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1. Echidnas are egg-laying mammals found across Australia and in Tasmania they hibernate resulting in a most unusual mating system: males enter hibernation in late summer-early autumn and arouse in late autumn-early winter to mate, although females are still hibernating. Groups of males compete for matings and both males and females mate with multiple partners. Females that mate early return to hibernation even when pregnant, and males continue to mate with pregnant females. We asked to what extent to can the bizarre combination of behavioural and physiological features that characterize reproduction of Tasmanian echidnas be attributed to their phylogeny, and how much is a consequence of their ecology? 2. To understand the interaction between energetics and the echidna mating system in determining the timing of echidna hibernation we analysed data from an 18-year study of a wild population of Tasmanian echidnas 3. Males with high fat reserves arouse earliest and seek out suitable females, and females that mate early in the mating season re-enter hibernation while pregnant. 4. Competition between males drives early mating and while mating with males in the best condition could be advantageous for females and their young, egg-laying in winter is potentially disadvantageous, and post-mating hibernation by females is a means of delaying hatching of young until environmental conditions are more favourable. This post-mating hibernation by females is usually disrupted by males which mate with them although they are already pregnant. 5. Comparisons with other echidna populations suggests that a decreased activity period due to hibernation has not increased male-male competition. 6. Similar competition between groups of males for access to females is seen in chlamyphorid armadillos, which occupy a similar ecological niche to echidnas.
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1. Responding to the information provided by others is an important foraging strategy in many species. Through social foraging, individuals can more efficiently find unpredictable resources and thereby increase their foraging success. 2. When individuals are more socially responsive to particular phenotypes than others, however, the advantage they obtain from foraging socially is likely to depend on the phenotype composition of the social environment. We tested this hypothesis by performing experimental manipulations of guppy, Poecilia reticulata, sex compositions in the wild. 3. Males found fewer novel food patches in the absence of females than in mixed-sex compositions, while female patch discovery did not differ regardless of the presence or absence of males. 4. We argue that these results were driven by sex-dependent mechanisms of social association: Markov chain-based fission-fusion modelling revealed that less social individuals found fewer patches and that males reduced sociality when females were absent. In contrast, females were similarly social with or without males. 5. Our findings highlight the relevance of considering how individual and population-level traits interact in shaping the advantages of social foraging in the wild.
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Climate change will increase heat and drought stress in many dryland areas, which could reduce soil nutrient availability for plants and aggravate nutrient limitation of primary productivity. Any negative impacts of climate change on foliar nutrient contents would be expected to negatively affect the photosynthetic capacity, water use efficiency and overall fitness of dryland vegetation. We conducted a four-year manipulative experiment using open top chambers and rainout shelters to assess the impacts of warming (~2ºC, W), rainfall reduction (~30%, RR) and their combination (W+RR) on the nutrient status and ecophysiological performance of six native shrub species of contrasting phylogeny in a semiarid ecosystem. Leaf nutrient status and gas exchange were assessed yearly, whereas biomass production and survival were measured at the end of the study. Warming (W and W+RR) advanced shoot growth phenology and reduced foliar macro- (N, P, K) and micronutrient (Cu, Fe, Zn) concentrations (by 8-18% and 14-56%, respectively), net photosynthetic rate (32%), aboveground biomass production (28-39%) and survival (23-46%). Decreased photosynthesis and growth in W and W+RR plants was primarily linked to enhanced nutritional constraints on carbon fixation. Poor leaf nutrient status in W and W+RR plants partly decoupled carbon assimilation from water flux and led to drastic reductions in water use efficiency (WUEi; ~41%) across species. The RR treatment moderately decreased foliar macro- and micronutrients (6-17%, except for Zn) and biomass production (22%). The interactive impacts of warming and rainfall reduction (W+RR treatment) on plant performance were generally smaller than expected from additive single‐factor effects. Synthesis: Large decreases in plant nutrient pool size and productivity combined with increased mortality during hotter droughts will reduce vegetation cover and nutrient retention capacity, thereby disrupting biogeochemical processes and accelerating dryland degradation with impending climate change. Increased macro- and micronutrient co-limitation of photosynthesis with forecasted climate change conditions may offset any gains in WUEi and productivity derived from anthropogenic CO2 elevation, thereby increasing dryland vegetation vulnerability to drought stress in a warmer and drier climate. The generalized reduction in leaf nutrient contents with warming compromises plant nutritional quality for herbivores, with potential cascading negative effects across trophic levels.
