approaches to calculating fusion cross sections, with hindrance effects having been identified both above and below the barrier. Recent works [1, 2] have demonstrated inadequacies in these ap- proaches using static internuclear potentials, and have shown the need to address some hidden physics. The dissipation of energy from the relative motion of the collision part- ners to internal states is known to be important in these processes, but is yet to be suc- cessfully incorporated into reaction models. Multinucleon transfer reactions are a useful tool to examine these aspects, as they span the transition from the quasielastic regime, where the colliding nuclei barely overlap, and the deep inelastic regime, where collisions are violent with significant redistribution of mass and charge between the fragments, as well as large losses of kinetic energy from the relative motion . This PhD thesis examines the onset of dissipation as the bombarding energy approaches the Coulomb barrier over a range of light to medium mass projectiles incident on heavy targets. This investigation has focussed on studying the quasielastic scattering yields that are de- tected at backward angles. These products are of interest to the question of mechanisms to hinder fusion, as they represent the flux that fails to penetrate the fusion barrier at low angular momentum and is instead reflected. By identifying these products uniquely in mass and charge, together with an accurate measurement of kinetic energy losses, we are able to establish which reaction modes are the most important "doorways" for energy dissipation to proceed through. We present in this work the systematic trends in dissipative effects as the mass asymme- try of the reaction system changes, with measurements at bombarding energies spanning the fusion barrier. This work illustrates the growing importance of dissipative effects as the charge product of the reactants grows, and identifies a stark distinction in the nature of the dominant transfer mechanism between light and medium mass projectiles. While direct transfer involving clusters is very important in light nuclei, deep-inelastic transfer involving mutual nucleon exchange becomes much more important for reactions involv- ing medium-mass projectiles. There is a growing realisation in the nuclear reactions community that energy dissipa- tion is an important effect in fusion dynamics both above and below the barrier, yet this remains an area that has not been studied in detail. This work makes a first attempt to identify the important parameters and steps towards a phenomenological footing for understanding dissipative processes in nuclear reactions. References:  M. Evers, M. Dasgupta, D. J. Hinde, L. R. Gasques, M. L. Brown, R. Rafiei, and R. G. Thomas. "Systematic study of the nuclear potential diffuseness through high precision back-angle quasi-elastic scattering". In: Phys. Rev. C 78 (3 2008), p. 034614.  M. Dasgupta, D. J. Hinde, A. Diaz-Torres, B. Bouriquet, C. I. Low, G. J. Milburn, and J. O. Newton. "Beyond the coherent coupled channels description of nuclear fusion". In: Physical review letters 99.19 (2007), p. 192701.  K. E. Rehm, A. M. van den Berg, J. J. Kolata, D. G. Kovar, W Kutschera, G Rosner, G. S. F. Stephans, and J. L. Yntema. "Transition from quasi-elastic to deep-inelastic reactions in the 48 Ti+ 208 Pb system". In: Phys. Rev. C 37.6 (1988), p. 2629.
This thesis provides an empirically driven and theoretically informed examination of temporal, aspectual and modal (TAM) expression in Anindilyakwa, an underdescribed and underdocumented Gunwinyguan language of the Groote Eylandt archipelago, north-east Arnhem Land, Australia. The goals of the thesis are both descriptive and theoretical. The first is to provide a detailed description of some of the core grammatical properties of Anindilyakwa, particularly related to the verbal complex. This descriptive goal is linked to, and builds the infrastructure for, the second goal of the thesis: to provide a theoretically-informed examination of temporal, aspectual and modal expression and interaction in Anindilyakwa, thus contributing towards (and building upon) research in the area of TAM semantics and pragmatics (and their interfaces with morpho-syntax). The original contribution of this thesis lies in the cross-section between theoretically-informed morpho-syntactic, semantic and pragmatic approaches to TAM expression in natural languages, and the exploration and examination of this domain in a fieldwork and language documentation setting: how do underdescribed languages inform our understanding of this domain, and how should we approach the documentation of these concepts in the field? Anindilyakwa is a particularly interesting language to examine in this regard, given the polysynthetic nature and complex morphological make-up and combinatorics of the verb. Inflectionally, TAM expression is realised through the combination of (at least) two discontinuous morphological slots of the verb structure. In addition to the complex morphological combinatorics of the verbal structure, this inflectional system displays widespread aspectuo-temporal underspecification, coupled with a widespread lack of contrastiveness in many of the paradigmatic forms (i.e. syncretism). Thus, unpacking and understanding these inflectional verbal properties, with respect to TAM expression, is where the core of this thesis lies. This comprehensive semantic and morpho-syntactic investigation into the TAM system of Anindilyakwa contributes not only to the description of this underdocumented language, but it also bolsters the representation of understudied (particularly non-European) languages that have received detailed TAM study, ensuring that future cross-linguistic typological work on TAM has access to richer data in a wider sample of the world's languages.
