This collection contains the source-code files constituting the core programming for the Integrated Species–Phenon Tree feature within the Evolutionary Tree column of the TimeScale Creator software platform,Readme.txt: TSCreator-7.4_05Apr2019_ISPRangeColumn.java: includes detailed data structures for evolutionary range points and ranges, and tree-drawing utility functions. TSCreator-7.4_05Apr2019_ISPImageGenerator.java: draws evolutionary tree data column and generates the final chart. TSCreator-7.4_05Apr2019_ISPMain.java: includes the main function which is the entry point to the software and spawns the Java process on a Java Virtual Machine. The TimeScale Creator software platform is freely available at https://timescalecreator.org/download/download.php, from where it can be downloaded as a Java archive (Jar) file or Windows executable (exe) file. Instructions to install TimeScale Creator and load datapacks are given in the following file included in this collection: Instructions_for_TSCreator_datapacks.pdf.,
Ten years on from the Council of Australian Governments committing to National Indigenous Reform Agreement – Closing the Gap, the Federal Government has announced the Closing the Gap Refresh. Five academics and visitors at the Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research made submissions as part of the Closing the Gap Refresh ‘Have Your Say’ process, engaging with the Closing the Gap Refresh from specialist disciplinary perspectives and with their grounded expertise. The views of these individuals have been consolidated into a single document to ensure their longer-term availability.
Together, the submissions in this CAEPR Topical Issue paper argue that the failure of gaps to close is a reflection of a failed policy-making process. All five papers indicate the need for substantial change and structural reform, and express concern at the risk that the current ‘refresh’ will simply ‘paper over the gaps’. They identify a need for governments to do policy differently, and suggest avenues toward a reform of the policy-making process in Indigenous Affairs.
The Sabrina Sea Floor Survey was a major marine geoscience expedition to the Antarctic margin which took place between 14 January and 7 March 2017. It sailed on the Australian Marine National Facility vessel RV Investigator. This document describes survey activities, data collected on the ship and important metadata. Some preliminary results are included and the location of samples and data sets reported for future use. The report also provides information on data ownership and acknowledgement for future use and publication. It is intended as an aid to future research and use of results and has not been rigorously edited and peer-reviewed.
Contributors:Shirodkar, Siddharth, Hunter, Boyd, Foley, Dennis
In 2014, Boyd Hunter attempted to provide a consistent estimate
of the growth in Indigenous self-employment between 1991
and 2011. Changes in the census questionnaire structure and
sequencing means that projecting the growth trends back to 1991
is now problematic. This paper provides a more refined, consistent
and transparent method for calculating the number of Indigenous
owner–managers operating in the economy, including accounting
for the growing prevalence of Indigenous owner–managers who
are increasingly identifying themselves as Indigenous in the census,
unlike in previous censuses where many did not identify. Using
census data and estimated residential population statistics, we
conservatively estimate that around 17 900 Indigenous business
owner–managers operated in Australia in 2016. We estimate that
the number of Indigenous business owner–managers grew by
30% between 2011 and 2016. The rate of Indigenous business
ownership has grown marginally as a share of the Indigenous
working-age population at a time when the non-Indigenous rate
of business ownership has fallen. Yet the rate of Indigenous
business ownership remains relatively low compared with the rate
of business ownership among non-Indigenous Australians. The
paper also provides insights about the characteristics of Indigenous
owner–managers, including their number, geographic distribution,
gender composition, industrial sectors, and whether they are
running incorporated or unincorporated enterprises. The recent
growth in Indigenous owner–managers is almost entirely in urban
areas and cities where well-developed and diverse labour and product markets operate. The paper explores some of the key factors
that are impacting on Indigenous business development, including
issues about the economics of discrimination and remoteness. The
paper also outlines policy implications that arise from the analysis. We reflect on further refinements of the Indigenous Procurement Policy, the recently announced Indigenous Business Sector Strategy and other policy options.
Contributors:Taylor, Chris, Blair, David P., Keith, Heather, Lindenmayer, David
Quantifying the effects of competition for natural resources between different sectors and interests is a key part of natural resource management globally. A major form of land use conflict in natural forests is between water production and timber production. Here we explore trade-offs in water yield resulting from logging in the forested water catchments north-east of Melbourne – the second largest urban settlement in Australia with a current population of five million. It has long been understood that logging significantly decreases water yields in Melbourne’s water catchments. However, the extent of losses of water yield from past logging have rarely been documented. Here, we model changes in water yield in Melbourne’s largest single catchment, the Thomson Catchment, resulting from: (1) past forest management activities (especially clearfell logging), and (2) future forest management scenarios. Our particular focus was on the effects of logging on water yields from ash-type eucalypt forests. This is because these areas have the greatest impact on water runoff due to them receiving the most rainfall and being the forest types subject to the most intensive and extensive industrial logging. We modelled four key scenarios:
Scenario (1) Historical logging of the Thomson Catchment with continued logging in the future (current reality/status quo);
Scenario (2) If there had been no logging and none was planned (past, present or future) in the Thomson Catchment;
Scenario (3) Logging ceasing in 1967 (as specified under the first Wood Pulp Agreement Act 1936 – but which never occurred); and
Scenario (4) Impacts of the past logging, but with cessation of logging in 2018.
