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  • Accession Number: GSE77471 Platform: GPL13112: Illumina HiSeq 2000 (Mus musculus) Organism: Mus musculus Published on 2016-12-07 Summary: Gamma oscillations (20-50Hz) are a common local field potential signature in many brain regions that are generated by a resonant circuit between fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons and pyramidal cells. Changes in the magnitude and frequency of gamma have been observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear how disruptions in gamma oscillations affect cellular pathologies seen in these disorders. Here, we investigate this using the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and find reduced power and magnitude of behaviorally driven gamma oscillatory activity — even before the onset of plaque formation or measurable cognitive decline. Because of the early onset, we aimed to determine if exogenous manipulations of gamma could influence the progression of disease pathology. We find that driving PV-positive neurons at gamma frequency (40Hz) using channelrhodopsin-2 reduced total levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) 40 and 42 isoforms in the hippocampus of 5XFAD mouse. Driving PV-positive neurons at other frequencies, or driving excitatory neurons, did not reduce Aβ levels. Furthermore, driving PV-positive neurons reduced enlarged endosomes in hippocampal neurons and cleavage intermediates of APP in 5XFAD mouse. Gene expression profiling revealed a neuroprotective response with morphological transformation of microglia and markedly increased phagocytosis of Aβ by microglia. Inspired by these observations, we designed a non-invasive light-flickering paradigm that drives 40Hz gamma activity in mouse visual cortex. The light-flickering paradigm profoundly reduced Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in the visual cortex of pre-symptomatic mice and greatly mitigated plaque load in the visual cortex of aged, symptomatic mice. This reduction was completely blocked by a GABA-A antagonist, providing further support for an essential role of GABAergic signaling in mediating neuroprotective gamma activity. Overall, our findings uncover a dramatic and previously unappreciated function of the brain’s endogenous gamma rhythms in reducing the production and increasing the clearance of Aβ peptides, whose accumulation is believed to drive the pathogenesis of AD. Overall Design: Two to four weeks following virus injection and implant placement, hippocampal CA1 neurons were optigenetically manipulated. During the experiment, 1mW of optical stimulation was delivered for 1h using a 40Hz stimulation protocol. Contact: Name: Li-Huei Tsai Organization: MIT Laboratory: Li-Huei Tsai Deparment: Picower Institute for Learning and Memory Address: 77 Mass Ave # 46-4235 Cambridge Massachusetts 02139 USA Email: lhtsai_geo@hotmail.com Phone: 617-324-1660 Organization: GEO Address: USA
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  • Accession Number: GSE4281 Platform: GPL3461: Duke Operon Porcine 10.5K Oligo Array Organism: Sus scrofa Published on 2006-02-22 Summary: The objective of this study was to advance the understanding of how in vivo arterial shear forces affect vascular endothelial gene expression. Complicated blood flow patterns at arterial branches create small regions that experience fluctuations in shear stress at frequencies higher than the heart rate. To assess whether such temporal variations in shear stress can affect endothelial gene expression, a series of in vitro microarray experiments was performed. The effects of three sinusoidal waveforms (1, 2, and 3 Hz) and one physiological waveform were compared to the expression profiles under steady flow. At each frequency, three levels of mean shear stress (0, 7.5, and 15 dyn/cm2) were used. Porcine aortic endothelial cells were exposed for 24 hours to each combination, replicated four times. Following shear exposure, phase contrast images of the cells were acquired, and RNA was extracted for microarray analysis against about 10,000 porcine oligonucleotides. Cell alignment with the flow was positively correlated with mean shear (p < 0.001) and independent of frequency. A two-way ANOVA identified 232 genes that were differentially regulated by frequency. The frequency sensitive genes were clustered to identify groups of genes exhibiting similar frequency responses. The largest response was seen at 2 Hz. At this frequency, several inflammatory molecules were upregulated, including VCAM, CTGF, TGF-beta2, c-jun, and IL-8, indicating a potential endothelial atherosusceptibility at this frequency. Mean shear significantly affected the expression of ~3,000 genes. Purely oscillatory flow (zero mean shear) enhanced the expression of several growth factors and adhesion molecules (E-selectin, VCAM, MCP-1, IL-8, c-jun), relative to non-reversing flow (15 dyn/cm2 mean shear). The 2 Hz upregulation of certain atherogenic molecules such as VCAM, c-jun, and IL-8 was enhanced as the mean shear was reduced. Thus, the inflammatory response evoked at certain frequencies appears to be exacerbated by low, oscillatory shear. Keywords: Shear stress response Overall Design: Endothelial cells were exposed to 3 levels of mean shear stress: 0, 7.5, and 15 dyn/cm^2. At each mean level, 5 shear stress waveforms were tested: steady, 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, and a physiological waveform. The amplitude of oscillation in each case was +/- 15 dyn/cm^2. Four replicates of each condition were performed for a total of 60 experiments. Each experimental sample was hybridized to an oligonucleotide array along with a standard reference sample. Contact: Name: Heather Anne Himburg Organization: Duke Univeristy Laboratory: Morton Friedman Deparment: Biomedical Engineering Address: PO Box 90281 Durham NC 27708 USA Name: Heather A Himburg
