A novel frequency synthesizer with a strong emphasis on low-power consumption (2mW) was developed for this thesis. A BAW-resonator was used for the design of the high-frequencyoscillator. The BAW's high Q-Factor ensured a minimal power consumption, while providing outstanding phase noise performance. This type of frequency synthesizer can be implemented in practically every mobile wireless system standard, which is relying on batteries as the power supply, such as Bluetooth, Zigbee and others. For this work, a Bluetooth-compatible standard was taken in order to derive the system specifications. The frequency synthesizer then was designed and implemented in a 180nm CMOS process. The approach of the "Sliding-IF" architecture was chosen and modified in order to take full advantage on the BAW oscillator. Therefore a two-stage frequency translation of the signal was necessary, similar to the super-heterodyne transceiver topology. The channel selection and the frequency error correction is done at the second stage, since the BAW-based oscillator does practically not provide any frequency tuning. For this, a Delta-Sigma-Modulator based Fractional-N PLL was developed. A system supply voltage of 1.2V was chosen in order to keep power consumption as low as possible. This supply voltage can also be easily supplied by AA or AAA-batteries and a low-voltage regulator. The most important technique to reduce overall power consumption was to reduce the high-frequency requirements to the system blocks. This was done by modifying the "Sliding-IF" architecture and by the use of the BAW resonator. The minimization of the power consumption required careful choice and design of each of the system blocks. For this, several approaches were analyzed, especially the topology of each block and its optimization were important. A special emphasis on the analysis, design and discussion was also made on the noise, and especially the phase noise. A ring oscillator, a LC-VCO and a BAW-oscillator were implemented and measured in order to validate the theory and the simulation results. The complete frequency synthesizer with an Automatic Amplitude Control, Frequency Dividers, Mixer, Charge-Pump, Phase-Frequency Detector and a Delta-Sigma-Modulator was designed and implemented. This thesis was elaborated in the frame of the MiNAMI and MiMOSA projects of the European research programme (FP6).
Following the trend in portable wireless communications, this dissertation explores new approaches to designing of power-critical building blocks in the elementary circuit level. Specifically, the work focuses on designs of baseband continuous-time Gm-C filter, LC-resonator quadrature oscillators, transistor-only quadrature oscillators and LC-resonator frequency dividers. The established circuits share a common design objective of low-power and low-voltage operation, where the simplicity of the demonstrated topologies serves as a basis. The dissertation is separated in two parts. The first part is dedicated for the baseband section where a 3rd-order Bessel filter is designed and fabricated. The filter comprises a set of linear transconductors, which each one is based on the operation of triode-biased transistors. According to the operation in this region and to the simplicity of the transconductor, high dynamic range can be achieved for a supply voltage as low as 1.2 V. In the other part, attempts in reducing the power consumption of two critical building blocks in a frequency synthesizer, namely, the quadrature oscillator and the first-stage frequency divider, are introduced. For the oscillators, two quadrature oscillators based on LC resonators are presented, in conjunction with a transistor-only quadrature oscillator. Quadrature signal generations in these designs are achieved by making use of the principles of ring oscillator and coupled oscillator. The last building block that is designed in this part is the LC-based injection-locked frequency divider. The single-ended Colpitts oscillator topology is used as the core circuit of the divider due to its simplicity and low-voltage property. Detailed analysis concerning the phase relationship between the input and the output leads to the implementations of differential and quadrature divider configurations. Although a silicon integration is done only for the baseband filter, the concept, the operation and the theories developed for the quadrature oscillators and the frequency dividers have been verified against simulations and measurements employing low-frequency discrete prototypes. As they are illustrated in each chapter, the established theories match closely to the measurements.
