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Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) have recently become one of the primary natural hazards in the Himalayas. There is therefore an urgent need to assess GLOF hazards in the region. Cirenmaco, a moraine-dammed lake located in the upstream portion of Zhangzangbo valley, Central Himalayas, has received public attention after its damaging 1981 outburst flood. Here, by combining remote sensing methods, bathymetric survey and 2D hydraulic modeling, we assessed the hazard posed by Cirenmaco in its current status. Inter-annual variation of Cirenmaco lake area indicates a rapid lake expansion from 0.10±0.08km2 in 1988 to 0.39±0.04km2 in 2013. Bathymetric survey shows the maximum water depth of the lake in 2012 was 115±2m and the lake volume was calculated to be 1.8×107m3. Field geomorphic analysis shows that Cirenmaco glacial lake is prone to GLOFs as mass movements and ice and snow avalanches can impact the lake and the melting of the dead ice in the moraine can lower the dam level. HEC-RAS 2D model was then used to simulate moraine dam failure of the Cirenmaco and assess GLOF impacts downstream. Reconstruction of Cirenmaco 1981 GLOF shows that HEC-RAS can produce reasonable flood extent and water depth, thus demonstrate its ability to effectively model complex GLOFs. GLOF modeling results presented can be used as a basis for the implementation of disaster prevention and mitigation measures. As a case study, this work shows how we can integrate different methods to GLOF hazard assessment.
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Inspired by the early fieldwork of G. Haynes with large sized predators in wilderness areas, the following paper presents data on bone damage patterns in a sample of guanacos killed by one of the largest predators in South America, the puma (Puma concolor, Felidae, Carnivora). We describe the bone modification pattern on the carcasses, including skeletal part representation, bone fractures, and tooth marks. Also, tooth mark modifications on bones collected from a puma enclosure at a local zoo were analyzed. Our results indicate a light modification of guanaco carcass by puma; bone damages located mainly in the upper portions of rear and forelimbs, rib cage, and scapular and pelvic girdles; and the presence of a low percentage of fractured bones. Scores, pits, and punctures are the best represented tooth marks. On average, punctures are 3.5–5 mm in diameter, although larger tooth impressions are observed. The light consumption of guanaco by the puma would provide a potential source for scavenging by other carnivores and humans.
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This study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects and signaling mechanisms of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and its components [surface-layer protein (SLP), DNA, exopolysaccharides, and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides] on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) IPEC-J2.
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Digital elevation models (DEMs) built from repeated topographic surveys permit producing DEM of Difference (DoD) that enables assessment of elevation variations and estimation of volumetric changes through time. In the framework of sediment transport studies, DEM differencing enables quantitative and spatially-distributed representation of erosion and deposition within the analyzed time window, at both the channel reach and the catchment scale. In this study, two high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from airborne LiDAR data (2m resolution) acquired in 2005 and 2011 were used to characterize the topographic variations caused by sediment erosion, transport and deposition in two adjacent mountain basins (Gadria and Strimm, Vinschgau - Venosta valley, Eastern Alps, Italy). These catchments were chosen for their contrasting morphology and because they feature different types and intensity of sediment transfer processes. A method based on fuzzy logic, which takes into account spatially variable DTMs uncertainty, was used to derive the DoD of the study area. Volumes of erosion and deposition calculated from the DoD were then compared with post-event field surveys to test the consistency of two independent estimates. Results show an overall agreement between the estimates, with differences due to the intrinsic approximations of the two approaches. The consistency of DoD with post-event estimates encourages the integration of these two methods, whose combined application may permit to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the two estimations. The comparison between 2005 and 2011 DTMs allowed to investigate the relationships between topographic changes and geomorphometric parameters expressing the role of topography on sediment erosion and deposition (i.e., slope and contributing area) and describing the morphology influenced by debris flows and fluvial processes (i.e., curvature). Erosion and deposition relations in the slope-area space display substantial differences between the Gadria and the Strimm basins. While in the former erosion and deposition clusters are reasonably well discriminated, in the latter, characterized by a complex stepped structure, we observe substantial overlapping. Erosion mostly occurred in areas that show persistency of concavity or transformation from convex and flat to concave surfaces, whereas deposition prevailingly took place on convex morphologies. Less expected correspondences between curvature and topographic changes can be explained by the variable sediment transport processes, which are often characterized by alternation of erosion and deposition between different events and even during the same event.
