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Detection of high-frequency repeating impacts in robotic grinding (detailed views). (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) ... Impact-cutting map from the speed signal based on the experiment with the bump showing (─) a major regime of 2 impacts/revolution and (…) minor oscillations. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) ... Vibration and rotational frequency in single-pass grinding (overview). (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) ... Typical values of ω, ωmax and Δω during a cutting impact from measured rotational frequency in Test (3) at 4500rpm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) ... Instantaneous angular frequency
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Oscillation detection in a single electrode with weak alpha. The electrode was selected from the same subject as in Figs. 2 and 4. (A) The 256-electrode array with the selected electrode highlighted in yellow. (B) Background wavelet power spectrum mean and standard deviation (blue), and the linear regression fit to the background (green). (C) Oscillations detected across all frequencies by the oscillatory episode detection method. Red vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to close their eyes and black vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to open their eyes. (D) The proportion of time (Pepisode) during the eyes -closed condition (red) and eyes-open condition (black) that oscillations were detected at each frequency. (E) The raw signal from the chosen electrode, with detected oscillations at the peak alpha frequency (9.5Hz) highlighted in red. Vertical lines are the same as above. (F) An expansion of the highlighted section in E, to show the spindle-like appearance of the alpha oscillation. ... Temporal independence of two alpha components. (A) An 8-s epoch from the alpha component shown in Fig. 2, with detected alpha-frequency oscillations highlighted in red. (B) The same time segment as in A, from the alpha component in Fig. 6. Note the alpha oscillation is maximal in B when the oscillation is at a minimum in A, demonstrating why these were extracted as temporally independent components. ... Lateralized alpha component. From the same subject as Figs. 2 and 4–5. (A) The spline-interpolated scalp distribution of an alpha component extracted by ICA. Color scale denotes electrode weight (unitless). (B) Background wavelet power spectrum mean and standard deviation (blue), and the linear regression fit to the background (green). (C) Oscillations detected across all frequencies by the oscillatory episode detection method. Red vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to close their eyes and black vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to open their eyes. (D) The proportion of time (Pepisode) during the eyes-closed condition (red) and eyes-open condition (black) that oscillations were detected at each frequency. (E) The time-domain representation of the chosen component, with detected oscillations at the peak alpha frequency (9.5Hz) highlighted in red. Vertical lines are the same as above. (F) An expansion of the highlighted section in E. ... Oscillation detection in an ICA alpha component. (A) The spline-interpolated scalp distribution of an alpha component extracted by ICA. Color scale denotes electrode weight (unitless). (B) Background wavelet power spectrum mean and standard deviation (blue) and the linear regression fit to the background (green). (C) Oscillations detected across all frequencies by the oscillatory episode detection method. Red vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to close their eyes and black vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to open their eyes. (D) The proportion of time (Pepisode) during the eyes-closed condition (red) and eyes-open condition (black) that oscillations were detected at each frequency. (E) The time-domain representation of the chosen component, with detected oscillations at the peak alpha frequency (9.5Hz) highlighted in red. Vertical lines are the same as above. (F) An expansion of the highlighted section in E, to show the spindle-like appearance of the alpha oscillation. ... Oscillation... Oscillation detection in a single electrode with strong alpha. The electrode was selected from the same subject as in Fig. 2. (A) The 256-electrode array with the selected electrode highlighted in yellow. (B) Background wavelet power spectrum mean and standard deviation (blue), and the linear regression fit to the background (green). (C) Oscillations detected across all frequencies by the oscillatory episode detection method. Red vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to close their eyes and black vertical lines indicate when participants were instructed to open their eyes. (D) The proportion of time (Pepisode) during the eyes-closed condition (red) and eyes-open condition (black) that oscillations were detected at each frequency. (E) The raw signal from the chosen electrode, with detected oscillations at the peak alpha frequency (9.5Hz) highlighted in red. Vertical lines are the same as above. (F) An expansion of the highlighted section in E to show the spindle-like appearance of the alpha oscillation.
