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  • Journal of Quaternary Science
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  • Abstract: The pollen record of three marine late Quaternary cores off Senegal shows a juxtaposition of Mediterranean, Northern Saharan, Central Saharan elements, which are considered transported by the trade winds from a winter-rainfall area, and Sahelian, Soudanese, Soudano-Guinean elements, considered transported both by winds and mostly by the Senegal River, and coming from the monsoonal, summer tropical rainfall area of southern West Africa. Littoral vegetation is either the edaphically dry and saline Chenopodiaceae from sebkhas at the time of the main regression, or the warm tropical humid mangrove with Rhizophora during the humid optimum period. Four stratigraphic zones reflect, from basis to top: Zone 4. A semi-arid period with a balanced pollen input. Zone 3. A very arid period with the disappearance of monsoonal pollen, probably from the disappearance of the Senegal River, a very saline littoral plain with Chenopodiaceae, a larger input of northern Saharan pollen from intensified trade winds. Zone 2. A quite humid period, much more so than today, very suddenly established, with a northward extension of the monsoonal areas, a rich littoral mangrove, and weakening of the trade winds. Zone l. A slow and steady evolution toward the present semi-humid conditions with regression of the mangrove, and of the monsoonal areas toward the south. Tentative datations and correlations with the Tchad area suggested: zone 4: 22,500 to 19,000 years BP; zone 3: 19,000 to 12,500 years BP; zone 2: 12,500 to 5,500 years BP; zone 1: 5,500 years BP to top of core. Dinoflagellate cysts display a tropical assemblage with mostly estuarine neritic elements and also a weak oceanic component, mostly in the lower slope core 47. Cosmopolitan taxa dominate the assemblage and only a few species point to more specialized environments. Quantitative variations of the assemblage are the basis of stratigraphy which is not similar to the pollen stratigraphy, and an inshore-outshore gradient has to be taken into account to correlate the three cores. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Supplement to: Rossignol-Strick, Martine; Duzer, Daniele (1979): Late Quaternary pollen and dinoflagellate cysts in marine cores off West Africa. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe C Geologie und Geophysik, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, C30, 1-14 Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: EVENT LABEL: * LATITUDE: 15.443333 * LONGITUDE: -17.306667 * DATE/TIME: 1971-01-01T00:00:00 * ELEVATION: -625.0 m * LOCATION: East Atlantic * CAMPAIGN: M25 * BASIS: Meteor (1964) * METHOD|DEVICE: Kasten corer EVENT LABEL: * LATITUDE: 15.480000 * LONGITUDE: -17.360000 * DATE/TIME: 1971-11-17T00:00:00 * ELEVATION: -945.0 m * Recovery: 5.5 m * LOCATION: East Atlantic * CAMPAIGN: M25 * BASIS: Meteor (1964) * METHOD|DEVICE: Kasten corer EVENT LABEL: * LATITUDE: 15.825000 * LONGITUDE: -17.861667 * DATE/TIME: 1971-11-17T00:00:00 * ELEVATION: -2576.0 m * Recovery: 6 m * LOCATION: East Atlantic * CAMPAIGN: M25 * BASIS: Meteor (1964) * METHOD|DEVICE: Kasten corer
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  • Abstract: The ratio between the clay minerals kaolinite and chlorite has been investigated in high resolution in a late Quaternary sediment core from the central Aegean Sea. The record spans the last ca. 105 ka. The kaolinite/chlorite ratio was used to reconstruct the fine-grained aeolian dust influx from the North African deserts, mainly derived from desiccated lake depressions. It therewith can be used as a proxy for wind activity, aridity and vegetation cover in the source area. The data document three major humid phases in North Africa bracketing the formation of sapropel layers S4, S3 and S1. They occur at >105-95 ka, 83.5-72 ka and 14-2 ka. The first two phases are characterised by relatively abrupt lower and upper boundaries suggesting a non-linear response of vegetation to precipitation, with critical hydrological thresholds. In contrast, the onset and termination of the last humid period were more gradual. Highest kaolinite/chlorite ratios indicating strongest aeolian transport and aridity occur during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5b, at ca. 95-84 ka. The long-term decrease in kaolinite/chlorite ratios during the last glacial period indicates a gradual decline of deflatable lake sediments in the source areas. