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  • Within the southern region of the Netherlands, the Maastricht Study is an on-going observational prospective population-based cohort study that focuses on the etiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Representativeness of the participating population is a crucial but often an unknown factor in population-based cohort studies such as the Maastricht Study. We therefore aimed to assess the representativeness of the study population by comparing drug utilization of the participants of the Maastricht Study with the general population of the Netherlands. Since T2DM patients were oversampled in this study, a sampling method was applied in order to ensure a similar distribution of T2DM over the study population. Drug use in the study population was compared with drug use in the population of the Netherlands, using a Z-test to compare 2 independent proportions. In general, drug use in the study was similar compared with national data. However, in the age group 65 to 74 years total drug use was lower in the study population (833/1000 persons) versus nationwide data (882/1000 persons). The use of pulmonary medications was lower (104/1000 persons vs 141/1000 persons) and the use of hypnotics/anxiolytics was higher (90/1000 persons vs 36/1000 persons) in the Maastricht Study as compared with national data. Drug use in the Maastricht Study population is largely comparable to that in the total Dutch population aged 45 to 74. Therefore, data on drug use by participants in the Maastricht Study can be used to perform studies assessing outcomes associated with drug use.,Medicine, 99 (1),
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  • This paper serves as an introduction to the “Contested urban territories: decolonized perspectives” special issue. The idea for this issue emerged during our reflections on a socioterritorial perspective, preeminent in the current Latin American analysis of contemporary urban struggles (Schwarz and Streule, 2016). It aims to contribute to these ongoing debates about a specific understanding of urban territories from a postcolonial and decolonized perspective by combining contributions from two paper sessions we organized at the 2017 meeting of the American Association of Geographers in Boston with additional papers by scholars who could not participate in the conference. All seven contributions tackle the question of what a relational and dynamic conceptualization of territory may contribute to current debates in the urban studies field. Put more precisely, to which extent are socioterritorial approaches of value for a further decentering and pluralizing of urban theory? What is their significance to research on urban social movements? And, finally, how does such a socioterritorial perspective nurture and complement an analysis of the social production of space? The present special issue invites the reader to get familiar with new concepts and engage in a critical reflection on the conditions of knowledge production in urban geography and beyond.,Geographica Helvetica, 75 (1),ISSN:21948798,
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  • Garnet of eclogite (formerly termed garnet clinopyroxenite) hosted in lenses of orogenic garnet peridotite from the Granulitgebirge, NW Bohemian Massif, contains unique inclusions of granitic melt, now either glassy or crystallized. Analysed glasses and re‐homogenized inclusions are hydrous, peraluminous, and enriched in highly incompatible elements characteristic of the continental crust such as Cs, Li, B, Pb, Rb, Th, and U. The original melt thus represents a pristine, chemically evolved metasomatic agent, which infiltrated the mantle via deep continental subduction during the Variscan orogeny. The bulk chemical composition of the studied eclogites is similar to that of Fe‐rich basalt and the enrichment in LILE and U suggest a subduction‐related component. All these geochemical features confirm metasomatism. In comparison with many other garnet+clinopyroxene‐bearing lenses in peridotites of the Bohemian Massif, the studied samples from Rubinberg and Klatschmühle are more akin to eclogite than pyroxenites, as reflected in high jadeite content in clinopyroxene, relatively low Mg, Cr, and Ni but relatively high Ti. However, trace elements of both bulk rock and individual mineral phases show also important differences making these samples rather unique. Metasomatism involving a melt requiring a trace element pattern very similar to the composition reported here has been suggested for the source region of rocks of the so‐called durbachite suite, that is, ultrapotassic melanosyenites, which are found throughout the high‐grade Variscan basement. Moreover, the Th, U, Pb, Nb, Ta, and Ti patterns of these newly studied melt inclusions (MI) strongly resemble those observed for peridotite and its enclosed pyroxenite from the T‐7 borehole (Staré, České Středhoři Mountains) in N Bohemia. This suggests that a similar kind of crustal‐derived melt also occurred here. This study of granitic MI in eclogites from peridotites has provided the first direct characterization of a preserved metasomatic melt, possibly responsible for the metasomatism of several parts of the mantle in the Variscides.,Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 38 (3),
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  • International Zurich Seminar on Information and Communication (IZS 2020). Proceedings
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  • Applied Sciences, 10 (S 3),ISSN:2076-3417,
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  • Eukaryotic ribosome precursors acquire translation competence in the cytoplasm through stepwise release of bound assembly factors, and proofreading of their functional centers. In case of the pre-60S, these steps include removal of placeholders Rlp24, Arx1 and Mrt4 that prevent premature loading of the ribosomal protein eL24, the protein-folding machinery at the polypeptide exit tunnel (PET), and the ribosomal stalk, respectively. Here, we reveal that sequential ATPase and GTPase activities license release factors Rei1 and Yvh1 to trigger Arx1 and Mrt4 removal. Drg1-ATPase activity removes Rlp24 from the GTPase Nog1 on the pre-60S; consequently, the C-terminal tail of Nog1 is extracted from the PET. These events enable Rei1 to probe PET integrity and catalyze Arx1 release. Concomitantly, Nog1 eviction from the pre-60S permits peptidyl transferase center maturation, and allows Yvh1 to mediate Mrt4 release for stalk assembly. Thus, Nog1 co-ordinates the assembly, maturation and quality control of distant functional centers during ribosome formation.,eLife, 9,