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  • Accession Number: GSE54866 Platform: GPL9379: Illumina Genome Analyzer II (Dictyostelium discoideum) Organism: Dictyostelium discoideum Published on 2014-04-15 Summary: Biological oscillations are observed at many levels of cellular organization. In the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum, starvation-triggered multicellular development is organized by periodic cAMP waves, which provide both chemoattractant gradients and developmental signals. We report that GtaC, a GATA transcription factor, exhibits rapid nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in response to cAMP waves. This behavior requires coordinated action of a nuclear localization signal and reversible G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated phosphorylation. While both are required for developmental gene expression, receptor occupancy promotes nuclear exit of GtaC, which leads to a transient burst of transcription at each cAMP cycle. We demonstrate that this biological circuit, like an “edge trigger”, filters out high frequency signals and counts those admitted, thereby enabling cells to modulate gene expression according to the dynamic pattern of the external stimuli. Overall Design: Transcriptional profiling during early development of wild-type, gtaC, GFP-GtaC/gtaC, and NLSex-GFP-GtaC/gtaC strains Contact: Name: Gad Shaulsky Organization: Baylor College of Medicine Address: One Baylor Plaza Houston TX 77030 USA Email: gadi@bcm.edu Organization: GEO Address: USA
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  • Accession Number: GSE63639 Platform: GPL4135: Agilent-014879 Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K G4131F (Feature Number version) Organism: Rattus norvegicus Published on 2014-11-26 Summary: N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAr), widely located around the central nervous system, are known to be involved in behavioral disorders. Dizocilpine (commonly referred to as MK-801) is a well known non-competitive NMDAr antagonist. We treated rats with intraperitoneal injection [0.08 (low-dose) and 0.16 (high-dose) mg/kg] of MK-801. In one experiment, 40 min after NaCl (vehicle control) and MK-801 (0.08 mg/kg) injection, electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals were analyzed. In the second experiment, 40 min post-injection, the whole brain of each animal was rapidly removed and separated into amyglada, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain and ventral striatum) on ice, followed by analysis using a 4x44K DNA microarray chip. Spectral analysis revealed that a single systemic injection of MK-801 significantly and selectively augmented the power of baseline (30-80 Hz) frequency oscillations. DNA microarray analysis showed the largest number (up- and down- regulations) of gene expressions in the cerebral cortex (378), midbrain (376), hippocampus (375), ventral striatum (353), amygdala (301), and hypothalamus (201) under low-dose of MK-801. Under high-dose, ventral striatum (811) showed the largest number of gene expression changes. Gene expression changes were functionally categorized to reveal expression of genes and function varies with each brain region. MK-801 increases the synchrony of baseline oscillations, causing very early changes in gene expressions in rat brain after acute MK-801 treatment, a first report. Overall Design: The overall goal of the present study was to identify gene expression patterns along rat chromosomes in different brain regions after a single injection of MK-801, which exerts a longer acute effect than ketamine on ongoing brain activities. Two approaches were taken, first electrophysiological and send molecular analysis, where the brain of MK-801-treated rats was subjected to a genome-wide transcriptome mapping analysis (~4400 genes) in the cerebral cortex, midbrain, hippocampus, ventral striatum, amygdala, and hypothalamus regions. Contact: Name: RANDEEP RAKWAL Organization: University of Tsukuba Laboratory: GSI 403 Deparment: Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences Address: 1-1-1 Tennodai Tsukuba Ibaraki Japan Email: plantproteomics@gmail.com Phone: +81-(0)90-1853-7875 Organization: Agilent Technologies Address: Palo Alto CA 94304 USA Email: cag_sales-na@agilent.com Phone: 877-424-4536 Web-Link: www.agilent.com