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Effective oscillator strength distribution... Schematic of the dipole, quadrupole and octupole transitions to pseudo-states showing only the core excitations of Na. The 1s22s22p6 core electrons are assumed to only excite to the pseudo-states np˜, nd˜ and nf˜ with energies Δ(1), Δ(2) and Δ(3) via dipole, quadrupole and octupole transitions respectively. The oscillator strengths are fc(1), fc(2) and fc(3) respectively. ... The dipole, quadrupole and octupole effective oscillator strength distributions. See explanation of tables. ... Oscillator strength sum- rule... Convergence of the Cn dispersion parameters (in a.u.) for lithium dimer. The parameters are calculated using effective oscillator strength distributions with different sizes. Ne gives the number of effective oscillator strengths that were adopted. The ‘exact’ results were calculated using Eq. (9). We thus adopt the Ne=3 set of effective oscillator strengths, i.e. for each multipole (fe1(ℓ),ϵe1(ℓ),fe2(ℓ),ϵe2(ℓ), fe3(ℓ),ϵe3(ℓ)), which is given later in the paper. ... The effective oscillator strength distributions for all atoms or ions. k is the order of multipole. E is the transition energy. F is the oscillator strength.
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A block diagram of the experimental setup. The difference frequency synthesizer (DFS), generates two spatially coincidental near-infrared (λ∼850nm) beam. The frequency difference (ν) between the two beams is tunable from DC to 1.64THz. These two beams are simultaneously amplified by a MOPA (master oscillator power amplifier), and subsequently, the amplified beams pump the photomixer to generate THz radiation at the difference frequency (ν). The THz wave then traverses the sample cell to reach the bolometer for spectral measurements. The bolometer signal is digitized and recorded by a PC-based data acquisition system. ... This is the file for inputting the experimental line frequencies into the SPFIT spectral analysis program. ... Measured ν2=1 transition frequencies and their pressure-shift parameters ... Spectrum of CO transition at 691.473076GHz. Add 689.255007GHz to the displayed x-axis values to obtain the correct THz frequency. The upper trace is a plot of the I vs. (ν3−ν2) and the lower trace is a plot of I vs.(s+Δ). For clarity, the two traces are artificially offset in the vertical direction. The sample cell contained 40 mtorr of CO. Tone-burst modulation was employed with a tone frequency of 2MHz, a burst frequency of 8kHz, and a lock-in time-constant of 1s. The frequency sweep was performed by stepping the microwave sweeper frequency, s, 0.0766MHz at a time over 50 MHz (only a 14MHz segment is shown here); the sweep duration was 300s. ... Frequency
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Frequency domain spectra of the C2 samples with and without degassing O2: (1) 0–2.048μs, (2) 2.048–4.092μs, (3) 4.092–6.136μs, (4) 5.952–8.000μs (decay at 470nm). ... The relation curves between frequency spectrum peak height and the timing course from the decays at 520nm (open square) and at 530nm (solid circle). The unit in ordinate was regulated and in abscissa 512ns for convenience and simplicity (left); the relation curves between frequency change of the top peak and timing course from the decays at 520nm (open square) and at 530nm (solid circle). The unit in ordinate was regulated and in abscissa 512ns for convenience and simplicity (right). ... (a) The transient absorption kinetic curve with the abnormal signals of the C1 compound at 500nm (measured in 2008) and corresponding to the frequency-domain spectra at each time period: (1) 0–1.024μs, (2) 1.024–2.046μs, (3) 16.932–17.954μs, (4) 17.954–18.976μs, (5) 18.976–19.998μs. (b) The transient absorption kinetic curve with the abnormal signals of the C1 compound at 470nm (measured in July 2012) and corresponding to the frequency-domain spectra at each time period: (1) 0–2.048μs, (2) 2.048–4.092μs, (3) 3.956–6.000μs, (4) 23.132–25.176μs, (5) 31.308–33.352μs, (6) 35.396–37.440μs.