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1. Mutualisms are often subject to perturbations by parasitism arising from third-party interactions. How third-party perturbations are dampened is a fundamental question pertaining to mutualism stability. Phoretic organisms that turn parasitic within a mutualism may destabilise it. If the fitness cost of such phoresy is high, then density-dependent effects could be one mechanism to stabilize these interactions. 2. We experimentally examined the fitness effects of a phoretic nematode community on a brood-site pollination mutualism involving a pollinating fig wasp (the vehicle) and its associated fig species (the host for wasp and nematode development). 3. We comprehensively investigated fitness impacts of phoresy on wasp lifespan, lifetime reproductive success, dispersal ability and predation risk as well as on host brood-site volume and seed number. We employed a range of hitchhiker densities that encompassed natural and overloading levels for two nematode taxa (one plant- and one animal-parasitic type). 4. None of the plant host and vehicle fitness parameters were affected by wasps with low nematode transportation loads for either type of nematode. Furthermore, wasps arriving at their destinations carried lower densities of both animal- and plant-parasitic nematodes compared to dispersing wasps suggesting that there is selection on hitchhiker numbers during the dispersal process, and that wasps loaded with a greater density of nematodes do not successfully disperse. Overloaded wasps had shorter flight durations, suggesting limited dispersal ability; on arrival at their destination they suffered greater predation risk. Such overloaded wasps delivered impaired pollination services and produced fewer offspring resulting in lower lifetime fitness. Therefore, the direct and indirect effects of nematodes on their vehicles are strong. These effects also translated into impacts on host plant fitness, with the overloaded pollinators promoting the development of smaller brood-sites with fewer seeds, thus reducing fig tree reproductive success. The effects of the animal parasites were greater than that of the plant parasite in this study. 5. The third-party interaction is therefore self-limited and exhibits density dependence. The strong negative effects of overloading likely explain the low number of nematodes found in nature on dispersing and arriving fig wasps. Consequently, parasitic hitchhikers do not destabilise the mutualism.
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Tropical forests, a key-category of land ecosystems, are faced with the world’s highest levels of habitat conversion and associated biodiversity loss. In tropical Asia, Dipterocarpaceae are one of the economically and ecologically most important tree families, but their genomic diversity and evolution remain understudied, hampered by a lack of available genetic resources. Southern China represents the northern limit for Dipterocarpaceae, and thus changes in habitat ecology, community composition and adaptability to climatic conditions are of particular interest in this group. Phylogenomics is a tool for exploring both biodiversity and evolutionary relationships through space and time using plastome, nuclear and mitochondrial genome. We generated full plastome and Nuclear Ribosomal Cistron (NRC) data for Chinese Dipterocarpaceae species as a first step to improve our understanding of their ecology and evolutionary relationships. We generated the plastome of Dipterocarpus turbinatus, the species with the widest distribution using it as a baseline for comparisons with other taxa. Results showed low level of genomic diversity among analysed range-edge species, and different evolutionary history of the incongruent NRC and plastome data. Genomic resources provided in this study will serve as a starting point for future studies on conservation and sustainable use of these dominant forest taxa, phylogenomics and evolutionary studies.
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In salmonid parentage-based tagging (PBT) applications, entire hatchery broodstocks are genotyped, and subsequently progeny can be non-lethally sampled and assigned back to their parents using parentage analysis, thus identifying their hatchery of origin and brood year (i.e. age). Inter- and intra-population variability in migration patterns, life history traits, and fishery contributions can be determined from PBT analysis of samples derived from both fisheries and escapements (portion of a salmon population that does not get caught in fisheries and returns to its natal river to spawn). In the current study of southern British Columbia coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) populations, PBT analysis provided novel information on intra-population heterogeneity among males in the total number of progeny identified in fisheries and escapements, the proportion of progeny sampled from fisheries versus escapement, the proportion of two-year old progeny (jacks) produced, and the within-season return time of progeny. Fishery recoveries of coho salmon revealed heterogeneity in migration patterns among and within populations, with recoveries from north and central coast fisheries distinguishing ‘northern migrating’ from ‘resident’ populations. In northern-migrating populations, the mean distance between fishery captures of sibs (brothers and sisters) was significantly less than the mean distance between non-sibs, indicating the possible presence of intra-population genetic heterogeneity for migration pattern. Variation among populations in productivity and within populations in fish catchability indicated that population selection and broodstock management can be implemented to optimize harvest benefits from hatcheries. Application of PBT provided valuable information for assessment and management of hatchery-origin coho salmon in British Columbia.