Legged robots have gained an increased attention these past decades since they offer a promising technology for many applications in unstructured environments where the use of wheeled robots is clearly limited. Such applications include exploration and rescue tasks where human intervention is difficult (e.g. after a natural disaster) or impossible (e.g. on radioactive sites) and the emerging domain of assistive robotics where robots should be able to meaningfully and efficiently interact with humans in their environment (e.g. climbing stairs). Moreover the technology developed for walking machines can help designing new rehabilitation devices for disabled persons such as active prostheses. However the control of agile legged locomotion is a challenging problem that is not yet solved in a satisfactory manner. By taking inspiration from the neural control of locomotion in animals, we develop in this thesis controllers for legged locomotion. These controllers are based on the concept of Central Pattern Generators (CPGs), which are neural networks located in the spine of vertebrates that generate the rhythmic patterns that control locomotion. The use of a strong mathematical framework, namely dynamical systems theory, allows one to build general design methodologies for such controllers. The original contributions of this thesis are organized along three main axes. The first one is a work on biological locomotion and more specifically on crawling human infants. Comparisons of the detailed kinematics and gait pattern of crawling infants with those of other quadruped mammals show many similarities. This is quite surprising since infant morphology is not well suited for quadruped locomotion. In a second part, we use some of these findings as an inspiration for the design of our locomotion controllers. We try to provide a systematic design methodology for CPGs. Specifically we design an oscillator to independently control the swing and stance durations during locomotion, then using insights from dynamical systems theory we construct generic networks supporting different gaits and finally we integrate sensory feedback in the system. Experiments on three different simulated quadruped robots show the effectiveness of the approach. The third axis of research focus on dynamical systems theory and more specifically on the development of an adaptive mechanism for oscillators such that they can learn the frequency of any periodic signal. Interestingly this mechanism is generic enough to work with a large class of oscillators. Extensive mathematical analysis are provided in order to understand the fundamental properties of this mechanism. Then an extension to pools of adaptive frequencyoscillators with a negative feedback loop is used to build programmable CPGs (i.e. CPGs that can encode any periodic pattern as a structurally stable limit cycle). We use the system to control the locomotion of a humanoid robot. We also show applications of this system to signal processing.
The LHCb detector is one of the four experimental setups built to detect high-energy proton collisions to be produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Located at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland), the LHC machine and the LHCb experiment are expected to start in 2008, and will then operate for several years. Being the largest collider of its kind, the LHC will open the way to new investigations, in the very-high energies, but also in terms of statistics for the study of rare-phenomena and flavor physics. In this framework LHCb is dedicated to precise measurements of CP-violating and rare decays of beauty hadrons, in order to test (or over-constrain) the Standard Model of particle physics. From the hardware point of view, the construction of such detectors represents several challenges; one of them is the routing at a very high frequency of many signals in a harsh radiation environment. We designed to this purpose a hardware setup and a software filter which together reduce the cross-talk present in the readout of the LHCb vertex detector to a level of (1 ± 2)%, leading to an improved signal quality in the acquisition chain. From the physics point of view, many of the CP-violation measurements performed at LHCb using Bs decays, for example using Bs → Ds∓ K± decays, will require as input the Bs–Bs oscillationfrequency Δms. Thus the measurement of Bs–Bs oscillations, which are best observed using the flavor-specific Bs → Ds- π+ decays, will play an important role. We have developed a complete selection of Bs → Ds- π+ and Bs → Ds∓ K± events, based on Monte Carlo simulations. Assuming 2 fb-1 of data, we expect a Bs → Ds- π+ signal yield, after the first level of trigger, of 155 k events over a background between 0.6 k and 7.8 k events at 90% confidence level. Moreover, we assess with fast Monte Carlo studies the corresponding statistical sensitivity on the Bs oscillationfrequency, σ(Δms) = 0.008 ps-1, on the wrong tag fraction, σ(ω) = 0.003, as well as on other parameters related to the Bs-meson system. We also addressed an important aspect of the systematics associated with the Δms measurement, and developed a method to calibrate and assess the length scale. This calibration is performed through the reconstruction of secondary interactions occurring in the material of the vertex detector. We show that the statistical relative precision of this approach quickly matches 6 × 10-5, obtained from the survey measurements of the detector.