Climate change is the single greatest challenge faced by Pacific Island countries (PICs) (PIF Secretariat 2018:10). Unsurprisingly, the battle against climate change has been placed at the heart of PICs’ national policies. As Secretary General of the Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) Dame Meg Taylor stated, ‘the highest priority for our region is climate change mitigation and adaptation’. Climate change has become a thorny issue in Australia-Pacific relations as PICs accuse their largest donor of falling short of the region’s expectations on addressing climate change. In contrast, the Pacific’s second largest donor — China — has seemingly been under less pressure, although it remains the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Given these circumstances, this In Brief discusses China’s climate change aid to the Pacific and highlights that China’s various forms of commitments are set to continue, although they are not the highest priority for the government.
Executive summary: The ANZIC Ocean Planet Workshop (14-16 April 2019) and focused Working Group sessions represent a multidisciplinary community effort that defines scientific themes and challenges for the next phase of marine research using the capabilities of current and anticipated platforms of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP). Attended by 75 mostly early- and mid-career participants from Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and the United States, the workshop featured nine keynote presentations. Working groups identified important themes and challenges that are fundamental to understanding the Earth system. This research relies upon ocean-going research platforms to recover geological, geobiological, and microbiological information preserved in sediment and rock beneath the seafloor and to monitor subseafloor environments through the global ocean. The workshop program was built around five scientific themes: Biosphere Frontiers, Earth Dynamics, Core to Crust, Global Climate, Natural Hazards, and Ocean Health through Time. Workshop sessions focused on these themes and developed 19 associated scientific challenges. Underpinning these are legacy samples and data, technology, engineering, education, public outreach, big data, and societal impact. Although all challenges are important, the asterisks that follow denote those of particular relevance and interest to ANZIC. Ocean Health through Time comprises the ocean’s response to natural perturbations in biogeochemical cycles*; the lateral and vertical influence of human disturbance on the ocean floor; and the drivers and proxies of evolution, extinction, and recovery of life*. Global Climate entails coupling between the climate system and the carbon cycle; the drivers, rates, and magnitudes of sea level change in a dynamic world*; the extremes, variations, drivers, and impacts of Earth’s hydrologic cycle*; and cryosphere dynamics*. Biosphere Frontiers addresses the habitable limits for life*; the composition, complexity, diversity, and mobility of subseafloor communities*; the sensitivity of ecosystems to environmental changes; and how the signatures of life are preserved through time and space*. Earth Dynamics: Core to Crust encompasses the controls on the lifecycle of ocean basins and continents*; how the core and mantle interact with Earth’s surface*; the rates, magnitudes, and pathways of physico-chemical transfer among the geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere*; and the composition, structure, and dynamics of Earth’s upper mantle. Natural Hazards involves the mechanisms and periodicities of destructive earthquakes*; the impacts of submarine and coastal volcanism; the consequences of submarine slope failures on coastal communities and critical infrastructure*; and the magnitudes, frequencies, and impacts of natural disasters*. The ANZIC Ocean Planet Workshop will contribute to formulating the next science framework for scientific ocean drilling which in turn will guide the focused planning of specific drilling, logging, and monitoring projects.
The International Fund for Agricultural Development has identified barriers to the sharing of knowledge with small farm holders as one of the key obstacles to increased food production in developing countries. The purpose of this research was to examine ways in which these barriers could be overcome in respect of subsistence farmers in Timor-Leste, a significant proportion of whom have low levels of literacy and poor access to conventional mass media channels. The first part of this research was concerned with how communication is best positioned in development projects. The researcher was contracted to draft a communication strategy for the agricultural project Seeds of Life, and to conduct communication training workshops for the project's staff. Neither the strategy nor the workshops were found to change thinking about communication within the project from what is known as the deficit model, which places a premium on communication outputs, to one more attuned to communication impacts. Despite the strategy and the workshops communication staff also continued to be viewed as mere service providers taking instruction from researchers and technical advisers rather than professionals in their own right with particular skills to bring to the challenge of sharing knowledge in the most appropriate ways. A longitudinal study was then undertaken of the interactions between these two groups within Seeds of Life. This consisted of interviews with staff members over a period of four years. This study found that communication staff on the one hand, and research scientists and technical advisers on the other, eventually achieved a more effective working relationship through processes designed to improve their cross-disciplinary communication. The study provides evidence in support of a model of project planning which focuses on how natural science and social science practitioners work together to produce fit-for-purpose communication initiatives rather than models that seek to determine communication approaches and techniques in advance. The research then trialed two ways of communicating with farmers across the language, literacy and educational spectrum in Timor-Leste. The first of these was participatory theatre; the second video animation capable of being shown on laptops, iPads and mobile devices. Both employed forms of entertainment-education to engage audiences with the informational content and both used illustration as the technique for sharing knowledge. These trials demonstrated considerable potential for both techniques to overcome barriers to agricultural science knowledge sharing in Timor-Leste and in similar challenging communication contexts.