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Background: Allergic reactions to tattoos are amongst the most common side effects occurring with this permanent deposition of pigments into the dermal skin layer. The characterization of such pigments and their distribution has been investigated in recent decades. The health impact of tattoo equipment on the extensive number of people with inked skin has been the focus of neither research nor medical diagnostics. Although tattoo needles contain high amounts of sensitizing elements like nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr), their influence on metal deposition in skin has never been investigated. Results: Here, we report the deposition of nano- and micrometer sized tattoo needle wear particles in human skin that translocate to lymph nodes. Usually tattoo needles contain nickel (6–8%) and chromium (15–20%) both of which prompt a high rate of sensitization in the general population. As verified in pig skin, wear significantly increased upon tattooing with the suspected abrasive titanium dioxide white when compared to carbon black pigment. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy of the tattoo needle revealed a high wear after tattooing with ink containing titanium dioxide. The investigation of a skin biopsy obtained from a nickel sensitized patient with type IV allergy toward a tattoo showed both wear particles and iron pigments contaminated with nickel. Conclusion: Previously, the virtually inevitable nickel contamination of iron pigments was suspected to be responsible for nickel-driven tattoo allergies. The evidence from our study clearly points to an additional entry of nickel to both skin and lymph nodes originating from tattoo needle wear with an as yet to be assessed impact on tattoo allergy formation and systemic sensitization.
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We experimentally tested the costs of deep torpor at low temperatures by comparing telomere dynamics in two species of rodents hibernating at either 3°C or 14°C. Our data show that hibernators kept at the warmer temperature had higher arousal frequencies, but maintained longer telomeres than individuals hibernating at the colder temperature. We suggest that the high-energy demand of frequent arousals is counteracted by a lower temperature differential between torpid and euthermic body temperature and that telomere length is restored during arousals, when the body temperature is returned to normothermic values. Taken together, our study shows that hibernation at low body temperatures comes with costs on a cellular level and that hibernators need to actively counterbalance the shortening of telomeres.
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Artificial selection offers a powerful tool for the exploration of how selection and development shape the evolution of morphological scaling relationships. An emerging approach models the expression and evolution of morphological scaling relationships as a function of variation among individuals in the developmental mechanisms that regulate trait growth. These models posit the existence of genotype-specific morphological scaling relationships that are unseen or “cryptic.” Within-population allelic variation at growth-regulating loci determines how these individual cryptic scaling relationships are distributed, and exposure to environmental factors that affect growth determines the size phenotype expressed by each individual on their cryptic, genotype-specific scaling relationship. These models reveal that evolution of the intercept and slope of the population-level static allometry is determined, often in counterintuitive ways, largely by the shape of the distribution of these underlying individual-level scaling relationships. Here we review this modeling framework and present the wing-body size individual cryptic scaling relationships from a population of Drosophila melanogaster. To determine how these models might inform interpretation of published work on scaling relationship evolution, we review studies where artificial selection was applied to alter the parameters of population-level static allometries. Finally, motivated by our review, we outline areas in need of empirical work and describe a research program to address these topics; the approach includes describing the distribution of individual cryptic scaling relationships across populations and environments, empirical testing of the model’s predictions, and determining the effects of environmental heterogeneity on realized trait distributions and how this affects allometry evolution.
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Hairy vetch is a fall seeded annual legume that can be used as a forage and cover crop. As a cover crop, it can provide numerous ecosystem services, such as soil erosion reduction, carbon sequestration, and pollinator habitat, but also agronomic services such as weed suppression and N fixation via soil rhizobium species. To improve cover crop function, traits such as biomass production are especially relevant, making it a first priority trait for cover crop breeders. However, direct phenotypic methods for biomass production are destructive. Breeders have thus relied on subjective, visual scoring methods for biomass, which are generally correlative, but are not quantitative or absolute. In this study, we evaluated two low-cost remote sensing tools, LiDAR and RGB-image analysis, for their effectiveness at predicting biomass in vivo. We evaluated these tools in two common forage breeding scenarios, spaced-plant and sward-plot nurseries, at three Minnesota locations following the winter of 2016/2017. Ground cover, determined from RGB image binarization using the Canopeo application, had a significant and linear relationship with above-ground biomass in spaced-plants (R2=0.93), and sward-plots (R2=0.89). Once the image area became saturated with vegetative pixels, a near-exponential relationship with biomass would occur. Because of the low-growth habit of hairy vetch, RGB image analysis was more appropriate at lower plant densities, such as spaced-plant nurseries. LiDAR measures of sward-plot height were also linearly and strongly related to dry-matter biomass in sward-plots (R2=0.80). The dimensionality of LiDAR sensing gave it greater predictive ability at higher plant densities, where RGB analysis could not detect vertical increases in biomass production. Lastly, we combined RGB and LiDAR data to predict sward-plot biomass in a multiple mixed-effect regression model. By doing so, we were able to explain more biomass variation than with use of either phenotypic tool as a single predictor (R2=0.94).
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