Amplitude and frequency are the two primary features of one-dimensional signals, and thus both are widely utilized to analysis data in numerous fields. While amplitude can be examined directly, frequency requires more elaborate approaches, except in the simplest cases. Consequently, a large number of techniques have been proposed over the years to retrieve information about frequency. The most famous method is probably power spectral density estimation. However, this approach is limited to stationary signals since the temporal information is lost. Time-frequency approaches were developed to tackle the problem of frequency estimation in non-stationary data. Although they can estimate the power of a signal in a given time interval and in a given frequency band, these tools have two drawbacks that make them less valuable in certain situations. First, due to their interdependent time and frequency resolutions, improving the accuracy in one domain means decreasing it in the other one. Second, it is difficult to use this kind of approach to estimate the instantaneous frequency of a specific oscillatory component. A solution to these two limitations is provided by adaptive frequency tracking algorithms. Typically, these algorithms use a time-varying filter (a band-pass or notch filter in most cases) to extract an oscillation, and an adaptive mechanism to estimate its instantaneous frequency. The main objective of the first part of the present thesis is to develop such a scheme for adaptive frequency tracking, the single frequency tracker. This algorithm compares favorably with existing methods for frequency tracking in terms of bias, variance and convergence speed. The most distinguishing feature of this adaptive algorithm is that it maximizes the oscillatory behavior at its output. Furthermore, due to its specific time-varying band-pass filter, it does not introduce any distortion in the extracted component. This scheme is also extended to tackle certain situations, namely the presence of several oscillations in a single signal, the related issue of harmonic components, and the availability of more than one signal with the oscillation of interest. The first extension is aimed at tracking several components simultaneously. The basic idea is to use one tracker to estimate the instantaneous frequency of each oscillation. The second extension uses the additional information contained in several signals to achieve better overall performance. Specifically, it computes separately instantaneous frequency estimates for all available signals which are then combined with weights minimizing the estimation variance. The third extension, which is based on an idea similar to the first one and uses the same weighting procedure as the second one, takes into account the harmonic structure of a signal to improve the estimation performance. A non-causal iterative method for offline processing is also developed in order to enhance an initial frequency trajectory by using future information in addition to past information. Like the single frequency tracker, this method aims at maximizing the oscillatory behavior at the output. Any approach can be used to obtain the initial trajectory. In the second part of this dissertation, the schemes for adaptive frequency tracking developed in the first part are applied to electroencephalographic and electrcardiographic data. In a first study, the single frequency tracker is used to analyze interactions between neuronal oscillations in different frequency bands, known as cross-frequency couplings, during a visual evoked potential experiment with illusory contour stimuli. With this adaptive approach ensuring that meaningful phase information is extracted, the differences in coupling strength between stimuli with and without illusory contours are more clearly highlighted than with traditional methods based on predefined filter-banks. In addition, the adaptive scheme leads to the detection of differences in instantaneous frequency. In a second study, two organization measures are derived from the harmonic extension. They are based on the power repartition in the frequency domain for the first one and on the phase relation between harmonic components for the second one. These measures, computed from the surface electrocardiogram, are shown to help predicting the outcome of catheter ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation. The proposed adaptive frequency tracking schemes are also applied to signals recorded in the field of sport sciences in order to illustrate their potential uses. To summarize, the present thesis introduces several algorithms for adaptive frequency tracking. These algorithms are presented in full detail and they are then applied to practical situations. In particular, they are shown to improve the detection of coupling mechanisms in brain activity and to provide relevant organization measures for atrial fibrillation.
Methods based on the electron spin resonance (ESR) phenomenon are non-invasive tools adopted to investigate paramagnetic systems at temperatures ranging from above 1000 K to below 1 K. Since 2008, the group of Dr. Boero has been working on a detection technique based on the integration of ESR sensors on single chips. The proposed methodology allowed to study samples in the nanoliter scale and reach a spin sensitivity at least two orders of magnitude better than the best commercially available spectrometers. The detection principle can be summarized as follows. An ESR sensitive sample is placed in close proximity to the planar inductor of an LC oscillator operating at microwave frequency. In presence of a suitable static magnetic field, the ESR phenomenon takes place. It causes a variation in the sample magnetization which translates to a variation of the inductance, leading to both a frequency shift of the oscillator (frequency detection) and a variation of the oscillation amplitude (amplitude