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  • Geospatial Data
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Animal models of audiogenic epilepsy are useful tools to understand the mechanisms underlying human reflex epilepsies. There is accumulating evidence regarding behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, and genetic substrates of audiogenic seizure strains, but there are still aspects concerning their neurochemical basis that remain to be elucidated. Previous studies have shown the involved of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in audiogenic seizures. The aim of our research was to clarify the role of the GABAergic system in the generation of epileptic seizures in the genetic audiogenic seizure-prone hamster (GASH:Sal) strain.
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  • Slides
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The research was to appraise the utility of the patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) as models of estrogen receptor positive (ER+HER2− and ER+HER2+) breast cancers. We compared protein expression profiles by Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) in tumors that resulted in PDXs compared to those that did not. Our overall PDX intake rate for ER+ breast cancer was 9% (9/97). The intake rate for ER+HER2+ tumors (3/16, 19%) was higher than for ER+HER2− tumors (6/81, 7%). Heat map analyses of RPPA data showed that ER+HER2− tumors were divided into 2 groups by luminal A/B signature [protein expression of ER, AR, Bcl-2, Bim (BCL2L11), GATA3 and INPP4b], and this expression signature was also associated with the rate of PDX intake. Cell survival pathways such as the PI3K/AKT signaling and RAS/ERK pathways were more activated in the specimens that could be established as PDX in both classes. Expression of the ER protein itself may have a bearing on the potential success of an ER+ PDX model. In addition, HER2 and its downstream protein expressions were up-regulated in the ER+HER2+ patient tumors that were successfully established as PDX models. Moreover, the comparison of RPPA data between original and PDX tumors suggested that the selection/adaptation process required to grow the tumors in mice is unavoidable for generation of ER+ PDX models, and we identified differences between patient tumor samples and paired PDX tumors. A better understanding of the biological characteristics of ER+PDX would be the key to using PDX models in assessing treatment strategies in a preclinical setting.
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This study explores the connectivity of upland farmers and downstream fishers through interlinkages of water, energy and food within the Dampalit sub-watershed of Laguna Lake, Philippines.
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We investigated in Beppu, Oita Prefecture, Japan. Hot spring drainage flows into a river and then flows into coastal areas in this area, a region in Japan with many hot springs.
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This paper aims to further our understanding of pre-Columbian agricultural systems in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia. Three different types of raised fields co-existing in the same site near the community of Exaltación, in north-western Beni, were studied. The morphology, texture and geochemistry of the soils of these fields and the surrounding area were analysed. Differences in field design have often been associated with the diversity of cultural practices. Our results suggest that in the study area differences in field shape, height and layout are primarily the result of an adaptation to the local edaphology. By using the technology of raised fields, pre-Columbian people were able to drain and cultivate soils with very different characteristics, making the land suitable for agriculture and possibly different crops. This study also shows that some fields in the Llanos de Moxos were built to prolong the presence of water, allowing an additional cultivation period in the dry season and/or in times of drought. Nevertheless, the nature of the highly weathered soils suggests that raised fields were not able to support large populations and their management required long fallow periods.
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  • Geospatial Data
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X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder induced by a mutation in the ABCD1 gene, which causes the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in tissue and plasma. Oxidative stress may be a hallmark of X-ALD. In the plasma of X-ALD patients with different forms of the disease, characterized by high levels of C24:0 and C26:0, we observed the presence of oxidative stress revealed by decreased levels of GSH, α-tocopherol, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We showed that oxidative stress caused the oxidation of cholesterol and linoleic acid, leading to the formation of cholesterol oxide derivatives oxidized at C7 (7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC), and 7α-hydroxycholesrol (7α-OHC)) and of 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (9-HODE, 13-HODE), respectively. High levels of 7KC, 7β-OHC, 7α-OHC, 9-HODE and 13-HODE were found. As 7KC induces oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death, which could play key roles in the development of X-ALD, the impact of 7KC on the peroxisomal status was determined in microglial BV-2 cells. Indeed, environmental stress factors such as 7KC could exacerbate peroxisomal dysfunctions in microglial cells and thus determine the progression of the disease. 7KC induces oxiapoptophagy in BV-2 cells: overproduction of H2O2 and O2−, presence of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP, nuclear condensation and/or fragmentation; elevated [LC3-II/LC3-I] ratio, increased p62 levels. 7KC also induces several peroxisomal modifications: decreased Abcd1, Abcd2, Abcd3, Acox1 and/or Mfp2 mRNA and protein levels, increased catalase activity and decreased Acox1-activity. However, the Pex14 level was unchanged. It is suggested that high levels of 7KC in X-ALD patients could foster generalized peroxisomal dysfunction in microglial cells, which could in turn intensify brain damage.
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