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Supplement to: Ehrmann, Werner; Seidel, Martin; Schmiedl, Gerhard (2013): Dynamics of Late Quaternary North African humid periods documented in the clay mineral record of central Aegean Sea sediments. Global and Planetary Change, 107, 186-195, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.05.010 Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: EVENT LABEL: (GeoTü SL143) * LATITUDE: 38.261830 * LONGITUDE: 25.103170 * ELEVATION: -665.0 m * LOCATION: Aegean Sea * DEVICE: Gravity corer (Kiel type)
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  • South Atlantic in Late Quaternary: Reconstruction of Budget and Currents
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  • Abstract: Independent proxies were assessed in two Late Quaternary sediment cores from the eastern South Atlantic to compare deep-water changes during the last 400 kyr. Two cores were recovered from beneath North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) at approximately 3 000 m depth. Late Quaternary presence of NADW is indicated by the Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi assemblage on the Walvis Ridge (Core GeoB 1214) and the Bulimina alazanensis assemblage on the Namibian continental slope (Core GeoB 1710). The propagation of NADW is exclusively observed during interglacials, with maximum factor loadings in Stages 1, 5, 7, 9 and 11. These maxima are consistent with peaks in kaolinite/chlorite ratios and maxima of poorly crystalline smectite in the clay-mineral record. Kaolinite and poorly crystalline smectite are products of intense chemical weathering. They are injected into the NADW at low latitudes, north of the study area, and advected south. Chlorite, which is stable under cold weathering regimes, is a characteristic mineral of water masses of southern origin. During glacial stages, it is advected north with Southern Component Water (SCW). Above the NADW/SCW depths, kaolinite/chlorite ratios vary only slightly without a significant glacial-interglacial pattern, as measured in a core (GeoB 1712) from 1 000 m deep on the same profile of the Namibian continental slope off Walvis Bay. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Supplement to: Gingele, Franz; Schmiedl, Gerhard (1999): Comparison of independant proxies on deep water advection in the southeast Atlantic off Namibia. South African Journal of Marine Science, 21, 181-190, https://doi.org/10.2989/025776199784126079 Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: EVENT LABEL: * LATITUDE: -23.431667 * LONGITUDE: 11.698333 * DATE/TIME: 1992-01-11T00:00:00 * ELEVATION: -2987.0 m * Recovery: 10.45 m * LOCATION: Namibia continental slope * CAMPAIGN: M20/2 * BASIS: Meteor (1986) * METHOD/DEVICE: Gravity corer (Kiel type) EVENT LABEL: * LATITUDE: -23.256667 * LONGITUDE: 12.808333 * DATE/TIME: 1992-01-12T00:00:00 * ELEVATION: -998.0 m * Recovery: 10.29 m * LOCATION: Namibia continental slope * CAMPAIGN: M20/2 * BASIS: Meteor (1986) * METHOD/DEVICE: Gravity corer (Kiel type)
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  • Response of deep-sea benthic foraminifera to Late Quaternary climate changes, southeast Indian Ocean, offshore Western Australia
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  • Journal of Quaternary Science
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  • cores... core... late... Sediment... Quaternary.
