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Two alternative exact characterizations of the minimum error probability of Bayesian M-ary hypothesis testing are derived. The first expression corresponds to the error probability of an induced binary hypothesis test and implies the tightness of the meta-converse bound by Polyanskiy et al.; the second expression is a function of an information-spectrum measure and implies the tightness of a generalized Verdú-Han lower bound. The formulas characterize the minimum error probability of several problems in information theory and help to identify the steps where existing converse bounds are loose.
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The heterogeneous manifestations of MYH9-related disorder (MYH9-RD), characterized by macrothrombocytopenia, Döhle-like inclusion bodies in leukocytes, bleeding of variable severity with, in some cases, ear, eye, kidney, and liver involvement, make the diagnosis for these patients still challenging in clinical practice. We collected phenotypic data and analyzed the genetic variants in more than 3,000 patients with a bleeding or platelet disorder. Patients were enrolled in the BRIDGE-BPD and ThromboGenomics Projects and their samples processed by high throughput sequencing (HTS). We identified 50 patients with a rare variant in MYH9. All patients had macrothrombocytes and all except two had thrombocytopenia. Some degree of bleeding diathesis was reported in 41 of the 50 patients. Eleven patients presented hearing impairment, three renal failure and two elevated liver enzymes. Among the 28 rare variants identified in MYH9, 12 were novel. HTS was instrumental in diagnosing 23 patients (46%). Our results confirm the clinical heterogeneity of MYH9-RD and show that, in the presence of an unclassified platelet disorder with macrothrombocytes, MYH9-RD should always be considered. A HTS-based strategy is a reliable method to reach a conclusive diagnosis of MYH9-RD in clinical practice.
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© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Multifaith buildings have become common in Europe, North America, and much of the world, but they have yet to receive sufficient scholarly attention in the history of religious ideas, or in the theory of material religion. This paper begins to address this lacuna by the consideration of an early, but little known, multifaith chapel donated to Somerville College Oxford in the 1930s, which is unique within Oxford University. Its history, architecture, and artworks give valuable insights into the religious, intellectual, and cultural roots of what would subsequently become a global norm. The chapel can be seen as both a manifestation of the aspirations of liberal Christianity in the interwar years, including the advancement of women and ecumenism, and of the contestation of the role of religion in higher education among elites in the same period. Examining the case of Somerville chapel contributes to the theory of religion by considering how unbelief and multifaith ideas may be attempted to be materially expressed, and how this physical presence subsequently may impact on institutions and people through ongoing contestation, and negotiated use.
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© 2018 American Physical Society. In this paper, magnetic resonance velocimetry is used to measure the spatially resolved velocity and velocity fluctuations for granular flow in a Couette cell for four different particle sizes. The largest particles studied (dp=1.7mm) showed significant slip at the inner wall. The remaining particles showed no slip and all exhibit the same behavior in the profiles of the mean velocity and variance of velocity. The measurements demonstrate that the velocity and variance in velocity scale with the inner wall velocity U; the variance does not scale with U2. The experimental data were compared with a kinetic theory based model of granular flow and a hydrodynamic model. It was found that the shear rate scales with an exponent of 1.5-2.0 with respect to the velocity fluctuations (uy2), compared with the value of 1.0 expected from kinetic theory. The difference in the exponent is consistent with the effect of collective dynamics as described by the hydrodynamic model.
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In different theoretical traditions, negative social conditions, attachments, and interactions shape the way individuals view the law and its agents. Although most researchers acknowledge the conceptual distinction between different legal attitudes such as legal cynicism and police legitimacy, it remains unclear to what extent these attitudes stem from the same social sources. In the current study, therefore, we evaluate the social and individual factors that influence trajectories of legal cynicism and police legitimacy using a diverse community sample of youths in Zurich, Switzerland. Latent growth curve models were employed to examine patterns of change in legal cynicism and police legitimacy between 13 and 20 years of age. The findings show that legal cynicism and police legitimacy both decline into early adulthood and exhibit high rank‐stability over time. Furthermore, we find that legal cynicism is closely related to individual characteristics that reflect one's inability to recognize or abide by their internal rules. By contrast, police legitimacy is shaped by socialization influences, particularly teacher bonds and police contacts. These results indicate a need to assess the measurement and interpretation of legal cynicism critically in relation to broader legitimacy beliefs and to investigate the shared and distinct sources of these different constructs.
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