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  • Accession Number: GSE36108 Platform: GPL13304: Illumina HiSeq 2000 (Drosophila melanogaster) Organism: Drosophila melanogaster Published on 2012-03-27 Summary: Eukaryotic circadian clocks include transcriptional/translational feedback loops that drive 24-hour rhythms of transcription.These transcriptional rhythms underlie oscillations of protein abundance, thereby mediating circadian rhythms of behavior, physiology, and metabolism. Numerous studies over the last decade have employed microarrays to profile circadian transcriptional rhythms in various organisms and tissues. Here we use RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to profile the circadian transcriptome of *Drosophila melanogaster* brain from wild-type and *period*-null clock-defective animals. We identify several hundred transcripts whose abundance oscillates with 24-hour periods, including a number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that were not identified in previous microarray studies. Of particular interest are *U snoRNA host genes* (*Uhgs*), a family of cycling ncRNAs that encode the precursors of over 50 box C/D snoRNAs, key regulators of ribosomal biogenesis. Transcriptional profiling at the level of individual exons reveals alternative splice isoforms for many genes whose relative abundances are regulated by either *period* or circadian time, although the effect of circadian time is muted in comparison to that of *period*. Interestingly, *period* loss-of-function significantly alters the frequency of RNA editing at a number of editing sites, suggesting an unexpected link between a key circadian gene and RNA editing. We also identify tens of thousands of novel splicing events beyond those previously annotated by the modENCODE consortium, including several that affect key circadian genes. These studies demonstrate extensive circadian control of ncRNA expression, reveal the extent of clock control of alternative splicing and RNA editing, and provide a novel, genome-wide map of splicing in *Drosophila* brain. Overall Design: RNA-Seq transcriptional profiling of Drosophila brains from wildtype and period loss-of-function (per0) flies with time points taken over two days in constant darkness. Time points at CT24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, and 68. 10-12 brains per time point. Contact: Name: Michael Hughes Organization: UPenn Address: 421 Curie Bvd, Brb 835 Philadelphia PA 19104 USA Email: michael.evan.hughes@gmail.com Organization: GEO Address: USA
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  • Accession Number: GSE37413 Platform: GPL4135: Agilent-014879 Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K G4131F (Feature Number version) Organism: Rattus norvegicus Published on 2012-04-25 Summary: Background: N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAr), widely located around the central nervous system, are known to be involved in behavioral disorders. Dizocilpine (commonly referred to as MK-801) is a well known non-competitive NMDAr antagonist. Methods: We treated rats with intraperitoneal injection [0.08 (low-dose) and 0.16 (high-dose) mg/kg] of MK-801. In one experiment, 40 min after NaCl (vehicle control) and MK-801 (0.08 mg/kg) injection, electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals were analyzed. In the second experiment, 40 min post-injection, the whole brain of each animal was rapidly removed and separated into amyglada, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain and ventral striatum) on ice, followed by analysis using a 4x44K DNA microarray chip. Results: Spectral analysis revealed that a single subcutaneous injection of MK-801 significantly and selectively augmented the power of spontaneous gamma and higher-frequency oscillations. The results from DNA microarray analysis of 4400 genes showed the largest number (up- and down- regulations) of gene expressions in the cerebral cortex (378), midbrain (376), hippocampus (375), ventral striatum (353), amygdala (301), and hypothalamus (201) under low-dose of MK-801. Under high-dose, ventral striatum (811) showed the largest number of gene expression changes. These genes represented... Conclusions: Our results reveal that MK-801 triggered i) an increase in the power of gamma oscillations, and ii) simultaneously caused very early changes in gene expressions in the rat brain, representing a first such inventory of gene expression profiles in brain after acute MK-801 treatment. Overall Design: Nine male 10-weeks-old Wistar rats (300-350 g BW) were housed in acrylic cages (3/cage) at 24ºC and given access to tap water and laboratory chow ad libitum. The rats were divided into two groups, and each group rats received i.p. injection of 0.08 (low-dose) and 0.16 (high-dose) mg/kg of MK-801, respectively. Three rats were treated with saline as sham (vehicle control group) using the same method. After 40 min post-injection, the whole brain of each animal was rapidly removed and put on ice, and brain regions were separated according to the method of Glowinski and Iversen (1996), with minor modifications (Hirano et al., 2007). Each brain region was placed in a 2 mL Eppendorf tube, quickly immersed in liquid nitrogen before being stored in -80ºC prior to further analysis. Each sample was immediately weighed, flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80ºC prior to further analysis. A rat 4 x 44K whole genome oligo DNA microarray chip (G4131F, Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) was used for global gene expression analysis. The effects of MK-801 were examined in the 6 brain reagion, Ventral striatum, Cerebral cortex, Midbrain, Amygdala, Hippocampus, and Hypothalamus. Contact: Name: RANDEEP RAKWAL Organization: University of Tsukuba Laboratory: GSI 403 Deparment: Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences Address: 1-1-1 Tennodai Tsukuba Ibaraki Japan Email: plantproteomics@gmail.com Phone: +81-(0)90-1853-7875 Organization: Agilent Technologies Address: Palo Alto CA 94304 USA Email: cag_sales-na@agilent.com Phone: 877-424-4536 Web-Link: www.agilent.com
