In the first section, Einstein's 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?", though originally intended to explain atomic structure, helps explain gravitational-electromagnetic (G-EM) unity by being used as inspiration for a “vector-tensor-scalar geometry”. The geometry is then extended, nearly a hundred years later, into “bits (binary digits) and topology” to complete G-EM unity. It also interprets the origin of mass, and of the Higgs boson, in terms of G-EM unity: thus relating the Higgs field to the supposedly unrelated gravitational field. In sections 2 and 3, that paper is utilized in its original context by applying vector-tensor-scalar geometry to the Weak force’s bosons, then to the Strong force’s gluons: extending the previous G-EM unification to the remaining fundamental forces. Section 4 is reminiscent of something the Danish physicist Niels Bohr is reported to have said last century, “Your theory is crazy, but it’s not crazy enough to be true.” This article reaches a final conclusion that is, in a word, crazy. But the conclusion appears to be inescapable if mathematics has any value – and the article would therefore be crazy enough to be true. The vector-tensor-scalar relationship can substitute Earth for the Higgs boson and field, making our planet infinite and eternal. Obeying the Copernican principle that Earth does not rest in a special physical position in the universe, everything in the cosmos would be infinite and eternal, composing the Unified Field of the Block Universe Albert Einstein believed in. If the Earth, and everything else, is infinite and eternal; there can be no Big Bang originating time and the entire universe. Experiments suggesting that entanglement pervades all space and all time are used to suggest the Cosmic Microwave Background fills the entire sky without being produced by the Big Bang.
The work is important and requires consideration because both theoretical and experimental physics have uncovered extremely powerful science in the past hundred years which needs to be recognized as susceptible to other interpretations. These other interpretations refer to the outgrowths of General Relativity, quantum mechanics and Unification known as the relationship between gravity and matter, the Higgs boson and field, the subatomic nuclear forces, and universal expansion from the Big Bang. These other interpretations must, of course, be consistent with known data – but the very fact that they exist would stop science from falling into the dead-end of believing current interpretations are correct because they’re the only ones that can exist. Such belief prevents any possibility of progress and is the trap that religions fell into. Nobody wants science to become nothing more than dogma and creation myth. While there may be small parts of this article that will be seen as too speculative, the speculation is purely scientific and could turn out to be correct.
Abstract Background Thyroid cancer rates, especially among children, are known to be increased by radiation exposure. However, little is known about the impact of chronic low-dose radiation exposure on thyroid cancer risk in adulthood. This study examined radiation effects on thyroid cancer rates as well as an overall evaluation of thyroid cancer risk among medical radiation workers. Methods Data on all diagnostic medical radiation workers enrolled in the national dosimetry registry between 1996 and 2011 were linked with the cancer registry data through 2015. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to compare the observed cancer incidence rates in this population to those for the general population while internal comparisons were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) for occupational history and excess relative risks (ERRs) were used to quantify the radiation dose-response relationship. Results Overall, 827 thyroid cancer cases were reported among 93,922 medical radiation workers. Thyroid cancer SIRs were significantly higher than expected for both men (SIR 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53 to 1.91) and women (SIR 1.18, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.28). However, RRs for thyroid cancer by job title and duration of employment showed no particular pattern among diagnostic medical radiation workers. There were no indications of a significant dose effect on thyroid cancer rates for either men (ERR/100 mGy 0.07, 95% CI -0.38 to 0.53) or women (ERR/100 mGy -0.13, 95% CI -0.49 to 0.23). The findings were similar for different job titles or when limited to workers employed for at least one year. Conclusions While thyroid cancer incidence rates among Korean medical radiation workers were somewhat higher than those in the general population, there was no significant evidence that this increase was associated with occupational radiation dose. Additional follow-up together with consideration of other risk factors should provide useful information on thyroid cancer rates in this cohort.