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Float (mf) and counterweight (mc) mass combinations used for regular (Shallow) and near-focused (Mid, Max and Max2) wave-field testing with the round-ended, cylindrical float geometry which also features in another study by the authors [16]. Immersion draft (zeq), approximate wetted float radius (aw) at equilibrium, centre of gravity ordinate from the float base (zcog) and approximate heave and surge natural frequencies at f = 0.766 Hz (f3 and f1: calculated assuming small amplitude motion from WAMIT simulations [10]) are also listed. ... The three stages to tracking float motion using the position identification method: (a) frame image of float at rest taken from 25 FPS video footage, (b) binary image with the identified float stem upper surface, (c) path of the centre of the float stem upper surface during one float oscillation cycle and (d) measured time-varying float displacements (z(t): black line) of the Shallow draft float shown in (a–c) subjected to a regular wave-field of amplitude anom = 0.016 m and frequency f = 1.09 Hz. Calculated vertical position offsets of the float using the position identification method, zo(t), are shown as red markers. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of the article.) ... Variation of response amplitude ratio with (a) incident wave frequency and (b) non-dimensionalised wave slope. The circle, square and triangle markers correspond to nominal wave amplitudes anom = 0.010 m, 0.016 m and 0.022 m. In (b) the same response amplitude ratios in (a) are plotted, with additional values for wave amplitudes: anom = 0.007 m, 0.013 m, 0.0188 m and 0.025 m, shown as asterisk markers. ... Spectra derived from the Fourier transform of measured near-focused wave-fields (thin solid line): (a) fp = 0.688 Hz and (b) fp = 0.766 Hz and corresponding measured float heave responses. In each plot the frequency axis has been non-dimensionalised by the peak wave frequency and three float cases are shown: Mid draft; zeq = 0.085 m (thick solid line); Max draft; zeq = 0.11 m (thick dashed line) and Max2 draft; zeq = 0.11 m (thick dotted line). ... Variation of the ratio of measured (zm) and observed (using the position identification method: zo) vertical float displacement amplitudes with incident wave frequency. Error bars are included to illustrate the uncertainty of zo due to the pixel resolution (blue bars). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of the article.)
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IP3-mediated Ca2+release plays a fundamental role in many cell signaling processes and has been the subject of numerous modeling studies. Only recently has the important role that mitochondria play in the dynamics of intracellular Ca2+signaling begun to be considered in experimental work and in computational models. Mitochondria sequester large amounts of Ca2+and thus have a modulatory effect on intracellular Ca2+signaling, and mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+, in turn, has a regulatory effect on mitochondrial function. Here we integrate a well-established model of IP3-mediated Ca2+signaling with a detailed model of mitochondrial Ca2+handling and metabolic function. The incorporation of mitochondria results in oscillations in a bistable formulation of the IP3 model, and increasing metabolic substrate decreases the frequency of these oscillations consistent with the literature. Ca2+spikes from the cytosol are communicated into mitochondria and are shown to induce realistic metabolic changes. The model has been formulated using a modular approach that is easy to modify and should serve as a useful basis for the investigation of questions regarding the interaction of these two systems.
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Schematic of the waveguide-based chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. An arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) produces a chirped pulse from 0.1 to 4.9GHz. This pulse is filtered and mixed with the output of a phase-locked oscillator (PLDRO), after which it is again filtered, and then amplified by a pre-amplifier and a solid-state amplifier. The amplified pulse is sent into the coiled waveguide, which contains the molecular sample at pressures on the order of 10mTorr. The molecules interact with the pulse. Emitted power exits the waveguide and passes through a protective diode limiter and SPST switch before being amplified with a low-noise amplifier. The amplified FID is downconverted with a phase-locked oscillator, sent to an IF amplifier, and then finally filtered again before being digitized and Fourier transformed by a high-speed oscilloscope. The PLDRO, AWG, and oscilloscope are all locked to an external 10MHz reference. ... Calculated frequencies and α values for vibrational modes below 400cm−1.
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Plot for dye III showing the three highest-energy normal mode oscillators in each spectral line computed at 0.1K simulated temperature. Black points indicate the highest energy oscillator, dark gray points indicate the second highest, and light gray the lowest. Point diameters are proportional to the oscillator’s σi score (Eq. 6). The computed spectrum (solid line, right axis) indicates the positions of the α,β, and γ bands. ... Intrinsic frequencies (in cm−1, scaled by factor fv) of natural internal coordinates [27] coupled to important alpha group normal modes for dyes I–VII. Boldface indicates modes strongly coupled to FC transitions, parentheses indicate nonexistent coupling. Underlined values indicate coupling to symmetry-breaking photoisomerization coordinate, see text. ... Intrinsic frequencies (in cm−1, scaled by fv) of natural internal coordinates coupled to important beta group normal modes for dyes I–VII. See reference [27] for coordinate nomenclature. Boldface values are the strongest contributors, and values in parentheses are unimportant in FC effects but are included for comparison.
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Harmonic frequencies... The polyad containing the harmonic oscillator basis state 45. Five other basis states are connected by the resonances K44,1, K66,1, and K44,66.
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