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  • Abstract: A model is presented for hemipelagic siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentation during the last glacial-interglacial cycle in the Capricorn Channel, southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Stable isotope ratios, grainsize, carbonate content and mineralogy were analysed for seven cores in a depth transect from 166 to 2892 m below sea level (mbsl). Results show variations in the flux of terrigenous, neritic and pelagic sediments to the continental slope over the last sea level cycle. During the glacial lowstand terrigenous sediment influenced all the cores down to 2000 mbsl. The percentages of quartz and feldspar in the cores decreased with water depth, while the percentage of clay increased. X-ray diffraction analysis of the glacial lowstand clay mineralogy suggests that the siliciclastic sediment was primarily sourced from the Fitzroy River, which debouched directly into the northwest sector of the Capricorn Channel at this time. The cores also show a decrease in pelagic calcite and an increase in aragonite and high magnesium calcite (HMC) during the glacial. The influx of HMC and aragonite is most likely from reworking of coral reefs exposed on the continental shelf during the glacial, and also from HMC ooids precipitated at the head of the Capricorn Channel at this time. Mass accumulation rates (MARs) are high (13.5 g/cm**/kyr) during the glacial and peak at ~20 g/cm** 3/kyr in the early transgression (16-14 ka BP). MARs then decline with further sea level rise as the Fitzroy River mouth retreats from the edge of the continental shelf after 13.5 ka BP. MARs remain low (4 g/cm**3/kyr) throughout the Holocene highstand. Data for the Holocene highstand indicate there is a reduction in siliciclastic influx to the Capricorn Channel with little quartz and feldspar below 350 mbsl. However, fine-grained fluvial sediments, presumably from the Fitzroy River, were still accumulating on the mid slope down to 2000 mbsl. The proportion of pelagic calcite in the core tops increases with water depth, while HMC decreases, and is present only in trace amounts in cores below 1500 mbsl. The difference in the percentage of HMC in the deeper cores between the glacial and Holocene may reflect differences in supply or deepening of the HMC lysocline during the glacial. Sediment accumulation rates also vary between cores in the Capricorn Channel and do not show the expected exponential decrease with depth. This may be due to intermediate or deep water currents reworking the sediments. It is also possible that present bathymetry data are too sparse to detect the potential role that submarine channels may play in the distribution and accumulation of sediments. Comparison of the Capricorn Channel MARs with those for other mixed carbonate/siliciclastic provinces from the northeast margin of Australia indicates that peak MARs in the early transgression in the Capricorn Channel precede those from the central GBR and south of Fraser Island. The difference in the timing of the carbonate and siliciclastic MAR peaks along the northeast margin is primarily related to differences in the physiography and climate of the provinces. The only common trend in the MARs from the northeast margin of Australia is the near synchronicity of the carbonate and siliciclastic MAR peaks in individual sediment cores, which supports a coeval sedimentation model. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Supplement to: Bostock, Helen C; Opdyke, Bradley N; Gagan, Michael K; Fifield, L Keith (2009): Late Quaternary siliciclastic/carbonate sedimentation model for the Capricorn Channel, southern Great Barrier Reef province, Australia. Marine Geology, 257(1-4), 107-123, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2008.11.003 Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: Not Available
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  • Abstract: Analyses of terrigenous sediments from the Chilean continental slope off the southern border of the Atacama desert (27.5°S), focusing on illite crystallinity and the Fe:Al ratio of the sediments, reveal a high-frequency variability of the position of the Southern Westerlies, which is very similar to the coeval short-term climatic events known from Greenland ice cores and from North Atlantic sediments. Besides showing dominantly precession-driven variability in precipitation over the Andes, these analyses also reveal rapid changes in weathering intensity along the Chilean Coastal Range during the last 80,000 years. These rapid changes occur at much shorter timescales than the 19-100 kyr orbital forcing of the Milankovitch cycles. Category: geoscientificInformation Source: Supplement to: Lamy, Frank; Klump, Jens; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wefer, Gerold (2000): Late Quaternary rapid climate change in northern Chile. Terra Nova, 12, 8-13, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3121.2000.00265.x Supplemental Information: Not Availble Coverage: EVENT LABEL: * LATITUDE: -27.466667 * LONGITUDE: -71.251667 * DATE/TIME: 1995-06-07T00:00:00 * ELEVATION: -1947.0 m * Recovery: 4.89 m * LOCATION: South-East Pacific * CAMPAIGN: SO102/2 * BASIS: Sonne * METHOD|DEVICE: Gravity corer (Kiel type)
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