Our initial spatial analysis revealed that 42% of the ash-type eucalypt forests in the Thomson Catchment have been logged. Moreover, there are 4,000 hectares of Ash forest assigned for logging in the next 5 years under the existing Timber Release Plan for the Central Highlands region. Our analyses revealed that the current (in 2018) reduction in water yield due to historical logging of the ash forests across the Thomson Catchment exceeds 15,000 ML annually. This loss is projected to increase to nearly 35,156 ML by 2050. Under Scenario (3), where logging would have ceased in 1967 if the first Wood Pulp Agreement 1936 was implemented, the loss in water yield by 2018 was projected to be 1,079 ML, annually. This loss is a result of logging occurring prior to 1967. This was modelled to remain constant through to 2050. Under Scenario (4), where logging ceases in 2018, we projected that approximately 20,149 ML would have been returned to the Thomson Catchment by 2050 compared with Scenario (2) of no historical logging. Losses in water yield as a result of logging correspond to 9%-20% of the ash forest catchment water yield for 2018 and 2050, respectively. Based on an estimated consumption of 161 litres of water per person per day, the loss in water yield resulting from logging would equate to the lost water for nearly 600,000 people by 2050.
Given the strategic importance of water from the Thomson Catchment, our analyses suggest that native forest logging should be excluded from this catchment, particularly in the context of increasing human consumption of water and decreasing stream inflows from the catchments. Previous work has shown that the economic value of the water across all of Melbourne’s Water Catchments, including the Thomson Catchment, is 25.5 times greater than the economic value of the timber produced from the all native forests, based on integrated economic and environmental accounting (e.g. under the System of Environmental and Economic Accounting [SEEA] developed by the United Nations). It is not the difference in value between water and timber that is important, it is the change due to the use of an ecosystem service, resulting in the reduction of water yield. Therefore, we suggest that ongoing logging of the Thomson Catchment, when it is known to reduce water yields, is a questionable natural resource management policy.
This report was funded by the Lowitja Institute and is part of the development of Mayi Kuwayu: The National Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Wellbeing; a national longitudinal study exploring the relationship between Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander wellbeing and culture. This review was conducted to explore what cultural factors are important to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and gain an understanding of how these factors relate to health and wellbeing. We examined the Australian literature as well as publications from countries that have experienced similar colonisation events; primarily Aotearoa (New Zealand), Canada and the United States. Our main findings from this synthesis determined six main domains used to describe culture for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. These domains were: Connection to Country; Cultural Beliefs and Knowledge; Language; Family, Kinship and Community; Expression and Cultural Continuity; and Self-determination and Leadership.
Growth in the Indigenous population between the 2011 and 2016 Censuses was much faster than would be predicted by our best estimates of fertility and mortality. Part of this faster than projected growth came from a larger number of people who identified as Indigenous in 2016 but not in 2011, compared to those who identified as Indigenous in 2011 but not 2016. That is, there was a net increase in the population due to identification change. In this paper, we use a new dataset – the Australian Census Longitudinal Database – to analyse the characteristics of this identification change, as well as the implications for our understanding of changes in socioeconomic outcomes.
In 1978, William Catton and Riley Dunlap published their groundbreaking piece, “Environmental Sociology: A New Paradigm”, outlining the “new environmental paradigm”, which urged sociologists to be mindful of ecological constraints when conducting analyses on issues such as stratification and social justice. In the proceeding decades, the work of Allan Schnaiberg (1980) and John Bellamy Foster (1999, 2000) would expand on this point, bringing to light how deeply ingrained the destructive relationship between human society and nature truly is. Since then, a slew of environmental sociological analyses have operated under the framework set forth by Catton, Dunlap, Schnaiberg, and Foster, demonstrating the specific fundamental features of capitalist societies that perpetuate environmental degradation. The book The Tragedy of the Commodity: Oceans, Fisheries, and Aquaculture, written by Stefano Longo, Rebecca Clausen, and Brett Clark, takes the next logical step in the vein of environmental sociological inquiry, bringing to light not only an underexplored area of environmental sociology (marine ecosystems), but the pitfalls of specific attempts within capitalist economies to correct the ecological contradictions they bring out. In doing so, the authors write a new but intriguingly familiar book that combines interdisciplinary research, comparative historical analysis, and critical Marxism in a unique and fascinating way. (First paragraph of review).
The human dimensions of environmental change across various spatial and temporal scales have formed a fast-growing field of study in the past decades. Given the large accumulation of scientific studies on this topic, a logical research question is whether we can draw out common patterns of causal relationships from this diverse body of literature. Meta-analysis provides a particularly useful tool for summarizing and integrating results across studies. Although there has been a growing number of meta-studies on the interrelationships between social and environmental changes, meta-analysis as a research strategy is still relatively underused in this field. Additionally, few studies have systematically examined the set of meta-analytical methods suitable to investigate relevant research questions. We used a meta-analysis framework to review and extract data on analytical approaches from 43 meta-studies published in selected peer-reviewed environmental social science journals during 2000–2014. The analysis revealed general patterns of research topics and analysis procedures, as well as associations between study characteristics and specific meta-analytical methods. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the current use and further development of the meta-analysis strategy in interdisciplinary human dimensions research.
Of the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals agreed in September 2015, four were concerned with the importance of dealing with global food insecurity, climate change, good health, and women’s empowerment. Although these four priorities have been given their own sets of goals and targets, there are cross-cutting sustainability processes and issues that link them. One sustainability domain that encapsulated all these issues is food systems. Food systems is broadly defined as the full suite of activities ranging from production, processing, and distribution to consumption of food, including the feedbacks that operate between these activities and influence their behavior (Ericksen, 2008; Ingram et al., 2010). Food-systems thinking is becoming a core way of understanding the problem of global food insecurity and environmental change (Ericksen, 2008; Ingram, 2011; Ingram et al., 2010; iPES Food, 2015). (First paragraph of review).