Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can affect perception, learning and cognition, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. A promising strategy to elucidate these mechanisms aims at applying tACS while electric or magnetic brain oscillations targeted by stimulation are recorded. However, reconstructing brain oscillations targeted by tACS remains a challenging problem due to stimulation artifacts. Besides lack of an established strategy to effectively supress such stimulation artifacts, there are also no resources available that allow for the development and testing of new and effective tACS artefact suppression algorithms, such as adaptive spatial filtering using beamforming or signal-space projection. Here, we provide a full dataset comprising encephalographic (EEG) recordings across six healthy human volunteers who underwent 10-Hz amplitude-modulated tACS (AM-tACS) during a 10-Hz steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm. Moreover, data and scripts are provided related to the validation of a novel stimulation artefact suppression strategy, Stimulation Artifact Source Separation (SASS), removing EEG signal components that are maximally different in the presence versus absence of stimulation. Besides including EEG single-trial data and comparisons of 10-Hz brain oscillatory phase and amplitude recorded across three conditions (condition 1: no stimulation, condition 2: stimulation with SASS, condition 3: stimulation without SASS), also power spectra and topographies of SSVEP amplitudes across all three conditions are presented. Moreover, data is provided for assessing nonlinear modulations of the stimulation artifact in both time and frequency domains due to heartbeats. Finally, the dataset includes eigenvalue spectra and spatial patterns of signal components that were identified and removed by SASS for stimulation artefact suppression at the target frequency. Besides providing an valuable resource to assess properties of AM-tACS artifacts in the EEG, this dataset allows for testing different artifact rejection methods and offers in-depth insights into the workings of SASS.
The proposed dataset aims to benchmark the performance of SfM software under varying conditions - different environments, different lighting, image positions, camera setups, etc. Images of six objects are provided with varying shapes, sizes, surface textures and materials. The dataset is divided in two main parts, together with ReadMe files:
- Objects and environments data - images from each of the objects both from indoor and outdoor environments are provided.
- Capturing setups data - images from one of the objects are provided captured with different setups. Both with and without using a turntable, using one and multiple light sources and different amount of images
All images are captured using Canon 6D DSLR camera. All images contain EXIF data with used camera parameters. A ground truth high resolution scanned of each of the objects is provided for verifying the accuracy of the SfM reconstructions.
This study investigated collaborative reflection within practical settings on a university-based coach education program. Data were collected through focus group interviews with undergraduate sports coaching students and individual interviews with module instructors.
The sample consisted of 17 sports coaching students (14 males, 3 females, mean age=24.24, SD=3.01) enrolled on the first year of a sport and exercise undergraduate degree at a UK university. The university instructors were three males (mean age=38, SD=11) with an average of 8.33 (SD=4.73) years of experience teaching in higher education.
Focus group and individual interviews were conducted using a semi-structured design which provided a general framework of questions whilst enabling the flexibility to probe into responses and gain detailed descriptions of thoughts and experiences (Hall & Getchell, 2014). The focus group interview guide was devised by drawing on relevant literature with open-ended questions that address the research topic in terms of experience, behaviour, and context (Smith & Sparkes, 2016). The individual interviews were based on analyses of focus group data in addition to key concepts arising from relevant literature.
Interview data were transcribed and analysed thematically using Braun and Clark’s (2006) six-step process: (1) familiarisation with the data; (2) Generation of initial codes; (3) Searching for themes; (4) Reviewing themes; (5) Defining and naming themes; (6) Producing the report. By adopting a reflexive process of moving forwards and backwards through the data, the analysis was produced through the intersection of theoretical assumptions, disciplinary knowledge, research skills and experience, and the content of the data themselves (Braun & Clarke, 2016). Adopting an abductive approach to data analysis, we considered both the impact of data on theory, and also the impact of theory on data (Partington et al., 2015), as the thematic analysis enabled the flexibility to explore transcripts for surprising data, whilst the generation of themes was informed by extant research.
Data analysis revealed three main themes and six sub-themes as follows: reflective processes (evaluating peers’ experiences, collaboration through shared knowledge); social support (effort and advice, emotional support); and engagement (task engagement, pressure of assessment).
WAXD and SAXS patterns of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) monofilaments were recorded on a Bruker Nanostar U diffractometer (Bruker AXS, Karlsruhe, Germany) with a Cu-Kα radiation λ = 1.5419 Å and a VÅNTEC-2000 MikroGap area detector. Mechanical properties were measured with the tensile testing machine Statimat ME+ (Textechno, Germany). Thermal properties were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Rheological properties of the PCL polymer were characterized with the Rheometer Physica MCR 301 (Anton Paar), using a plate-plate geometry. The surface topography of fibers was analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) FE-SEM S-4800 (Hitachi High-Technologies Europe, Krefeld, Germany) with an acceleration voltage of 5.0 kV.
The present dataset is a collection of information about the biomechanical behavior and histological characterization of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) harvested during the autopsy procedure.
The primary hypothesis of the present research is: Do cadaveric AAA walls, when previously stressed by inflation, conserve significant resistance against tearing comparable to no previously stressed aortas described in the literature?
Eight AAAs (6 fusiform and two saccular) were carefully dissected and had their branches ligated with cotton or prolene sutures.
Each specimen was submitted to intraluminal pressurization, up to the rupture of their wall. This pressurization was made through the inflation of an air balloon inside the specimens up to their rupture. From the border of the rupture sites, and from the proximal (control sample 1) and distal (control sample 2) no dilated portions of each vessel, samples were harvested for uniaxial tensile tests, and histological analysis.
The uniaxial tensile test utilized the INSTRON SPEC 2200 device and was coordinated by INSPEC software and SERIES IX software. The essential variables collected through this test are failure stress, failure tension, and failure strain. Each sample test generated a chart representing the relationship between stress and strain. The histological analysis included hematoxylin-eosin, Picrocirius, and Voerhoeff stains. Unfortunately, some samples were lost, especially during histological processing. A quantitative analysis (collagen and elastic fibers) was made using the software Pannoramic Viewer and Case Viewer.1
Notable findings: Even after being stretched/stressed up to their rupture, the specimens conserved uniaxial biomechanical properties comparable to AAA and normal aorta samples previously described in the literature by Monteiro e Nynomiya respectively.2,3
a) Biomechanical Data: As explained above, four samples were collected for each specimen, two from each side of the rupture border and two control samples, one from a proximal and a second from a distal region of the vessel.
It is important to highlight here that some samples did not produce valid biomechanical tests, so they do not have their results included here.
For each valid sample test, three documents are generated:
1. Stress X strain chart
2. Table (excel file containing all the values related to the stress X strain chart
3. A report from the Biomechanical test software containing details of the test
All charts contain a notification in their left upper corner about the failure stress, strain and tension of each sample.
b) Histological Data: The percentage of coverage of collagen fibers and elastin fibers is expressed in table I in decimal numbers (for example, 0.36 = 36%). Similarly to the sampling for biomechanical tests, four samples were harvested from each aorta, when it was feasible.
Ps.: All Case C samples were lost during processing
THIS MATHEMATICS BOOK IS THE DESCRIPTION OF A "CARTOON":WE STUDY THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF THREE FAMILIES OF CURVES BEFORE CONFIRMING THIS BY SHOWING HOW WE CAN DRAW THEM OR MAKE THEM COME TO LIVE WITH A COMPUTER.WHILE WE DO THIS,WE ALSO STUDY SOME CURVES RELATING TO HUMAN ANATOMY AND ELLIPSES WITH SEVEN FOCI.THEN,WE ENUNCIATE A THEOREM CONCERNING INFLECTION POINTS.