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  • Accession Number: GSE92588 Platform: GPL10094: Agilent-020186 C. elegans (V2) Gene Expression Microarray (Feature Number version) Organism: Caenorhabditis elegans Published on 2016-12-19 Summary: We developed a morphological biomarker that detects multiple discrete sub-populations (or “age states”) at any given chronological age in a population of nematodes (C. elegans). Age-matched animals in different age states have distinct transcriptome profiles, one markedly older than the other as determined by comparison with other aging study microarray datasets. Here we characterized the frequencies of three healthy adult states and the transitions between them across the lifespan. Jaccard similarity showed expression profiles were more similar within states than between states. Chronologically identical individuals showed less similarity than morphologically identical individuals isolated on different days. We used short-lived and long-lived strains to confirm the general applicability of the state classifier and to monitor state progression. This exploration revealed healthy and unhealthy states, the former being favored in long-lived strains and the latter showing delayed onset. Short-lived strains rapidly transitioned through the putative healthy state. We expected state exit factors to be up regulated later in a given state. Several small heat shock protein encoding genes demonstrated oscillation within states. Oscillatory expression of sHSPs within states and proteasome components between states, supports an extension of a proteostasis collapse model to include periodic collapses and rebuilding phases. Overall Design: Six groups representing chronologically early and late stages for three aging states (N=3-6 per state, total N=24 microarray samples) Contact: Name: Kevin G Becker Organization: National Institute on Aging, NIH Laboratory: Gene Expression and Genomics Unit Deparment: Laboratory of Genetics Address: 251 Bayview Blvd Baltimore MD 21224 USA Email: beckerk@grc.nia.nih.gov Phone: 410-558-8360 Organization: Agilent Technologies Address: Palo Alto CA 94304 USA Email: cag_sales-na@agilent.com Phone: 877-424-4536 Web-Link: www.agilent.com
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  • Accession Number: GSE40698 Platform: GPL6984: Illumina Human1M-Duov3 DNA Analysis BeadChip (Human1M-Duov3_B) Organism: Homo sapiens Published on 2012-09-07 Summary: This data was generated by ENCODE. If you have questions about the data, contact the submitting laboratory directly (Florencia Pauli mailto:fpauli@hudsonalpha.org). If you have questions about the Genome Browser track associated with this data, contact ENCODE (mailto:genome@soe.ucsc.edu). This track is produced as part of the ENCODE project. The track displays copy number variation (CNV) as determined by the Illumina Human 1M-Duo Infinium HD BeadChip assay and circular binary segmentation (CBS). The Human 1M-Duo contains more than 1,100,000 tagSNP markers and a set of ~60,000 additional CNV-targeted markers. The median spacing between markers is 1.5 kb and the mean spacing is 2.4 kb. The B-allele frequency and genotyping single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data generated by the experiment are not displayed, but are available for download from the Downloads page. Where applicable, biological replicates of each cell line are reported separately. Possible uses of the data include correction of copy number in peak-calling for ChIP-seq, transcriptome, DNase hypersensitivity, and methylation determinations. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf Overall Design: Isolation of genomic DNA and hybridization: Cells were grown according to the approved ENCODE cell culture protocols by the Myers lab and by other ENCODE production groups. The production group is reported in the metadata. Genomic DNA was isolated using the DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit (Qiagen). DNA concentration and quality were determined by fluorescence (Invitrogen Quant-iT dsDNA High Sensitivity Kit and Qubit Fluorometer), and 400 nanograms of each sample were hybridized to Illumina 1M-Duo DNA Analysis BeadChips. Processing and Analysis: The genotypes from the 1M-Duo Arrays were ascertained with BeadStudio by using default settings and formatting with the A/B genotype designation for each SNP. Primary QC for each sample was a cut-off at a call rate of 0.95. Copy Number Variation (CNV) analysis was performed with circular binary segmentation (DNAcopy) of the log R ratio values at each probe (Olshen et al., 2004). The parameters used were alpha=0.001, nperm=5000, sd.undo=1. The copy number segments are reported with the mean log R ratio for each chromosomal segment called by CBS. Log ratios of ~-0.2 to -1.5 can be considered heterozygous deletions, 0.2 amplifications. Primary QC for each sample was SD of < 0.6. Contact: Name: ENCODE DCC Organization: ENCODE DCC Address: 300 Pasteur Dr Stanford CA 94305-5120 USA Email: encode-help@lists.stanford.edu Organization: Illumina Inc. Address: 9885 Towne Centre Drive San Diego CA 92121 USA Email: expression@illumina.com, techsupport@illumina.com Phone: 1 800 809 4566 Web-Link: www.illumina.com
