Here, we reconstruct the varying influence of the Agulhas Current (AgC), the South Atlantic Current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current on the Agulhas Retroflection (AgR) in the eastern South Atlantic Ocean for the last 160,000 years on the basis of the dinoflagellate cysts, pollen and spores present in a sedimentcore (GeoB 3603-2) from the southeastern Cape Basin offshore South Africa, where the Agulhas Current enters the Atlantic Ocean. Our analyses reveal strong orbital forcing on the heat exchange between the Indian Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean during the LateQuaternary. Maxima in local productivity appear to be primarily related to a strengthening of the ocean circulation as a result of the high seasonal contrast during precession maxima. During precession minima, seasonal contrast was low and stratified, oligo- to mesotrophic conditions prevailed, notably when these minima coincided with the glacial terminations. The clear presence of periodicities on a sub-Milankovitch scale as well as modulations of the primary frequencies demonstrate that the Agulhas Retroflection furthermore is modulated substantially by complex interactions between the subtropical, 'precession-driven', climate and ocean circulation systems, and the southern, 'obliquity-driven', high latitudes. 2,183 occurrences
A palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the LateQuaternary tropical Atlantic Ocean has been made on the basis of dinoflagellate cyst associations of two sedimentcores: the first core was recovered from below the highly productive waters of the equatorial divergence and the second from the oligotrophic western tropical Atlantic Ocean. Palaeoenvironmental indicators for productivity, sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) based on selected organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst species have been established. On the basis of these palaeoenvironmental indicators, a strengthened intensity of the equatorial divergence in the eastern region during glacials and cold periods of interglacials has been reconstructed. The highest SST probably occurred around substage 5.5 and might refer to weakest upwelling intensity. In comparison, SST and SSS appear to have been generally higher in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean, with probably enhanced values during glacial intervals. Pronounced differences in accumulation rates and relative abundances of cysts formed by congruentidiacean dinoflagellates and relative abundances of oligotrophic cyst species between the eastern and the western region can be related to differences in palaeoproductivity, suggesting much higher values in the eastern area. The coherence between variation in frequency of the indicators for productivity and the boreal summer insolation and monsoon intensity in the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean suggests an oceanographic reflection of regional intertropical, rather than boreal, dynamics. 517 occurrences
Contributors:Mike J Hannah
A diverse assemblage of marine palynomorphs was recovered from the Oligocene - Miocene section of CRP-2/2A. Most of the assemblage is composed of previously unrecognised species. Three distinct groups of marine palynomorph were recognised: (1) prasinophytes, mainly Cymatiosphaera, (2) acritarchs, mainly Leiosphaeridia and Sigmopollis although Leiofusa is an important component of the bottom half of the hole, and (3) dinoflagellate cysts. About 27 species of in situ dinoflagellate cysts were recorded, of which seven apparently undescribed species of Lejeunecysta form a prominent component. Reworked specimens of several species of the Paleogene Transantarctic Flora occur in CRP-2/2A sediments. Several abundance peaks of reworked taxa from the Transantarctic Flora are recorded. Three marine palynomorph zones were recognised (MP3, MP2, MP1), considered to be early Oligocene, late Oligocene, and late Oligocene/early Miocene in age respectively. Samples from the Quaternary and Pliocene part of CRP-2/2A were also examined. These proved either barren or yielded very sparse low diversity floras. 747 occurrences
Site 619, located in the Pigmy Basin off the coast of Louisiana, penetrated the lateQuaternary Ericson Zones X, Y, and Z. The penetrated section can be divided into four intervals. The lower interval (below 157 m sub-bottom) comprises 51 m of displaced sediments which probably originated from the Louisiana continental shelf. The upper three intervals (above 157 m) are dominated by pelagic/hemipelagic sedimentation associated with a closed basin. These are divided on the basis of planktonic foraminifers into Zones X, Y, and Z.
These warm-cool water intervals are identified mainly by using the Globorotalia menardii complex (warm) and G. inflata (cool). The intervals correlate with published curves taken from piston core samples in the western Gulf of Mexico. 7,495 occurrences