detection). Consequently, the ESR phenomenon may be detected by tracking the operating point of the oscillator. In this thesis, I investigate the application of the aforementioned detection principle in the range from 400 MHz to 360 GHz. Firstly, a semi-integrated solution operating from 400 MHz to 610 MHz is developed for an industrial application (CTI project). In such context, the originality of the work stands in the implementation of a completely standalone portable scanner for contactless inspection which may also be used for ferromagnetic (FMR) applications and zero-field measurements. Secondly, a set of single-chip ESR detectors working from 10 GHz to 146 GHz and based on CMOS technologies are characterized from 300 K down to 10 K. Here, an ESR experiment at a frequency as high as 360 GHz can be performed thanks to the fourth harmonic signal generated by a 90 GHz detector. Conversely, the 10 GHz detector shows the best noise performance and allows to achieve the record distance resolution of 0.3 pm when used as a proximity sensor. After that, the possibility of using integrated technologies based on HEMTs is investigated so as to overcome the main limitations of the CMOS based detectors: (1) the high power consumption which denies their use below 10 K and (2) the saturation issue due to the magnitude of the intrinsic microwave magnetic field produced by the oscillators. In this context, two HEMT oscillators working at 11 GHz and 25 GHz are realized. In particular, the former achieves the record minimum power consumption (90 uW at 300 K and 4 uW below 30 K) currently reported in the literature for oscillators working in the same frequency range. Also, the proposed sensor achieves a minimum microwave magnetic field of less than 1 uT at 300 K and less than 0.1 uT below 30 K, i.e., orders of magnitude below the values achieved with previous CMOS detectors. Furthermore, an analytical model is carried out in order to estimate the minimum achievable power consumption for an LC single-ended Colpitts oscillator based on any single FET. Lastly, the DC characterization of a standing alone HEMT transistor is provided from 300 K down to 1.4 K, ranging from the standard Ids-Vs-Vds curves to the extraction of both the number of carriers and their effective mobility. The former comes from the analysis of the Shubnikov-de-Haas oscillations whereas the latter is calculated by means of Hall-effect based experiments.
Mechanical oscillators are among the most important scientific tools in the modern physics. From the pioneering experiments in 18th by founding fathers of modern physics such as Newton, Hooke and Cavendish to the ground braking experiments in the 21th century where the merge of two massive black holes 1.3 billion light-year away detected on earth by a gravitational wave detectors, the high Q mechanical oscillators were at the core of many monumental experiments in physics. Their ability to couple to many different physical quantities such as mass, charge, acceleration, electro-magnetic forces and optical fields makes them an ideal candidate for sensing applications. In addition, their intrinsically low dissipation rates (¿m) results in reduced coupling to the thermal bath. Since the invention of micro/nano-technology in the second half of the 20th century and ability to control the dimensions at micro and nano-scales, new horizon was opened up for mirco/nanomechanical oscillators. Miniaturization of the mechanical oscillators made them small and stiff enough to be used in our handheld electronics where dozens of mechanical sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes are used in our laptops and smartphones everyday. Besides these technological advancements, since the beginning of 21th century, a new opportunity for mechanical oscillators emerged: the idea of ¿putting mechanics into quantum mechanics¿ and observing the quantum effects of these massive classical oscillators. Aside from the numerous technical challenges for achieving this goal, two fundamental obstacles has to solved: I) Even the smallest nano-mechanical oscillators still consist of billions of atoms and molecules and are orders of magnitude more massive that the traditional ¿quantum objects¿ such as atoms and molecules. Larger mass results in smaller zero point motion¿the length scale where quantum effects are visible¿which means in order to ¿see¿ these quantum effects, we have to detect smaller displacement than ever before. II) The second challenge is the low frequency of the mechanical oscillators which makes their thermal Brownian energy, orders of magnitude larger than the quantum ground state of the oscillator¿the energy scale where the quantum effects are visible¿as n_th = kBT/h¿>>1 even for a ¿/2¿ ~ 1GHz oscillator at room temperature. Both of these obstacles, can be seen as the competition between few fundamental rates: thermal decoherence and measurement rate/mechanical frequency. Thermal decoherence is the rate at which the mechanical oscillator exchange phonons ¿ quanta of mechanical energy (h¿)¿ with its thermal environment and is given by ¿decoherence = ¯ n_th*¿m. The first obstacle translates to having the measurement rate being faster than the decoherence rate of the mechanical oscillator, ¿measurement>¿decoherence. This means in order to see the quantum coherent motion of the mechanical oscillator, we have to ¿look¿ at it before it has time to exchange random thermal energy with its environment. In other words, the life time of the quantum states of macroscopic objects are limited by their thermal decoherence rate and we have to interact with the oscillator in this short lifetime. The second obstacle on the other hand, reduces to having the mechanical frequency larger than its thermal decoherence rate, ¿m >¿decoherence. Over the past 15 years, the field of cavity opto-mechanics was very successful in improving the measurement schemes and designing ...
