Contributors:Vazquez-Vilar, G, Tauste Campo, A, Fabregas, AG, Martinez, A
Two alternative exact characterizations of the minimum error probability of Bayesian M-ary hypothesis testing are derived. The first expression corresponds to the error probability of an induced binary hypothesis test and implies the tightness of the meta-converse bound by Polyanskiy et al.; the second expression is a function of an information-spectrum measure and implies the tightness of a generalized Verdú-Han lower bound. The formulas characterize the minimum error probability of several problems in information theory and help to identify the steps where existing converse bounds are loose.
The heterogeneous manifestations of MYH9-related disorder (MYH9-RD), characterized by macrothrombocytopenia, Döhle-like inclusion bodies in leukocytes, bleeding of variable severity with, in some cases, ear, eye, kidney, and liver involvement, make the diagnosis for these patients still challenging in clinical practice. We collected phenotypic data and analyzed the genetic variants in more than 3,000 patients with a bleeding or platelet disorder. Patients were enrolled in the BRIDGE-BPD and ThromboGenomics Projects and their samples processed by high throughput sequencing (HTS). We identified 50 patients with a rare variant in MYH9. All patients had macrothrombocytes and all except two had thrombocytopenia. Some degree of bleeding diathesis was reported in 41 of the 50 patients. Eleven patients presented hearing impairment, three renal failure and two elevated liver enzymes. Among the 28 rare variants identified in MYH9, 12 were novel. HTS was instrumental in diagnosing 23 patients (46%). Our results confirm the clinical heterogeneity of MYH9-RD and show that, in the presence of an unclassified platelet disorder with macrothrombocytes, MYH9-RD should always be considered. A HTS-based strategy is a reliable method to reach a conclusive diagnosis of MYH9-RD in clinical practice.
Contributors:Scarlett, J, Somekh-Baruch, A, Martinez, A, Guillén I Fàbregas, A
In different theoretical traditions, negative social conditions, attachments, and interactions shape the way individuals view the law and its agents. Although most researchers acknowledge the conceptual distinction between different legal attitudes such as legal cynicism and police legitimacy, it remains unclear to what extent these attitudes stem from the same social sources. In the current study, therefore, we evaluate the social and individual factors that influence trajectories of legal cynicism and police legitimacy using a diverse community sample of youths in Zurich, Switzerland. Latent growth curve models were employed to examine patterns of change in legal cynicism and police legitimacy between 13 and 20 years of age. The findings show that legal cynicism and police legitimacy both decline into early adulthood and exhibit high rank‐stability over time. Furthermore, we find that legal cynicism is closely related to individual characteristics that reflect one's inability to recognize or abide by their internal rules. By contrast, police legitimacy is shaped by socialization influences, particularly teacher bonds and police contacts. These results indicate a need to assess the measurement and interpretation of legal cynicism critically in relation to broader legitimacy beliefs and to investigate the shared and distinct sources of these different constructs.