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R data analysis report 5. Variable selection and multivariate analyses of immune parameters and intestinal bacterial taxa in HSCT patients. (HTML 2214 kb)
Contributors:Roghaieh Ashrafi, Pulkkinen, Katja, Lotta-Riina Sundberg, Pekkala, Nina, Ketola, Tarmo
The fluorescence peak profiles for the ARISA genotypes analysed with ABI Prism 3130xl Genetic Analyser and the GeneMapper v.5.0 software (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California, USA). For the 83 strains isolated from Finland, we also determined the ARISA (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) genotypes following the procedure described by Suomalainen et al. . However, the previously published method was modified so that ABI Prism 3130xl Genetic Analyser is used instead of LI-COR 4200 automatic sequencer The analysis revealed that ARISA genotypes associate uniformly with the clusters from the MLSA scheme. Briefly, the PCR reaction mixture (total volume 10 ul) contained 1X DreamTaq Buffer (Thermo Scientific), 0.2 mM dNTPs (Thermo Scientific), 0.5 μM reverse primer (23Sr, 5’-GGGTTBCCCCATTCRG-3), 0.44 μM forward primer (rD1f, 5’-GGCTGGATCACCTCCTT-3’), 0.06 μM 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM) labelled forward primer (rD1f), 1 U of DreamTaq DNA Polymerase (Thermo Scientific) and 1 μl of template DNA. The PCR reactions were carried out using Bio-Rad C1000 or S1000 thermal cyclers (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA). The thermo-cycling conditions included initial denaturation at 95 °C for 2 min followed by 30 cycles of amplification (94 °C for 30 s, 52 °C for 30 s, 72 °C for 3 min) and a final extension at 72 °C for 15 min. The PCR products were denatured with formamide and GeneScanTM 1200 LIZ Size Standard was added. Products were separated with an ABI Prism 3130xl Genetic Analyser, and visualized with GeneMapper v.5.0 software (all Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California, USA). Based on the fluorescence peak profiles and using the strains from Suomalainen et al.  as positive controls, the 87 F. columnare strains were designated into ARISA genotypes A to H . (PDF 222 kb)
Figure S1. Genes in PacBio and short-read contigs. Figure S2. Optimization for identification of phage orthologous groups (POGs). Figure S3. Sequence alignments of two highly homologous but distinct plasmid CCs in three samples. Figure S4. Similarity search of 82 CCs against the public plasmid/phage database. Figure S5. Mapping of PacBio subreads and short reads to the five crAssphage CCs. Figure S6. Dot plot of terminal direct repeats in the five crAssphages. Figure S7. GC skews in the linear crAssphage genomes. Figure S8. Mapping of PacBio subreads to two phage CCs. Figure S9. Phylogenetic tree of 101 high-quality chromosome bins and 181 known genomes. Figure S10. Host prediction by methylation motif similarity between eMGEs and HQ chromosome bins in the PacBio JP dataset. Figure S11. Host-plasmid network. The predicted host-plasmid relationships were summarized and visualized as a network. Figure S12. Ratios of reads mapped to plasmids and crAssphages in 413 metagenomic data sets and proportions of crAssphage-positive individuals. Figure S13. Association analysis of the abundance of crAssphages with subjectsâ age, BMI, and sex in the IGCJ dataset. Figure S14. Antibiotic resistance genes in plasmids in the IGCJ dataset. (PDF 6178 kb)
Abstract The eastern North American rifted margin is a passive tectonic margin that has experienced Paleozoic ocean closure and Mesozoic continent rifting. To understand evolution of this continental margin, we modeled the two-dimensional P-wave and S-wave seismic velocity structure of the crust with a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction profile located in North Carolina and Virginia. There is a seismic low-velocity zone (LVZ) at 10â 12Â km depth beneath the western segment of the profile. We infer the LVZ to be the base of a Paleozoic metasedimentary succession beneath the eastern Piedmont and westernmost coastal plain. The P-wave velocity and Poissonâ s ratio suggest a felsic composition for the upper and middle crust beneath the seismic profile, and an intermediate composition for the lower crust. Overall, the measured crustal velocities and the lateral homogeneity of the crust, especially the middle and lower crust, indicate that Laurentian middle and lower crust extends beneath the entire coastal plain. The lack of a basal crustal layer with a high seismic velocity indicates that no magmatic intrusions have underplated the eastern Piedmont and coastal plain. The comparison with South China Sea, which is a wide rift, and Kenya Rift, which is a narrow rift, indicates that eastern North American margin has the character of a narrow rift. We infer that narrow rifts and wide rifts may have similar crustal compositions, but show strong differences in crustal thickness and the distribution of basal crustal mafic intrusion. These differences may be related to differences in extensional rate during rifting.
Contributors:Planells, Benjamín, Gómez-Redondo, Isabel, Pericuesta, Eva, Lonergan, Patrick, Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso
List of genes (A) and isoforms (B) showing male- or female biased expression. (XLSX 481 kb)