Similarly to mechanical structures, stable flows can exhibit resonance when perturbed by an impulsive or harmonic forcing. Swirling wakes and sloshing waves belong to this kind of flows and manifest large energy response when excited close to their natural frequencies. Although these frequencies can be predicted by linear modal analysis, the full flow dynamics differs from the modal one because entailed by the mutual cooperation of the natural modes (non-normal effects) and dependent on the oscillation amplitude (nonlinear effects). In this thesis, the response of swirling wakes subjected to a harmonic forcing is studied numerically and theoretically. Direct numerical simulations show that a large variety of helical modes can be excited and amplified in trailing vortices when a harmonic inlet or volume forcing is imposed, with the appearance of higher wavenumber modes at higher frequency. The mode-selection mechanism is shown to be directly connected to the local stability properties of the flow, and is simultaneously investigated by a WKB approximation, in the framework of weakly non-parallel flows, and by the global resolvent approach. This analysis is then extended to the case of turbulent swirling flows to investigate the physical origin of the meandering oscillations of the hub vortex, that is observed in wind turbine wakes experiments. We show as this low frequency spectral component is the result of a convectively unstable single-helix structure that oscillates at a frequency equal to one third the rotational frequency of the wind turbine rotor. Consequently, an adjoint-based technique for the passive control of these helical instabilities is proposed. We then turn our attention towards the transient decay of sloshing waves affected by a viscous friction at the containerâs wall, that exhibits a sublinear dependence in the interface velocity, i.e. a power law with an exponent smaller than one. This capillary effect is exacerbated in our experiment by placing a thin layer of foam on the liquid phase that act as a collection of air-liquid interfaces. In contrast to classical theory, we uncover the existence of a finite-time singularity in our system yielding the arrest of the sloshing oscillations in a finite time and we propose a minimal theoretical framework to capture this effect. Using first principles, we then study the effect of contact angle hysteresis on sloshing waves. We show asymptotically that, in contrast to viscous damping where the wave motion decays exponentially, the contact angle hysteresis acts as Coulomb solid friction yielding the damping rate induced by the motion of the liquid meniscus to increase at small amplitude, consistently with the experimental observation.
The progress in the technology of microelectronic devices has led to a strong miniaturization and high performance for circuits and systems, enabling modern applications such as mobile computing and communications. Today, remaining "off-chip" components that cannot be scaled easily are becoming an important penalty to this miniaturization trend. The quartz crystal resonator is a mechanical resonator widely used as time and frequency reference in the low to medium frequency range. However, integration with microelectronic circuits proved to be exceedingly difficult. Microelectromechanical resonators are a promising class of devices, bearing the promise of monolithic integration with electronic circuits for further reduction of size, power consumption and cost. The Vibrating Body Field Effect Transistor (VB-FET) is a hybrid semiconductor and microelectromechanical resonator developed during this thesis. The device combines the frequency selective response and high quality factor of the mechanical resonator with the intrinsic signal gain of a field effect transistor (FET). Three fabrication processes have been developed and realized during this work. A prototyping process based on focused ion beam (FIB) milling has been used to create sub-micrometer air gaps for efficient electrostatic coupling. An enhancement-mode FET has been integrated into the resonator body to create the first working VB-FET structures. The second fabrication process is based on a full-wafer sacrificial layer technology to create submicrometer air gaps. A MEM resonator with an integrated depletion-mode transistors resulted from this process. In a third process, electron beam lithography was used to define 100 nm wide gap and structures, scaling the principle of the VB-FET to higher frequencies while lowering their power consumption. Extensive characterization of the resulting structure is presented together with extraction of the main electrical and mechanical properties. The active detection principle increases the measured transmission scattering parameter by more than 30 dB for a VB-FET beam resonator and by 10 dB for a square shaped bulk resonator at 71 MHz over capacitive detection under equivalent conditions. Signal gain (transmission > 0 dB) was experimentally demonstrated on VB-FET structures, for the first time, in single and double gate configurations at 3.6 MHz and 2.0 MHz. Bulk-mode resonators with quality factors in excess of 100 000 at room temperature are also demonstrated. Two oscillator implementations based on the VB-FET are presented. First, a 9 MHz VB-FET resonator was built into a transresistance amplifier oscillator and a 20 mV peak output signal level is obtained. Second, the self oscillation phenomenon, as opposed to the harmonically driven oscillator, is reported for the first time for a 3.6 MHz VB-FET beam structure under negative bias conditions. In this latter case, oscillations with low dc power level of 70 μW is experimentally observed.