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  • Current injection circuit breakers consist of a mechanical interrupter (MI) with a current injection and an energy dissipation branch in parallel. The performance of the complete device is largely determined by mechanical operation time and interruption performance of the MI. In the standard configuration, current injection is realised using a pre-charged inductor– capacitor circuit. A higher interruption performance of the MI makes it possible to scale down the resonant injection circuit, and thus have a more economical design. Additionally, the implementation of more complex injection circuits that quickly create zero crossings, while maintaining favourable conditions for interruption, can lead to economic benefits. In this study, the interruption performance of a model gas interrupter as part of a current injection topology is investigated. The results are used to verify a corresponding simulation model and two-dimensional upgrade circuits that influence the injection current to increase the range of interruptible fault currents. On the basis of experimental results, the simulation model is used to investigate the performance of upgrade circuits for the use in high-voltage direct current (HVDC) systems. The results indicate that using improved injection circuits can considerably increase the economic advantage of current injection circuit breakers compared with other topologies.,High Voltage,ISSN:2397-7264,
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  • Ice sheets lose the majority of their mass through outlet glaciers or ice streams, corridors of fast ice moving multiple orders of magnitude more rapidly than the surrounding ice. The future stability of these corridors of fast-moving ice depends sensitively on the behaviour of their boundaries, namely shear margins, grounding zones and the basal sliding interface, where the stress field is complex and fundamentally three-dimensional. These boundaries are prone to thermomechanical localisation, which can be captured numerically only with high temporal and spatial resolution. Thus, better understanding the coupled physical processes that govern the response of these boundaries to climate change necessitates a non-linear, full Stokes model that affords high resolution and scales well in three dimensions. This paper's goal is to contribute to the growing toolbox for modelling thermomechanical deformation in ice by leveraging graphical processing unit (GPU) accelerators' parallel scalability. We propose FastICE, a numerical model that relies on pseudo-transient iterations to solve the implicit thermomechanical coupling between ice motion and temperature involving shear heating and a temperature-dependent ice viscosity. FastICE is based on the finite-difference discretisation, and we implement the pseudo-time integration in a matrix-free way. We benchmark the mechanical Stokes solver against the finite-element code Elmer/Ice and report good agreement among the results. We showcase a parallel version of FastICE to run on GPU-accelerated distributed memory machines, reaching a parallel efficiency of 99 %. We show that our model is particularly useful for improving our process-based understanding of flow localisation in the complex transition zones bounding rapidly moving ice.,Geoscientific Model Development, 13 (3),ISSN:1991-9603,ISSN:1991-959X,
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  • A room‐temperature mid‐infrared (λ = 9 µm) heterodyne system based on high‐performance unipolar optoelectronic devices is presented. The local oscillator (LO) is a quantum cascade laser (QCL), while the receiver is an antenna coupled quantum well infrared photodetector optimized to operate in a microcavity configuration. Measurements of the saturation intensity show that these receivers have a linear response up to very high optical power, an essential feature for heterodyne detection. By providing an accurate passive stabilization of the LO, the heterodyne system reaches at room temperature the record value of noise equivalent power (NEP) of 30 pW at 9 µm and in the GHz frequency range. Finally, it is demonstrated that the injection of microwave signal into the receivers shifts the heterodyne beating over the large bandwidth of the devices. This mixing property is a unique valuable function of these devices for signal treatment in compact QCL‐based systems.,Laser & Photonics Reviews, 14 (2),ISSN:1863-8880,ISSN:1863-8899,ISSN:1863-8889,
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  • X-ray tomographic microscopy is a well-established analysis technique in different fields of the Earth Sciences to access volumetric information of the internal microstructure of a large variety of opaque materials with high-spatial resolution and in a non-destructive manner. Synchrotron radiation, with its coherence and high flux, is required for pushing the temporal resolution into the second and sub-second regime and beyond, and therefore moving from the investigation of static samples to the study of fast dynamic processes as they happen in 3D. Over the past few years, several hardware and software developments at the TOMCAT beamline at the Swiss Light Source contributed to establishing its highly flexible and user-friendly fast tomography endstation, making a large variety of new dynamic in situ and operando investigations possible. Here we present an overview of the different devices, including an in-house developed detector, a new highly efficient macroscope and a programmable fast rotation stage. Their tight interplay and synchronization are key for lifting experimental design compromises and follow dynamic processes with high spatial and temporal resolution unfolding over prolonged periods of time, as often required by many applications. We showcase these new capabilities for the Earth Sciences community by presenting three different geological studies, which make use of different sample environments. With a tri-axial deformation rig, chemo-mechanical-hydraulic feedbacks between gypsum dehydration and halite deformation have been studied, while the spatio-temporal evolution of a solute plume has been investigated for the first time in 3D with a flow cell. A laser-based heating system available at the beamline provides access to the high temperatures required to address bubble growth and collapse as well as bubble-bubble interaction and coalescence in volcanological material. With the integration of a rheometer, information on bubble deformation could also be gained. In the near future, upgrades of most large-scale synchrotron radiation facilities to diffraction-limited storage rings will create new opportunities, for instance through sub-second tomographic imaging capabilities at sub-micron length scales.,Frontiers in Earth Science, 7,ISSN:2296-6463,
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