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  • Accession Number: GSE37981 Platform: GPL1352: [U133_X3P] Affymetrix Human X3P Array Organism: Homo sapiens Published on 2012-05-15 Summary: Gray matter volume in the cerebral cortex has been consistently found to be decreased in patients with schizophrenia. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is one of the cortical regions that exhibit the most pronounced volumetric reduction. This reduction is generally thought to reflect, at least in part, decreased number of synapses; the majority of these synapses are believed to be furnished by glutamatergic axon terminals onto the dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons. Pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex exhibit layer-specific connectional properties, providing neural circuit structures that support distinct aspects of higher cortical functions. For instance, dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons in layer 3 of the cerebral cortex are targeted by both local and long-range glutamatergic projections in a highly reciprocal fashion. Synchronized activities of pyramidal neuronal networks, especially in the gamma frequency band (i.e. 30-100 Hz), are critical for the integrity of higher cortical functions. Disturbances of these networks may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by compromising gamma oscillation. This concept is supported by the following postmortem and clinical observations. First, the density of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons in layer 3 of the cerebral cortex, including the STG, have been shown to be significantly decreased by 23-66% in subjects with schizophrenia. Second, consistent with these findings, the average somal area of these pyramidal cells is significantly smaller. Third, we have recently found that, in the prefrontal cortex, the density of glutamatergic axonal boutons, of which dendritic spines are their major targets, was significantly decreased by as much as 79% in layer 3 (but not layer 5) in subjects with schizophrenia. Finally, an increasing number of clinical studies have consistently demonstrated that gamma oscillatory synchrony is profoundly impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, gamma impairment has been linked to the symptoms and cognitive deficits of the illness and the severity of these symptoms and deficits have in turn been associated with the magnitude of cortical gray matter reduction. Taken together, understanding the molecular underpinnings of pyramidal cell dysfunction will shed important light onto the pathophysiology of cortical dysfunction of schizophrenia. In order to gain insight into the molecular determinants of pyramidal cell dysfunction in schizophrenia, we combined LCM with Affymetrix microarray and high-throughput TaqMan®-based MegaPlex qRT-PCR approaches, respectively, to elucidate the alterations in messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of these neurons in layer 3 of the STG. We found that transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and BMP (bone morphogenetic proteins) signaling pathways and many genes that regulate extracellular matrix (ECM), apoptosis and cytoskeleton were dysregulated in schizophrenia. In addition, we identified 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in this illness; interestingly, the predicted targets of these miRNAs included the dysregulated pathways and gene networks identified by microarray analysis. Together these findings provide a neurobiological framework within which we can begin to formulate and test specific hypotheses about the molecular mechanisms that underlie pyramidal cell dysfunction in schizophrenia. Overall Design: Gene epxression microarray from RNA isolated from pyramidal cells in layer III of the STG from 9 normal controls and 9 subjects with schizophrenia. There was no significant difference between diagnosis groups for age, sex, and post mortem interval (PMI). Contact: Name: Sarah Mauney Organization: McLean Hospital Laboratory: Laboratory for Cellular Neuropathology Address: 115 Mill St. Belmont MA 02478 USA Email: smauney@mclean.harvard.edu Phone: 6178552079 Organization: Affymetrix, Inc. Address: Santa Clara CA 95051 USA Email: geo@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, support@affymetrix.com Phone: 888-362-2447 Web-Link: http://www.affymetrix.com/index.affx
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