The possibility to increase the performance (productivity or selectivity) of a chemical reactor by using periodic variations of reaction parameters (e.g. reactant concentration or temperature) has been theoretically envisaged since the beginning of the 70th. The experimental validation of the predicted positive effects was successful in the case of concentration variation but failed for temperature variation. This was mainly due to the high thermal inertia of the conventional chemical reactors used for the measurements which prevented to create variations having a sufficiently high frequency. Microstructure reactors own, at the contrary to conventional reactors, a very low thermal inertia and allow to generate temperature oscillations with an amplitude of about ten to hundred Kelvin at a frequency in the order of magnitude of 10-1 to 4 Hz. These properties, coupled with the possibility to introduce a catalytic active material within the devices, seem to make them well suited for the study of the effects of fast periodic temperature variations of a catalytic reaction. The objective of this work was to demonstrate that non-stationary temperature conditions may increase the reaction rate of a heterogeneously catalyzed reaction up to values not predicted by the classical Arrhenius dependency towards the temperature. Two different types of microstructure reactors have been used. The reaction was taking place in the first one (FTC-type 2) in microstructured channels on whose walls a catalytic layer was deposed. In the second one (FTC-type 3), the reaction was taking place on a piece of sintered metal fibres (SMF) plate placed in a reaction chamber. The catalytic active material was deposed on the SMF plate filaments. Both devices where permanently heated by electrical resistors and periodically cooled down with water flowing through cooling channels incorporated in the devices. The test reaction chosen for the experimental measurements was the CO oxidation reaction, heterogeneously catalyzed by platinum supported on alumina (Pt/Al2O3). The reaction behaviour under stationary thermal conditions was consistent with the one predicted by the Arrhenius law. The dependency of the reaction rate with the temperature was exponential with an apparent activation energy of 104 kJ·mol-1, a negative partial reaction order for CO and a positive one for O2. The measurements effectuated under quasi-stationary thermal conditions (slow temperature ramps) have shown that a temperature change rate between 7 and 14 K·min-1 was not sufficient to observe any non-trivial effect of the temperature. The reaction behaviour was always predicted by the Arrhenius law. The surface coverage of the reactive species is, in this case, always able to follow the slow temperature changes and the reaction behaves as being always under steady-state conditions. The experiments realized under non-stationary thermal conditions using the FTC-type 2 reactor have also failed to demonstrate any non-trivial effects of the temperature oscillations. This device allows indeed to generate temperature oscillations with an amplitude of up to 120 K with a frequency of 0.1 Hz but unfortunately correlated with a very high thermal inhomogeneity. A temperature difference of up to 80 K was measured between a cold spot and a hot spot inside the device. Due to their very low local reaction rate the colder areas of the reactor have attenuated the product concentration (CO2) oscillations which should have been created by the temperature variations. This attenuation prevented the temperature oscillations to have any positive effect compared to the stationary thermal conditions. The FTC-type 3 reactor allowed temperature changes of lower amplitude but the thermal homogeneity was much better. The maximal temperature difference measured between two points within the reactor was only 15 K. Under temperature oscillation conditions, the measured instantaneous CO2 concentration was higher for any temperature within the oscillation range compared to the one recorded under stationary thermal conditions. The increase obtained in the mean CO2 concentration was ranging from 34% for a frequency of the oscillations of 0.035 Hz to 85% for a frequency of 0.052 Hz. The amplitude of the oscillations was kept constant at approximately 40 K and the mean temperature value at 437 K. The simulations effectuated using a theoretical model for the catalytic CO oxidation including a feed-back step in the form of the oxidation-reduction of the catalyst have shown that the experimentally observed increase may be qualitatively explained. Above a certain frequency, the temperature oscillations are fast enough compared to the characteristic time of the feedback step and are able to perturb the stationary established reactive species surface coverage. The formation of a transient surface coverage more favourable for the reaction than the surface coverage at high temperature allows during the transient period to reach an instantaneous surface reaction rate values higher than the one at high temperature. This reaction rate peak is then responsible for the increase of the mean reaction rate under non-stationary thermal conditions and, thus, for an increased yield.